C++ Basics: Understanding Lambda

Introduction

One of the new features introduced in Modern C++ starting from C++11 is Lambda Expression.

It is a convenient way to define an anonymous function object or functor. It is convenient because we can define it locally where we want to call it or pass it to a function as an argument.

Lambda is easy to read too because we can keep everything in the same place.

In this post, we’ll look at what a lambda is, compare it with a function object (functor), and more importantly understand what it actually is and how to think about it when coding in C++.

Lambda Expressions

This is how we define a lambda in C++:

plus_one in this code is a functor under the hood. Let’s now first see what a functor is.

Function Object or Functor

According to Wikipedia, A function object or usually referred to as a functor is a construct that allows an object to be called as if it were an ordinary function.

The keyword here is the “ordinary function”. In C++ we can overload operator () to implement a functor. Here is a functor that behaves the same as our lambda:

One example of the advantages of using a functor over an ordinary function is that it can access the internal member variables and functions of that object.

It will be clearer when we want to create functions “plus one”, “plus two”, etc. By using a functor we don’t have to define multiple functions with unique names.

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C++ Basics: Understanding Lambda
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C and C++ are the most powerful programming language in the world. Most of the super fast and complex libraries and algorithms are written in C or C++. Most powerful Kernel programs are also written in C. So, there is no way to skip it.

In programming competitions, most programmers prefer to write code in C or C++. Tourist is considered the worlds top programming contestant of all ages who write code in C++.

During programming competitions, programmers prefer to use a lightweight editor to focus on coding and algorithm designing. VimSublime Text, and Notepad++ are the most common editors for us. Apart from the competition, many software developers and professionals love to use Sublime Text just because of its flexibility.

I have discussed the steps we need to complete in this blog post before running a C/C++ code in Sublime Text. We will take the inputs from an input file and print outputs to an output file without using freopen file related functions in C/C++.

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Dicey Issues in C/C++

If you are familiar with C/C++then you must have come across some unusual things and if you haven’t, then you are about to. The below codes are checked twice before adding, so feel free to share this article with your friends. The following displays some of the issues:

  1. Using multiple variables in the print function
  2. Comparing Signed integer with unsigned integer
  3. Putting a semicolon at the end of the loop statement
  4. C preprocessor doesn’t need a semicolon
  5. Size of the string matters
  6. Macros and equations aren’t good friends
  7. Never compare Floating data type with double data type
  8. Arrays have a boundary
  9. Character constants are different from string literals
  10. Difference between single(=) and double(==) equal signs.

The below code generates no error since a print function can take any number of inputs but creates a mismatch with the variables. The print function is used to display characters, strings, integers, float, octal, and hexadecimal values onto the output screen. The format specifier is used to display the value of a variable.

  1. %d indicates Integer Format Specifier
  2. %f indicates Float Format Specifier
  3. %c indicates Character Format Specifier
  4. %s indicates String Format Specifier
  5. %u indicates Unsigned Integer Format Specifier
  6. %ld indicates Long Int Format Specifier

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A signed integer is a 32-bit datum that encodes an integer in the range [-2147483648 to 2147483647]. An unsigned integer is a 32-bit datum that encodes a non-negative integer in the range [0 to 4294967295]. The signed integer is represented in twos-complement notation. In the below code the signed integer will be converted to the maximum unsigned integer then compared with the unsigned integer.

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Learn C# Basics - Complete C# Tutorial For Beginners

In this C# tutorial for complete beginners you will learn C# programming from scratch. We hope you enjoy our C Sharp beginners tutorial!
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C++ is a general-purpose, multi-paradigm programming language supports procedural, functional, object-oriented, generic ways of writing code.

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Delegates and lambda expression in C# | Anonymous Methods |C# Bangla Tutorial|Advanced C#

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