I feel that there are lots of people out there who are struggling to learn programming. So, I thought I’d share my own secrets which can be the door opener for someone. So, let’s go through the journey together
“From Nobody to a Programmer”
My parent always encouraged me to make a routine for myself. I’m making routines from my childhood for almost every task. So when I decided to start to learn Programming, the first mistake I did was “Making a ROUTINE”. Sounds crazy, right? Let me explain. When I made a routine, I was fixed from where I started and where I will reach. But this was a lengthy process and most of the time, I got tired of following routines and non-feasible routines made me tired before starting anything. I always thought, “I’ll start tomorrow”.
“Yesterday, You said TOMORROW”
So, don’t make guidelines, don’t make routines and most importantly, don’t wait for tomorrow. Even don’t wait for another time of today. Finish reading this blog and start learning straight away. It worked for me, it’ll surely for you too.
It’s good to be clever but not always. Once one of my Professors told me, _“Mahee, Be a BABY. It’s the key to being wise”. _When we act like being clever, our mind opposes to learn new things and gives us a clever vibe that keeps us away from new learning. For a long time, whenever I tried to start programming, a bunch of negative thoughts crossed my mind. Like, “Do I really need it”/ “Will it help me to make money”/ “It will waste my time” and so on. There is no harm in learning a new thing. You never know when it will be needed. So, don’t act like a pro. Be a BABY and don’t overthink in the time of learning a new thing.
My mother is a housewife and she has been cooking for us for 26 years. She doesn’t have any degree in cooking or certification but still, she is a cook/chef. I know programming and cooking both and I can assure you that “Programming is much easier than Cooking”. So, the main point of my words is, you don’t need a CS background or degree to start programming. 70% of coders don’t have a CS degree. It’s not rocket science, it’s just a new level of basic learning. Don’t let a CS degree stop you from where you going. You’re a Non-CS? Welcome to the family.
There is a myth among the people, which is “You need to be good at Math and logic to learn programming”. It’s a myth and most importantly, one of the biggest lies around the world which is considered to be true. I don’t know from where this started to spread but the truth is, we all have a certain level of knowledge of Math and Logic which is enough to start. You can search google and you can find 6–7 years old kids who have started to code. I don’t think you know less math than them.
Math and Logic are important when you start doing top-level programming or working on something magnificent like Facebook, YouTube, and such things. Unless you’re going to super big, you don’t need to know math.
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This article will introduce the concepts and topics common to all programming languages, that beginners and experts must know!
Do you want to learn a programming language for the first time?
Do you want to improve as a Programmer?
Well, then you’re in the right place to start. Learn any programming language without difficulty by learning the concepts and topics common to all programming languages.
Let me start by answering the following questions:
Programming develops creative thinking
Programmers solve a problem by breaking it down into workable pieces to understand it better. When you start learning to program, you develop the habit of working your way out in a very structured format. You analyze the problem and start thinking logically and this gives rise to more creative solutions you’ve ever given.
Whether you want to uncover the secrets of the universe, or you just want to pursue a career in the 21st century, basic computer programming is an essential skill to learn.
_– _Stephen Hawking
Everybody in this country should learn how to program a computer… because it teaches you how to think.
_- _Steve Jobs
Programming Provides Life-Changing Experiences
Programming always provides you with a new challenge to take risks every time and that teaches you to take risks in your personal life too. The world is filled up with websites, apps, software and when you build these yourself you’ll feel more confident. When a programmer solves a problem that no one has ever solved before it becomes a life-changing experience for them.
A program is a set of instructions to perform a task on a computer.
Programming is the process of designing and building an executable computer program to accomplish a specific task.
Well, according to me programming is like raising a baby. We provide knowledge (data) to help understand a baby what’s happening around. We teach a baby to be disciplined (and much more) by making rules.
Similarly, a computer is like a baby. We set rules and provide data to the computer through executable programs with the help of a Programming Language.
That’s it👍. If you can understand this basic concept of programming, you’re good to go. Pick up a programming language and start learning. Read the following section to get an idea of where to start.
My recommendation is to choose Python Programming Language as a start, because it’s beginner-friendly.
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Know what finance assignment help is:
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What about recommendations?
If you want to hire the finance assignment help service, make sure to know what the rrcommendations are. Ask from your friends, classmates and even from the seniors to take recommendations for the right service. Obviously, you are not the one, who is thinking to hire the assignment help service. Your fellows will tell you about different writing companies, from where you can take help for your assignment.
What about cost of the assignment?
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If you’re here for the top tips, we assume you’re ahead of the “how to learn Java” part and already boarded on your flight of learning Java. In this lesson, apart from just throwing some do’s and don’ts, we’ll be asking some basic questions that will help you align your path with what’s best for you.
Determining your goal and creating a learning strategy is more significant than you can probably think of. Your ambition, execution, and consistency can make or break your career. So if you want to become a full-time Java Developer shadowing a layout/map goes without saying.
Mastering the basics doesn’t necessarily mean learning syntax by heart and not be able to do anything with it. It actually means you’re comfortable working with keywords, know the language protocols, smartly use variables and loops. Know how to choose a data structure depending upon a certain problem. Able to implement object orient approach, since Java is an object-oriented language. Understand encapsulation and how to tamper with it. With this much content freely available widely on the web, newbies are most likely to fell prey to learn more in a shorter period of time. However, you need to understand you can’t build a sustainable building over a weak foundation. Hence, it’s forever helpful to give due time to all the concepts in order to truly “master” them.
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First impression is the last impression. This statement is absolutely correct when we talk about web design and development. In this blog, let us talk about the tips for a great web web app.
Did you know that when a visitor arrives on your website, you have about five seconds (or less) to capture their attention and keep them where they are? That’s not a whole lot of time to impress someone, so if your load time is not perfect or your site’s navigation is all over the place, you can say goodbye to your visitors.
Believe it or not, the rapidly changing world of technology is not helping with this, either. New trends can easily make your website outdated and render it all but useless, leaving you with fewer visitors than you started with.
So, now the below questions arise:
How are you supposed to fix this issue and keep your visitors?
How do you create a website that looks good, functions perfectly, and communicates your message clearly?
Developers and designers have various approaches to improve web design. Regardless of whether you have a perfect, smooth, and proficient site, that doesn’t mean it will suitable always.
You ought to consistently consider site improvement thoughts as time passes by.
Read the full blog here
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The Substrate Knowledge Map provides information that you—as a Substrate hackathon participant—need to know to develop a non-trivial application for your hackathon submission.
The map covers 6 main sections:
Each section contains basic information on each topic, with links to additional documentation for you to dig deeper. Within each section, you'll find a mix of quizzes and labs to test your knowledge as your progress through the map. The goal of the labs and quizzes is to help you consolidate what you've learned and put it to practice with some hands-on activities.
One question we often get is why learn the Substrate framework when we can write smart contracts to build decentralized applications?
The short answer is that using the Substrate framework and writing smart contracts are two different approaches.
Traditional smart contract platforms allow users to publish additional logic on top of some core blockchain logic. Since smart contract logic can be published by anyone, including malicious actors and inexperienced developers, there are a number of intentional safeguards and restrictions built around these public smart contract platforms. For example:
Fees: Smart contract developers must ensure that contract users are charged for the computation and storage they impose on the computers running their contract. With fees, block creators are protected from abuse of the network.
Sandboxed: A contract is not able to modify core blockchain storage or storage items of other contracts directly. Its power is limited to only modifying its own state, and the ability to make outside calls to other contracts or runtime functions.
Reversion: Contracts can be prone to undesirable situations that lead to logical errors when wanting to revert or upgrade them. Developers need to learn additional patterns such as splitting their contract's logic and data to ensure seamless upgrades.
These safeguards and restrictions make running smart contracts slower and more costly. However, it's important to consider the different developer audiences for contract development versus Substrate runtime development.
Building decentralized applications with smart contracts allows your community to extend and develop on top of your runtime logic without worrying about proposals, runtime upgrades, and so on. You can also use smart contracts as a testing ground for future runtime changes, but done in an isolated way that protects your network from any errors the changes might introduce.
In summary, smart contract development:
Unlike traditional smart contract development, Substrate runtime development offers none of the network protections or safeguards. Instead, as a runtime developer, you have total control over how the blockchain behaves. However, this level of control also means that there is a higher barrier to entry.
Substrate is a framework for building blockchains, which almost makes comparing it to smart contract development like comparing apples and oranges. With the Substrate framework, developers can build smart contracts but that is only a fraction of using Substrate to its full potential.
With Substrate, you have full control over the underlying logic that your network's nodes will run. You also have full access for modifying and controlling each and every storage item across your runtime modules. As you progress through this map, you'll discover concepts and techniques that will help you to unlock the potential of the Substrate framework, giving you the freedom to build the blockchain that best suits the needs of your application.
You'll also discover how you can upgrade the Substrate runtime with a single transaction instead of having to organize a community hard-fork. Upgradeability is one of the primary design features of the Substrate framework.
In summary, runtime development:
If you need any community support, please join the following channels based on the area where you need help:
Alternatively, also look for support on Stackoverflow where questions are tagged with "substrate" or on the Parity Subport repo.
Use the following links to explore the sites and resources available on each:
Substrate Developer Hub has the most comprehensive all-round coverage about Substrate, from a "big picture" explanation of architecture to specific technical concepts. The site also provides tutorials to guide you as your learn the Substrate framework and the API reference documentation. You should check this site first if you want to look up information about Substrate runtime development. The site consists of:
Knowledge Base: Explaining the foundational concepts of building blockchain runtimes using Substrate.
Tutorials: Hand-on tutorials for developers to follow. The first SIX tutorials show the fundamentals in Substrate and are recommended for every Substrate learner to go through.
How-to Guides: These resources are like the O'Reilly cookbook series written in a task-oriented way for readers to get the job done. Some examples of the topics overed include:
API docs: Substrate API reference documentation.
Substrate Node Template provides a light weight, minimal Substrate blockchain node that you can set up as a local development environment.
Substrate Front-end template provides a front-end interface built with React using Polkadot-JS API to connect to any Substrate node. Developers are encouraged to start new Substrate projects based on these templates.
If you face any technical difficulties and need support, feel free to join the Substrate Technical matrix channel and ask your questions there.
Polkadot Wiki documents the specific behavior and mechanisms of the Polkadot network. The Polkadot network allows multiple blockchains to connect and pass messages to each other. On the wiki, you can learn about how Polkadot—built using Substrate—is customized to support inter-blockchain message passing.
👉 Submit your answers to Quiz #1
Here you will set up your local machine to install the Rust compiler—ensuring that you have both stable and nightly versions installed. Both stable and nightly versions are required because currently a Substrate runtime is compiled to a native binary using the stable Rust compiler, then compiled to a WebAssembly (WASM) binary, which only the nightly Rust compiler can do.
Also refer to:
👉 Complete Lab #1: Run a Substrate node
Polkadot JS Apps is the canonical front-end to interact with any Substrate-based chain.
You can configure whichever endpoint you want it to connected to, even to your
localhost running node. Refer to the following two diagrams.
👉 Complete Quiz #2
👉 Complete Lab #2: Using Polkadot-JS Apps
Notes: If you are connecting Apps to a custom chain (or your locally-running node), you may need to specify your chain's custom data types in JSON under Settings > Developer.
Polkadot-JS Apps only receives a series of bytes from the blockchain. It is up to the developer to tell it how to decode and interpret these custom data type. To learn more on this, refer to:
You will also need to create an account. To do so, follow these steps on account generation. You'll learn that you can also use the Polkadot-JS Browser Plugin (a Metamask-like browser extension to manage your Substrate accounts) and it will automatically be imported into Polkadot-JS Apps.
Notes: When you run a Substrate chain in development mode (with the
--devflag), well-known accounts (
Charlie, etc.) are always created for you.
👉 Complete Lab #3: Create an Account
You need to know some Rust programming concepts and have a good understanding on how blockchain technology works in order to make the most of developing with Substrate. The following resources will help you brush up in these areas.
You will need familiarize yourself with Rust to understand how Substrate is built and how to make the most of its capabilities.
If you are new to Rust, or need a brush up on your Rust knowledge, please refer to The Rust Book. You could still continue learning about Substrate without knowing Rust, but we recommend you come back to this section whenever in doubt about what any of the Rust syntax you're looking at means. Here are the parts of the Rust book we recommend you familiarize yourself with:
Given that you'll be writing a blockchain runtime, you need to know what a blockchain is, and how it works. The **Web3 Blockchain Fundamental MOOC Youtube video series provides a good basis for understanding key blockchain concepts and how blockchains work.
The lectures we recommend you watch are: lectures 1 - 7 and lecture 10. That's 8 lectures, or about 4 hours of video.
👉 Complete Quiz #3
In this document, we assume you will develop a Substrate runtime with FRAME (v2). This is what a Substrate node consists of.
Each node has many components that manage things like the transaction queue, communicating over a P2P network, reaching consensus on the state of the blockchain, and the chain's actual runtime logic (aka the blockchain runtime). Each aspect of the node is interesting in its own right, and the runtime is particularly interesting because it contains the business logic (aka "state transition function") that codifies the chain's functionality. The runtime contains a collection of pallets that are configured to work together.
On the node level, Substrate leverages libp2p for the p2p networking layer and puts the transaction pool, consensus mechanism, and underlying data storage (a key-value database) on the node level. These components all work "under the hood", and in this knowledge map we won't cover them in detail except for mentioning their existence.
👉 Complete Quiz #4
In our Developer Hub, we have a thorough coverage on various subjects you need to know to develop with Substrate. So here we just list out the key topics and reference back to Developer Hub. Please go through the following key concepts and the directed resources to know the fundamentals of runtime development.
Key Concept: Runtime, this is where the blockchain state transition function (the blockchain application-specific logic) is defined. It is about composing multiple pallets (can be understood as Rust modules) together in the runtime and hooking them up together.
Runtime Development: Execution, this article describes how a block is produced, and how transactions are selected and executed to reach the next "stage" in the blockchain.
Runtime Develpment: Pallets, this article describes what the basic structure of a Substrate pallet is consists of.
Runtime Development: FRAME, this article gives a high level overview of the system pallets Substrate already implements to help you quickly develop as a runtime engineer. Have a quick skim so you have a basic idea of the different pallets Substrate is made of.
👉 Complete Lab #4: Adding a Pallet into a Runtime
Runtime Development: Storage, this article describes how data is stored on-chain and how you could access them.
Runtime Development: Events & Errors, this page describe how external parties know what has happened in the blockchain, via the emitted events and errors when executing transactions.
Notes: All of the above concepts we leverage on the
#[pallet::*]macro to define them in the code. If you are interested to learn more about what other types of pallet macros exist go to the FRAME macro API documentation and this doc on some frequently used Substrate macros.
👉 Complete Lab #5: Building a Proof-of-Existence dApp
👉 Complete Lab #6: Building a Substrate Kitties dApp
👉 Complete Quiz #5
The Substrate Front-end Template is an example of using Polkadot JS API in a React front-end.
👉 Complete Lab #7: Using Polkadot-JS API
👉 Complete Quiz #6: Using Polkadot-JS API
Learn about the difference between smart contract development vs Substrate runtime development, and when to use each here.
In Substrate, you can program smart contracts using ink!.
👉 Complete Quiz #7: Using ink!
A lot 😄
On-chain runtime upgrades. We have a tutorial on On-chain (forkless) Runtime Upgrade. This tutorial introduces how to perform and schedule a runtime upgrade as an on-chain transaction.
There are certain limits to on-chain logic. For instance, computation cannot be too intensive that it affects the block output time, and computation must be deterministic. This means that computation that relies on external data fetching cannot be done on-chain. In Substrate, developers can run these types of computation off-chain and have the result sent back on-chain via extrinsics.
Tightly- and Loosely-coupled pallets, calling one pallet's functions from another pallet via trait specification.
Parachains: one key feature of Substrate is the capability of becoming a parachain for relay chains like Polkadot. You can develop your own application-specific logic in your chain and rely on the validator community of the relay chain to secure your network, instead of building another validator community yourself. Learn more with the following resources:
Source Code: https://github.com/substrate-developer-hub/hackathon-knowledge-map