Doris Streater


Morse Code Chart

The Morse code chart is a method of encoding all 26 English letters from A to Z. Dots and dashes are formed into standard sequences from the English letters. Uppercase and lowercase letters follow the same rules.

It is quite interesting to learn Morse code and it allows you to transmit a secret message in an encoded way, so no one else can read it. Here's everything you need to know about Morse Code translator.

History of Morse Code

  • Morse codes were invented by Samuel Morse in the 1830s and were used for radiotelegraphy during World War II. The codes were used to transmit messages between warships and naval bases.
  • Samuel Morse was also the inventor of the telegraph system. Morse code was used for telegraphy for the first time in 1844. Alfred Lewis Vale improved Morse code further.
  • Morse code was unable to transmit letters with diacritic markings at first. The European nations came up with the International Morse Code in 1851 to resolve the issue. This is known as the Continental Morse Code.

Morse Code Chart

There are Morse symbols whose lengths are inversely proportional to those of the corresponding characters. Morse code is more efficient than most other encoding systems because of these arrangements. Morse code was created from transliteration, as the Latin alphabet contains 26 letters.

Morse code does not specify the length of the code elements, so it is more efficient than other methods of encoding. Codes are transmitted quickly and efficiently. Standard transmission speed is 34 words per minute as of 2011.

Letters -

Numbers -

Punctuation- image 

How To Learn Morse Code?

Morse code can be easily learned from the chart. A signal can take many forms that human senses can perceive, such as light or sound. To learn Morse code chart, you will need to listen to it on a regular schedule as much as possible.
Learning Morse code is easy if you follow the Koch or Farnsworth methods. Using online apps is also a way for some people to learn just like learning a new language. All you need to do is practice until you become proficient. In many cases, dah signifies dashes in the Morse code. Characters per minute (CPM) or words per minute (WPM) is the speed measurement in Morse code.

Representation, Timing, and Speeds

The International Morse Code has five elements that you should keep in mind. These are –

  • Longer mark, “dah“, or dash. This is 3-time units long.
  • Short mark, “dit“, or dot. This is 1-time unit long.
  • Short gaps between letters are 3-time units long.
  • Middle gaps between words are 7-time units long.
  • The gap between the dashes and dots for a character is one unit long.

Additional Morse Code Characters –

Morse code characters are recommended by ITU in many different ways.

Minute and second signs: When transmitting the minute(') and second("), for example, if the time is 1'15", the apostrophe signal may be transmitted once or twice. There is no need to use the inverted comma signal.

Percentage and per-thousand signs: One can easily transmit the numbers 0/00 or 0/0 to indicate per thousand or percentage. If you are sending both a whole number and a fraction number separated by a single hyphen, you must add the numbers together. If you want to send 3 1/2%, you would send 3-1/2-0/0.

Sending whole numbers and fractions: A fractional number will be separated by a single hyphen. As an example, to transmit 3 4/5, you need to send 3-4/5.

Length of Morse Code Characters

For easy reading, Morse code characters must have the correct length. If it is too short or too long, it may be difficult to read. You should also make sure the rhythm is correct. The following is a list of Morse code character lengths.

  • There has to be a space between each letter equal to three dots.
  • There has to be a space of seven dots between two words.
  • One dot needs to be placed between elements of the same letter.
  • Three dots are equal to a dash.


It is one of the most effective ways of encoding English letters and sending secret messages that cannot be read by anyone immediately. The amateur radio community still uses it extensively. It may seem difficult to learn Morse code, but with regular practice, you can master it. To learn and practice regularly, you can use online apps.

Related to Morse code

1. Morse Code Chart

2. Morse Code Reader

3. Morse Code to English

4. English to Morse Code

5. Morse Code Translator Audio

6. Morse Code Generator

7. Text to Morse Code

8. Morse Code Number

9. Morse Code Texting

10. Morse Code Decoder

11. Morse Code Translator for (--)

12. Morse Code Translator for (---)

What is GEEK

Buddha Community

Morse Code Chart
mishel salsa

mishel salsa


Morse Code Translator - Convert text to morse code online

Welcome on, one of the best Morse Code Translator (morsecode übersetzer) website. On this website, you can convert English text to morse code or morse code to English text.

What is Morse Code?
Morse Code is a combination of dots, dashes and spaces that together make letters and words. It is an alphabet that has ben invented to simplify communication and create letters using only dots, dashes and spaces.

What is Morse Code used for?
Morse Code was, and still is, used a lot during war and combat as it is a quick way to get messages across the country. The most famous word used in Morse Code is S.O.S which means Save Our Souls. This is a distress message for anyone who is in danger!

#morse code translator #morse code numbers chart #morse code alphabets

Tyrique  Littel

Tyrique Littel


Static Code Analysis: What It Is? How to Use It?

Static code analysis refers to the technique of approximating the runtime behavior of a program. In other words, it is the process of predicting the output of a program without actually executing it.

Lately, however, the term “Static Code Analysis” is more commonly used to refer to one of the applications of this technique rather than the technique itself — program comprehension — understanding the program and detecting issues in it (anything from syntax errors to type mismatches, performance hogs likely bugs, security loopholes, etc.). This is the usage we’d be referring to throughout this post.

“The refinement of techniques for the prompt discovery of error serves as well as any other as a hallmark of what we mean by science.”

  • J. Robert Oppenheimer


We cover a lot of ground in this post. The aim is to build an understanding of static code analysis and to equip you with the basic theory, and the right tools so that you can write analyzers on your own.

We start our journey with laying down the essential parts of the pipeline which a compiler follows to understand what a piece of code does. We learn where to tap points in this pipeline to plug in our analyzers and extract meaningful information. In the latter half, we get our feet wet, and write four such static analyzers, completely from scratch, in Python.

Note that although the ideas here are discussed in light of Python, static code analyzers across all programming languages are carved out along similar lines. We chose Python because of the availability of an easy to use ast module, and wide adoption of the language itself.

How does it all work?

Before a computer can finally “understand” and execute a piece of code, it goes through a series of complicated transformations:

static analysis workflow

As you can see in the diagram (go ahead, zoom it!), the static analyzers feed on the output of these stages. To be able to better understand the static analysis techniques, let’s look at each of these steps in some more detail:


The first thing that a compiler does when trying to understand a piece of code is to break it down into smaller chunks, also known as tokens. Tokens are akin to what words are in a language.

A token might consist of either a single character, like (, or literals (like integers, strings, e.g., 7Bob, etc.), or reserved keywords of that language (e.g, def in Python). Characters which do not contribute towards the semantics of a program, like trailing whitespace, comments, etc. are often discarded by the scanner.

Python provides the tokenize module in its standard library to let you play around with tokens:



import io


import tokenize



code = b"color = input('Enter your favourite color: ')"



for token in tokenize.tokenize(io.BytesIO(code).readline):





TokenInfo(type=62 (ENCODING),  string='utf-8')


TokenInfo(type=1  (NAME),      string='color')


TokenInfo(type=54 (OP),        string='=')


TokenInfo(type=1  (NAME),      string='input')


TokenInfo(type=54 (OP),        string='(')


TokenInfo(type=3  (STRING),    string="'Enter your favourite color: '")


TokenInfo(type=54 (OP),        string=')')


TokenInfo(type=4  (NEWLINE),   string='')


TokenInfo(type=0  (ENDMARKER), string='')

(Note that for the sake of readability, I’ve omitted a few columns from the result above — metadata like starting index, ending index, a copy of the line on which a token occurs, etc.)

#code quality #code review #static analysis #static code analysis #code analysis #static analysis tools #code review tips #static code analyzer #static code analysis tool #static analyzer

Samanta  Moore

Samanta Moore


Guidelines for Java Code Reviews

Get a jump-start on your next code review session with this list.

Having another pair of eyes scan your code is always useful and helps you spot mistakes before you break production. You need not be an expert to review someone’s code. Some experience with the programming language and a review checklist should help you get started. We’ve put together a list of things you should keep in mind when you’re reviewing Java code. Read on!

1. Follow Java Code Conventions

2. Replace Imperative Code With Lambdas and Streams

3. Beware of the NullPointerException

4. Directly Assigning References From Client Code to a Field

5. Handle Exceptions With Care

#java #code quality #java tutorial #code analysis #code reviews #code review tips #code analysis tools #java tutorial for beginners #java code review

Einar  Hintz

Einar Hintz


Visualizing data with NGX-Charts in Angular

Data Science, Data Analytics, Big Data, these are the buzz words of today’s world. A huge amount of data is being generated and analyzed every day. So communicating the insights from that data becomes crucial. Charts help visualize the data and communicate the result of the analysis with charts, it becomes easy to understand the data.

There are a lot of libraries for angular that can be used to build charts. In this blog, we will look at one such library, NGX-Charts. We will see how to use it in angular and how to build data visualizations.

What we will cover:

  1. Installing ngx-chart.

  2. Building a vertical bar graph.

  3. Building a pie chart.

  4. Building an advanced pie chart.

A brief introduction about NGX-Charts

NGX-Chart charting framework for angular2+. It’s open-source and maintained by Swimlane.

NGX-Charts does not merely wrap d3, nor any other chart engine for that matter. It is using Angular to render and animate the SVG elements with all of its binding and speed goodness and uses d3 for the excellent math functions, scales, axis and shape generators, etc. By having Angular do all of the renderings it opens us up to endless possibilities the Angular platform provides such as AoT, Universal, etc.

NGX-Charts supports various chart types like bar charts, line charts, area charts, pie charts, bubble charts, doughnut charts, gauge charts, heatmap, treemap, and number cards.

Installation and Setup

1. Install the ngx-chart package in your angular app.

npm install @swimlane/ngx-charts --save

2. At the time of installing or when you serve your application is you get an error:

ERROR in The target entry-point "@swimlane/ngx-charts" has missing dependencies: - @angular/cdk/portal

You also need to install angular/cdk

npm install @angular/cdk --save

3. Import NgxChartsModule from ‘ngx-charts’ in AppModule

4. NgxChartModule also requires BrowserAnimationModule. Import is inAppModule.


import { BrowserModule } from '@angular/platform-browser';
import { NgModule } from '@angular/core';
import { AppComponent } from './app.component';
import { NgxChartsModule }from '@swimlane/ngx-charts';
import { BrowserAnimationsModule } from '@angular/platform-browser/animations';
  declarations: [
  imports: [
  providers: [],
  bootstrap: [AppComponent]
export class AppModule { }

Amazing! Now we can start using ngx-chart component and build the graph we want.

In the AppComponent we will provide data that the chart will represent. It’s a sample data for vehicles on the road survey.

#angular #angular 6 #scala #angular #angular 9 #bar chart #charting #charts #d3 charts #data visualisation #ngx #ngx charts #pie

Houston  Sipes

Houston Sipes


How to Find the Stinky Parts of Your Code (Part II)

There are more code smells. Let’s keep changing the aromas. We see several symptoms and situations that make us doubt the quality of our development. Let’s look at some possible solutions.

Most of these smells are just hints of something that might be wrong. They are not rigid rules.

This is part II. Part I can be found here.

Code Smell 06 - Too Clever Programmer

The code is difficult to read, there are tricky with names without semantics. Sometimes using language’s accidental complexity.

_Image Source: NeONBRAND on _Unsplash


  • Readability
  • Maintainability
  • Code Quality
  • Premature Optimization


  1. Refactor the code
  2. Use better names


  • Optimized loops


  • Optimized code for low-level operations.

Sample Code


function primeFactors(n){
	  var f = [],  i = 0, d = 2;  

	  for (i = 0; n >= 2; ) {
	     if(n % d == 0){
	       n /= d;
	  return f;


function primeFactors(numberToFactor){
	  var factors = [], 
	      divisor = 2,
	      remainder = numberToFactor;

	    if(remainder % divisor === 0){
	       remainder = remainder/ divisor;
	  return factors;


Automatic detection is possible in some languages. Watch some warnings related to complexity, bad names, post increment variables, etc.

#pixel-face #code-smells #clean-code #stinky-code-parts #refactor-legacy-code #refactoring #stinky-code #common-code-smells