Redes Blockchain | Redes criptográficas | Todo o que precisas saber

Esta guía explicará todos os tipos de redes Blockchain, Crypto Networks, incluíndo os seus pros, contras e aplicacións.

Unha guía para principiantes dos diferentes tipos de redes blockchain

Blockchain é un rexistro distribuído e inalterable que fai que rexistrar transaccións e xestionar activos (tanxibles e intanxibles) nunha rede corporativa sexa moito máis accesible. Nunha rede blockchain, practicamente calquera cousa de valor pódese rexistrar e negociar, reducindo o risco e recortando custos para todas as partes implicadas. Pero, que son as redes blockchain?

Unha rede blockchain é unha infraestrutura técnica que permite ás aplicacións acceder a servizos de contabilidade e contrato intelixente. Os contratos intelixentes utilízanse principalmente para orixinar transaccións, que despois se transmiten a cada nodo par da rede e se rexistran de forma inmutable na súa copia do libro maior. Os usuarios finais que usan aplicacións cliente ou administradores de rede blockchain son exemplos de usuarios de aplicacións.

Os pedidos, as contas, os pagos, a produción e moito máis pódense rastrexar mediante unha rede blockchain. Podes ver todos os feitos dunha transacción de extremo a extremo xa que os membros comparten unha única visión da verdade, ofrecéndoche unha maior confianza e eficiencias e oportunidades adicionais. Entón, cantas redes blockchain hai?

Varias organizacións crean un consorcio para construír a rede na maioría das situacións, e os seus permisos réxense por un conxunto de políticas que o consorcio acepta cando se configura a rede por primeira vez. Outros tipos de redes blockchain poden ser públicas, privadas, autorizadas.

Características principais da tecnoloxía blockchain

En lugar dunha única autoridade, a cadea de bloques depende dunha rede descentralizada de usuarios para validar e rexistrar as transaccións. As transaccións de Blockchain son consistentes, rápidas, seguras, accesibles e a proba de manipulacións debido a esta función. Estas características explícanse a continuación:

  • Rápido: as transaccións entréganse directamente do remitente ao receptor, eliminando a necesidade dun ou varios intermediarios.
  • Coherente: as redes Blockchain operan en todo o mundo, as 24 horas do día, os sete días da semana.
  • Barato: as redes Blockchain son menos caras de operar porque non teñen intermediarios centralizados que buscan alugueres.
  • Seguro: a rede distribuída de nós dunha cadea de bloques ofrece protección colectiva contra ataques e interrupcións.
  • A proba de manipulacións: os datos son transparentes e non se poden cambiar unha vez que están marcados no libro de contas, o que fai que a cadea de bloques sexa impenetrable para a fraude e outras condutas delituosas. Do mesmo xeito, todos os que teñan acceso a unha rede pública de cadeas de bloques poden ver as transaccións que se crearon.

Tipos de redes blockchain

Unha rede blockchain pódese construír de varias maneiras. Poden ser públicos, privados, autorizados ou construídos por un grupo de persoas denominado consorcio.

Rede pública blockchain

Unha cadea de bloques pública é aquela que todos no mundo poden ver, enviar transaccións e esperar que se inclúan esas transaccións se son válidas e participan no proceso de consenso, que determina que bloques se engaden á cadea e cal é o estado actual. .

Criptoeconomía - a combinación de incentivos económicos con verificación criptográfica mediante procedementos como a proba de traballo (Bitcoin) ou a proba de participación (Ethereum) - asegura as cadeas de bloques públicas (Ethereum). Estas cadeas de bloques considéranse "completamente descentralizadas" en xeral. 

As cadeas de bloques públicas ofrecen un mecanismo para protexer aos usuarios da aplicación dos seus desenvolvedores demostrando que accións específicas están fóra do alcance da autoridade dos desenvolvedores da aplicación. Dado que as cadeas de bloques públicas están abertas, é probable que sexan adoptadas por moitas organizacións, sen necesidade de verificación de terceiros. 

O anonimato da cadea de bloques pública é outra das razóns pola que atraeu a tantos seguidores. Si, é unha plataforma aberta e segura onde podes realizar negocios de forma correcta e eficiente. Ademais, non está obrigado a revelar a súa verdadeira identidade ou nome para participar. Ninguén pode rastrexar a túa actividade na rede se a túa identidade está protexida.

Non obstante, é necesaria unha potencia informática importante, hai pouca ou ningunha privacidade para as transaccións e a seguridade é inadecuada. Estas son consideracións cruciais para os casos de uso de blockchain en varias industrias.

Rede privada blockchain

As cadeas de bloques privadas, tamén coñecidas como cadeas de bloques xestionadas, son cadeas de bloques autorizadas que son administradas por unha única entidade. A autoridade central nunha cadea de bloques privada decide quen pode ser un nodo. 

Ademais, a autoridade central non sempre concede a cada nodo dereitos idénticos para executar funcións. Non obstante, debido a que o acceso público ás cadeas de bloques privadas está restrinxido, só están parcialmente descentralizadas. 

Ripple (XRP), unha rede de intercambio de moeda virtual de empresa a empresa, e Hyperledger, un proxecto paraugas para aplicacións de cadea de bloques de código aberto, son dous exemplos de cadeas de bloques privadas.

Por consideracións de confidencialidade dos datos, o uso compartido de rede a nivel corporativo require con frecuencia un maior nivel de privacidade. Unha cadea de bloques privada é a mellor opción se esta é unha das túas necesidades. As cadeas de bloques privadas son sen dúbida unha alternativa de rede máis estable porque só uns poucos usuarios teñen acceso a determinadas transaccións. 

Ademais, en todas as industrias, o cumprimento é fundamental. Calquera tecnoloxía que non siga as regras de cumprimento estritas está condenada a fallar nalgún momento. Para que as transaccións sexan sinxelas e sinxelas, as cadeas de bloques privadas seguen e inclúen todas as normas de cumprimento no seu ecosistema.

Ler máis: Cal é a diferenza entre a cadea de bloques pública e privada?

Tanto as cadeas de bloques privadas como as públicas teñen desvantaxes: as cadeas de bloques públicas tardan máis en validar novos datos que as cadeas de bloques privadas, e as cadeas de bloques privadas son máis susceptibles ao fraude e aos malos actores. Ademais, o enfoque centralizado fomenta con frecuencia unha excesiva dependencia de ferramentas de xestión de terceiros e favorece aos mesmos poucos participantes da industria. As cadeas de bloques do consorcio creáronse para superar estes fallos.

Agora que se explicaron os fundamentos das redes de cadeas de bloques públicas e privadas, resumamos as diferenzas entre as dúas redes na seguinte táboa.

Rede blockchain do consorcio

As cadeas de bloques de consorcios, a diferenza das cadeas de bloques privadas, son cadeas de bloques autorizadas administradas por un consorcio de organizacións e non por unha única institución. Como resultado, as cadeas de bloques do consorcio teñen máis descentralización que as cadeas de bloques privadas, o que resulta nunha maior seguridade. 

Por outra banda, a creación de consorcios pode ser difícil porque require a colaboración entre varias empresas, o que supón problemas loxísticos e risco de infraccións antimonopolio.

Ademais, algúns membros da cadea de subministración poden carecer da tecnoloxía ou infraestrutura necesaria para adoptar tecnoloxías blockchain. Aqueles que o fagan poden decidir que os custos iniciais de dixitalizar os seus datos e conectarse con outros membros da cadea de subministración son un prezo demasiado alto para pagar.

O desenvolvedor de software corporativo R3 desenvolveu un conxunto popular de solucións de blockchain de consorcio para a industria de servizos financeiros e máis aló. CargoSmart creou a Global Shipping Business Network Collaboration, un consorcio de cadeas de bloques sen ánimo de lucro destinado a dixitalizar a industria do transporte marítimo e permitir que os operadores da industria marítima colaboren de forma máis eficaz.

A cadea de bloques do consorcio está supervisada por unha parte, pero está protexida contra o dominio. Este supervisor pode executar as súas regras, facer cambios nos saldos e finalizar transaccións que se comproba que están cheas de fallos tan pronto como cada membro estea de acordo. Ademais, realiza outras tarefas para ofrecer unha colaboración orientada a resultados para as empresas co mesmo obxectivo.

Dado que a información dos bloques marcados está oculta á vista pública, a cadea de bloques do consorcio ten un alto nivel de privacidade. Non obstante, calquera persoa que sexa membro desta cadea de bloques pode acceder a ela. A cadea de bloques do consorcio, a diferenza dunha cadea de bloques pública, non ten taxas de transacción.

Outro elemento da cadea de bloques do consorcio que a distingue da cadea de bloques pública é a súa flexibilidade. O número máximo de validadores pode ter problemas co acordo mutuo e a sincronización na cadea de bloques pública. Os garfos fórmanse como resultado de tal diverxencia, que non se produce nas redes de consorcios.

Independentemente de cantas vantaxes ofreza a cadea de bloques do consorcio, tamén ten os seus inconvenientes. Un dos inconvenientes máis significativos desta cadea de bloques é que está centralizada, polo que é vulnerable a xogadores malévolos. Cando se restrinxe o número de participantes, suponse que un deles é o culpable.

O lanzamento da cadea de bloques do consorcio é un proceso delicado. Todos deberán aprobar o protocolo de comunicación dos membros. Non obstante, debido a que unha empresa ten menos flexibilidade que unha pequena empresa, establecer unha rede pública que conecte as empresas leva moito tempo.

Rede blockchain autorizada

As empresas que crean unha cadea de bloques privadas adoitan configurar unha rede de cadeas de bloques autorizada. Paga a pena notar que as redes públicas de cadeas de bloques tamén se poden autorizar. Isto limita quen está autorizado para participar na rede e que transaccións poden facer. Para participar, os participantes deben obter primeiro unha invitación ou autorización.

As redes de cadeas de bloques autorizadas proporcionan unha plataforma descentralizada, o que implica que os datos non se almacenan nun repositorio central e que calquera pode acceder a eles en calquera momento e desde calquera lugar. Asegura que todos os rexistros teñan sinaturas inmutables. Todo o sistema é seguro e os datos están protexidos porque todo o intercambio de información e as transaccións están cifradas criptográficamente.

Ademais, os mineiros e participantes da rede permanecen anónimos. 

Outra vantaxe da cadea de bloques autorizada é a transparencia. Todo o mundo pode ver todos os datos e a información. Non obstante, este beneficio foi contraproducente, o que provocou preocupacións sobre a seguridade dos datos na cadea de bloques sen permisos.

Non é necesario demostrar a súa identidade na cadea de bloques autorizada. Para unirse á rede, o único que tes que facer é dedicar a túa potencia informática. Calquera mineiro que determine o valor nonce e resolva o complexo enigma matemático pode unirse ao sistema.

Para moitas empresas, as limitacións do sistema blockchain sen permiso fan que sexa unha proposta arriscada. Cren que usar a cadea de bloques sen permisos para vender solucións empresariais non é apropiado para eles. Debido a estes inconvenientes, Ethereum, unha cadea de bloques sen permisos, está cambiando de proba de traballo a proba de participación como método de consenso.

Aínda que o anonimato é un bo sinal porque as identidades dos participantes no comercio permanecen ocultas, tamén pode ser problemático. Por exemplo, nunha estafa ou se alguén intenta rastrexar ás persoas implicadas nunha transacción, a cadea de bloques sen permiso faino imposible. Como resultado, moitas persoas están adoptando blockchain para actividades ilegais debido a estas características.

Sobre as redes criptográficas
 

A criptomoeda é aclamada como unha tecnoloxía revolucionaria que eliminaría as institucións financeiras do mundo e liberaría ás persoas dos onerosos controis e taxas do establecemento bancario. E, aínda que case todo o mundo xa escoitou falar de redes de criptomoedas, como Bitcoin, só moi poucas persoas entenden como funcionan as criptomoedas. Aquí tes cousas esenciais para saber sobre eles.

1. As redes de criptomonedas son activos dixitais

As redes de criptomoedas, como Bitcoin, son moedas dixitais que fan uso dun tipo de cifrado moi sofisticado chamado criptografía para asegurar e verificar transaccións. A criptografía tamén permite que as redes criptográficas controlen a creación de novas unidades monetarias. As redes de criptomonedas están deseñadas para funcionar como un medio de intercambio descentralizado ou independente dunha autoridade central, como unha institución financeira.

2. Pódense comprar redes criptográficas

Comprar redes de criptomonedas é relativamente sinxelo. Hai intercambios criptográficos, como Binance e Coinbas, onde se poden mercar varias moedas dixitais. Os intercambios de criptomonedas son plataformas que permiten aos entusiastas das criptomoedas mercar e vender moedas dixitais.

Tamén existen carteiras dixitais. Estas aplicacións permiten aos propietarios de criptomonedas enviar fondos a outras persoas con relativa facilidade. Mesmo é posible manter as criptomoedas por ti mesmo cando tes unha carteira dixital. A propiedade dunha carteira dixital estará representada por claves privadas que se almacenarán directamente no seu ordenador ou teléfono intelixente. 

3. Bitcoin é a primeira rede de criptomonedas en gañar fama

Desde o boom tecnolóxico da década de 1990, houbo varios intentos de crear criptomoedas. O primeiro en gañar notoriedade pública é Bitcoin. A rede xestiona colectivamente a emisión e transacción de Bitcoin xa que a criptomoeda aproveita a tecnoloxía peer-to-peer de código aberto. Elimina efectivamente o intermediario.

Un grupo anónimo de programadores ou un programador individual baixo o alias "Satoshi Nakatomo" introduciu a rede criptográfica. Desde que estivo dispoñible para o público en 2009, Bitcoin dominou constantemente o mercado das criptomoedas. As criptomoedas, como Bitcoin, son máis volátiles en comparación coas moedas fiduciarias tradicionais. Isto débese a que as moedas fiduciarias non están apoiadas por mercadorías físicas e só son declaradas por un goberno como curso legal.

4. Existen varias redes de criptomonedas ademais de Bitcoin

É certo que Bitcoin domina o mercado das criptomoedas, pero se estás realmente interesado nas redes criptográficas, en realidade hai outras criptomoedas importantes que podes querer buscar. Chámanse altcoins ou moedas alternativas desde que se lanzaron despois do éxito de Bitcoin.

A continuación móstranse algunhas das moitas altcoins notables dispoñibles no mercado.

  • Ethereum - En termos de capitalización de mercado, Ethereum ocupa actualmente o segundo lugar, só detrás de Bitcoin. O éter é a súa moeda criptográfica específica. Esta rede de criptomoedas destaca de Bitcoin porque intenta interromper o almacenamento en liña de datos en lugar de interromper a banca traballando como moeda. A cadea de bloques en Ethereum fíxose popular para almacenar contratos intelixentes.
  • Ripple - Esta rede de criptomonedas, xunto coa súa criptomoeda, o XRP, intenta axudar ás entidades financeiras en lugar de separarse da banca. Isto é en contraste co que fai Bitcoin. A forza do XRP como moeda reside na súa capacidade de minimizar a liquidez, xa que se pode utilizar no medio de calquera transacción entre dúas moedas fiduciarias diferentes. Ripple tamén se promociona como unha rede cunha velocidade de transacción significativamente máis rápida en comparación con Bitcoin. Teña en conta que 100.000 millóns de XRP creados simplemente existen e non se extraen.
  • Litecoin - Outra rede de criptomonedas que fai gala da súa velocidade de transacción é Litecoin. Afirma ser máis rápido que Bitcoin. Algúns fanáticos das criptomoedas ven a Litecoin como outra moeda alternativa potencial a Bitcoin que pode converterse nunha moeda lexítima. Algúns establecementos comerciais dos Estados Unidos que aceptan pagos con Bitcoin, como Helen's Pizza, xa anunciaron a súa vontade de aceptar altcoins, como Litecoin.

5. As redes de criptomonedas usan a tecnoloxía Blockchain

Blockchain é unha única base de datos incorruptible. Rexistra continuamente e marca os "bloques" ou as transaccións cronoloxicamente. Blockchain é un DLT ou unha tecnoloxía de rexistro distribuído que facilita as transaccións P2P sen unha parte centralizada de xeito seguro e verificable. A través dun proceso chamado "consenso", cada transacción debe ser verificada. É por iso que a cadea de bloques require que os participantes de varios sistemas verifiquen de forma independente a autenticidade da saída que produce o algoritmo que crea o "bloque". Teña en conta que unha vez que se verifica unha nova entrada ou se acorda e se realiza na cadea de bloques, queda "bloqueada". Isto significa que non se pode modificar. Engadir un anexo ou unha nova entrada é o único xeito de actualizalo.

O uso máis coñecido da tecnoloxía blockchain ata a data é para soportar transaccións de criptomoeda, como as que implican redes Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ripple ou Litecoin. Non confundas nin combines Bitcoin con blockchain xa que son dous conceptos diferentes. Blockchain é a base de datos ou tecnoloxía que permite a transacción única e segura de Bitcoin e outras redes criptográficas, mentres que Bitcoin é unha forma de moeda. Simplemente dicindo, Bitcoin é só unha das moitas aplicacións da cadea de bloques.

6. As redes de criptomonedas pódense utilizar para mercar bens e servizos

Pagar por bens e servizos e investir: todas estas cousas son posibles a través das redes de criptomoeda. Neste sentido, son similares ás moedas físicas. Non obstante, teña en conta que as criptomoedas non teñen forma física e, a diferenza do diñeiro fiduciario, non foron declaradas por ningún goberno como moeda de curso legal. A gran maioría das redes de criptomoedas tampouco están apoiadas por unha persoa xurídica ou un goberno. Os bancos centrais non determinan a oferta dunha criptomoeda específica. Isto significa que os usuarios poden participar directamente nas transaccións aínda sen implicar ningún intermediario. No caso do diñeiro fiduciario, o intermediario adoita ser un banco. 

Moitos países consideran que o uso de redes de criptomonedas son transaccións legais. Non obstante, é esencial ter en conta que outros restrinxen as transaccións que impliquen criptomoedas, mentres que algúns consideran que son completamente ilegais. En realidade, unha persoa podería ser condenada a prisión por facer transaccións utilizando redes criptográficas en países onde as moedas dixitais son ilegais. México, Zambia, Exipto, Arabia Saudita e China restrinxen o uso de criptomoedas. Por outra banda, Nepal, Ecuador, Bolivia, Alxeria, Marrocos, Vietnam e Bangladesh consideran que as transaccións que inclúen redes de criptomoedas son actividades ilegais.

7. As redes de criptomonedas son tributables

O Servizo de Impostos Internos dos Estados Unidos di que todas as transaccións en moeda virtual son tributables. 

A criptomoeda que tes como activo trátase como propiedade. Iso significa que non necesariamente ten que ser informado xa que a compra dalgunhas criptomoedas e, entón, non facer outra cousa que soamente as manter fai que a criptomoneda sexa un bono ou unha acción. Non obstante, terás que informar das transaccións nas que intercambias ou vendes para comprar algo.

Unha moeda dixital incorpórase aos teus ingresos e reflíctese no teu W-2 se che pagan a través dela. Se grava como renda. Se es un empregador que está a pagar en criptografía aos teus empregados, tamén debes asegurarte de que estea no teu W-2. O valor da criptomoneda en USD durante o día en que se realizou a transacción debe rexistrarse con precisión.

Segundo o IRS, as persoas que extraen criptomoedas e extraeron con éxito algunhas tamén deberían informar as moedas no seu W-2 como parte dos seus ingresos brutos. Tamén debes manter rexistros impecables do valor das moedas cando as recibas, igual que con facer pagos criptográficos.

8. As redes de criptomonedas son unha solución mellor que o diñeiro baseado no goberno

Moitos expertos din que as criptomoedas son mellores que o diñeiro fiduciario tradicional. Estas son algunhas das solucións que ofrece a natureza descentralizada das redes de criptomoedas:

  • Dálle á xente a carga do seu diñeiro : a xente basicamente está a ceder todo o seu control sobre o seu diñeiro tradicional ao goberno e aos bancos centrais. Iso non será un problema se tes total confianza no teu goberno. Non obstante, os gobernos poden simplemente denegar o teu acceso aos teus fondos que tanto gañaches conxelando a túa conta bancaria. Por exemplo, o goberno ten todos os dereitos sobre os teus activos se morres de súpeto mentres tes unha empresa nos Estados Unidos sen vontade legal. Tome a India como outro exemplo: o goberno do país aboliu os billetes bancarios en 2016. Todas estas cousas pódense evitar coas redes de criptomoeda xa que vostede e só vostede terá acceso aos seus fondos nestas plataformas.
  • Atende aos non bancarizados : a pesar dos interminables avances da tecnoloxía en todo o mundo, moita xente aínda non ten acceso ou só ten acceso limitado ás institucións financeiras, como os bancos. Ao espallar o comercio dixital por todo o mundo, as redes de criptomonedas poden resolver este problema. Coas criptomoedas, calquera pode comezar a facer e recibir pagos sempre que teña acceso a teléfonos móbiles. É unha boa cousa xa que máis persoas teñen acceso a dispositivos, como teléfonos móbiles, tabletas e portátiles, que aos bancos.
  • Cuts Out The Middleman : un servizo de pago dixital ou o teu banco cobra un recorte cada vez que envías ou recibes pagos con diñeiro tradicional. Por outra banda, todos os membros da rede serven de intermediario cando usan criptomoedas. Isto significa que a taxa de intermediación só é mínima, se a hai.

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Blockchain Certification | Blockchain Training Course | Blockchain Council

In all the market sectors, Blockchain technology has contributed to the redesign. The improvements that were once impossible have been pushed forward. Blockchain is one of the leading innovations with the ability to influence the various sectors of the industry. It also has the ability to be one of the career-influencing innovations at the same time. We have seen an increasing inclination towards the certification of the Blockchain in recent years, and there are obvious reasons behind it. Blockchain has everything to offer, from good packages to its universal application and futuristic development. Let’s address the reasons why one should go for Blockchain certification.

5 advantages of certification by Blockchain:

1. Lucrative packages- Everyone who completes their education or upskills themselves wants to end up with a good bundle, not only is one assured of a good learning experience with Blockchain, but the packages are drool-worthy at the same time. A Blockchain developer’s average salary varies between $150,000 and $175,000 per annum. Comparatively, a software developer gets a $137,000 per year salary. For a Blockchain developer, the San Francisco Bay area provides the highest bundle, amounting to $162,288 per annum. There’s no point arguing that learning about Blockchain is a smart decision with such lucrative packages.

2. Growing industry- When you select any qualification course, it becomes important that you choose a growing segment or industry that promises potential in the future. You should anticipate all of these with Blockchain. The size of the blockchain market is expected to rise from USD 3.0 billion in 2020 to USD 39.7 billion by 2025. This will see an incredible 67.3 percent CAGR between 2020-2025. To help business processes, several businesses are outsourcing Blockchain technologies. This clearly demonstrates that there will be higher demand in the future for Blockchain developers and certified Blockchain professionals.

3. Universal application- One of the major reasons for the success of Blockchain is that it has a global application. It is not sector-specific. Blockchain usage cases are discovered by almost all market segments. In addition, other innovations such as AI, big data, data science and much more are also supported by Blockchain. It becomes easier to get into a suitable industry once you know about Blockchain.

**4. Work protection-**Surely you would like to invest in an ability that ensures job security. You had the same chance for Blockchain. Since this is the technology of the future, understanding that Blockchain can keep up with futuristic developments will help in a successful and safe job.

**5.**After a certain point of your professional life, you are expected to learn about new abilities that can help enhance your skills. Upskilling is paramount. Upskilling oneself has become the need for the hour, and choosing a path that holds a lot of potential for the future is the best way to do this. For all computer geeks and others who want to gain awareness of emerging technology, Blockchain is a good option.

Concluding thoughts- opting for Blockchain certification is a successful career move with all these advantages. You will be able to find yourself in a safe and secured work profile once you have all the knowledge and information. Link for Blockchain certification programme with the Blockchain Council.

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5 Blockchain Applications That Have Transformed the World of Technology

The blockchain is the decentralized database of the blocks of information, which gets recorded in the chain format and linked in a secured crypto graphical manner. This technology ensures proper safety of the data due to its secure nature, and it totally changes how people carry out transactions. It also brings about a faster and secure process of validating information needed to establish reliability.

Though blockchain technology came into the market to carry out only digital transactions, it is now used in various industries like supply chain, finance, health care, and many more.

The blockchain technology has made its position in mobile app development as well. Blockchain applications are transparent and accountable. From getting easy access to medical records and buying insurance, you can see blockchain applications everywhere.

Here are some of the areas where you can see the use of blockchain applications and how they have changed various industries.

1. Ripple

Ripple is useful for increasing banking transactions. The implementation of blockchain technology in the financial sector is much more profound than any other sector. Ripple proves this. It is one of the greatest tools to record and complete financial transactions.

It develops a large network despite strict physical boundaries. As there is no such third-party involvement present, the cost of these transactions is lower than usual. At the same time, the network also remains transparent and quite secured.

It is normally seen that financial transactions that happen globally are

error-prone and take a lot of time. In addition to this, when the transaction

fees and exchange rates get added up, the total cost usually gets high.

However, Ripple offers real-time international transactions without spending too much money. It has the network of about 200+ institutions making the process affordable, secure, and fast for all sorts of international transactions.

2. Etherisc

This blockchain application helps in automating flight insurance. Insurance is another area where blockchain is gaining popularity. Through this application, insurers can make smart contracts rather than getting involved in the traditional contracts that are usually complex. Etherisc is the blockchain application that helps customers buy flight insurance. If the flight gets canceled or delayed, they do not have to wait for months to get the payment back. This application ensures an on-time payout.

#blockchain #blockchain-technology #blockchain-development #blockchain-use-cases #blockchain-a #blockchain-technologies #technology #decentralization

A Collection About Awesome Blockchains

Mining Digital Gold one Block at a Time?! • Don't Expect to Get Insanely Rich (Quick) • Tulips :tulip::tulip::tulip: (like Blockchains) are Great and Gorgeous (and will Endure)

b0 = Block.first(
        { from: "Dutchgrown", to: "Vincent", what: "Tulip Bloemendaal Sunset", qty: 10 },
        { from: "Keukenhof",  to: "Anne",    what: "Tulip Semper Augustus",    qty: 7  } )

b1 = Block.next( b0,
        { from: "Flowers",    to: "Ruben",   what: "Tulip Admiral van Eijck",  qty: 5  },
        { from: "Vicent",     to: "Anne",    what: "Tulip Bloemendaal Sunset", qty: 3  },
        { from: "Anne",       to: "Julia",   what: "Tulip Semper Augustus",    qty: 1  },
        { from: "Julia",      to: "Luuk",    what: "Tulip Semper Augustus",    qty: 1  } )
...

(Source: blockchain_with_transactions.rb)

Awesome Blockchains

A collection about awesome blockchains - open distributed databases w/ crypto hashes incl. git ;-). Blockchains are the new tulips :tulip::tulip::tulip:.

Contents:

What's News?

For blockchain books, see the new Best of Crypto Books page »

The Open Blockchains Book of the Year 2020 Award Goes To...

Libra Shrugged: How Facebook Tried to Take Over the Money by David Gerard, November 2020, 182 Pages -- Introduction: Taking over the money ++ A user's guide to Libra ++ The genesis of Libra: Beller's blockchain ++ To launch a Libra: Let’s start a crypto ++ Bitcoin: why Libra is like this ++ The Libra White Papers ++ Banking the unbanked ++ The Libra Reserve plan and economic stability ++ Libra, privacy and your digital identity ++ The regulators recoil in horror ++ David Marcus before the US House and Senate ++ July to September 2019: Libra runs the gauntlet ++ October 2019: Libra's bad month ++ Mark Zuckerberg before the US House ++ November 2019: The comedown ++ Central bank digital currencies ++ Epilogue: Libra 2.0: not dead yet ++ Appendix: 2010–2013: The rise and fall of Facebook Credits

For more about Diem (formerly Libra), see the Awesome Diem (formerly Libra) and Move page »


For crypto quotes, see the new 100+ Best of Crypto Quotes - I HODL, you HODL, we HODL! - BREAKING: BITCOIN JUST BROKE $22 000! page »

The Best Crypto Quote "Oracle Saying" of the Year 2020 Award Goes To...

SEC Investor Education:

  • Don't understand an investment?
  • Don't invest in it.

Yes, but what if there's only 21 million of it?

- Trolly McTrollface

Frequently Asked Questions (F.A.Q.s) & Answers

Q: What's a Blockchain?

A: A blockchain is a distributed database with a list (that is, chain) of records (that is, blocks) linked and secured by digital fingerprints (that is, cryptho hashes). Example from blockchain.rb:

[#<Block:0x1eed2a0
  @timestamp     = 1637-09-15 20:52:38,
  @data          = "Genesis",
  @previous_hash = "0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000",
  @hash          = "edbd4e11e69bc399a9ccd8faaea44fb27410fe8e3023bb9462450a0a9c4caa1b">,
 #<Block:0x1eec9a0
  @timestamp     = 1637-09-15 21:02:38,
  @data          = "Transaction Data...",
  @previous_hash = "edbd4e11e69bc399a9ccd8faaea44fb27410fe8e3023bb9462450a0a9c4caa1b",
  @hash          = "eb8ecbf6d5870763ae246e37539d82e37052cb32f88bb8c59971f9978e437743">,
 #<Block:0x1eec838
  @timestamp     = 1637-09-15 21:12:38,
  @data          = "Transaction Data......",
  @previous_hash = "eb8ecbf6d5870763ae246e37539d82e37052cb32f88bb8c59971f9978e437743",
  @hash          = "be50017ee4bbcb33844b3dc2b7c4e476d46569b5df5762d14ceba9355f0a85f4">,
  ...

Q: What's a Hash? What's a (One-Way) Crypto(graphic) Hash Digest Checksum?

A: A hash e.g. eb8ecbf6d5870763ae246e37539d82e37052cb32f88bb8c59971f9978e437743 is a small digest checksum calculated with a one-way crypto(graphic) hash digest checksum function e.g. SHA256 (Secure Hash Algorithm 256 Bits) from the data. Example from blockchain.rb:

def calc_hash
  sha = Digest::SHA256.new
  sha.update( @timestamp.to_s + @previous_hash + @data )
  sha.hexdigest   ## returns "eb8ecbf6d5870763ae246e37539d82e37052cb32f88bb8c59971f9978e437743"
end

A blockchain uses

  • the block timestamp (e.g. 1637-09-15 20:52:38) and
  • the hash from the previous block (e.g. edbd4e11e69bc399a9ccd8faaea44fb27410fe8e3023bb9462450a0a9c4caa1b) and finally
  • the block data (e.g. Transaction Data...)

to calculate the new hash digest checksum, that is, the hash e.g. be50017ee4bbcb33844b3dc2b7c4e476d46569b5df5762d14ceba9355f0a85f4.

Q: What's a Merkle Tree?

A: A Merkle tree is a hash tree named after Ralph Merkle who patented the concept in 1979 (the patent expired in 2002). A hash tree is a generalization of hash lists or hash chains where every leaf node (in the tree) is labelled with a data block and every non-leaf node (in the tree) is labelled with the crypto(graphic) hash of the labels of its child nodes. For more see the Merkle tree Wikipedia Article.

Note: By adding crypto(graphic) hash functions you can "merkelize" any data structure.

Q: What's a Merkelized DAG (Directed Acyclic Graph)?

A: It's a blockchain secured by crypto(graphic) hashes that uses a directed acyclic graph data structure (instead of linear "classic" linked list).

Note: Git uses merkelized dag (directed acyclic graph)s for its blockchains.

Q: Is the Git Repo a Blockchain?

A: Yes, every branch in the git repo is a blockchain. The "classic" Satoshi-blockchain is like a git repo with a single master branch (only).

Do-It-Yourself (DIY) - Build Your Own Blockchain

PythonRubyJavaScriptJavaGo

Python

Let's Build the Tiniest Blockchain in Python Series by Gerald Nash

Build Your Own Blockchain: A Python Tutorial by Eric Munsing, March 2017, (Source)

Learn Blockchains by Building One (in Python) by Daniel van Flymen, September 2017, (Source) -- The fastest way to learn how Blockchains work is to build one

Build Your Own Blockchain (in Python 3) Series by Jack Schultz, (Source)

A Practical Introduction to Blockchain with Python by Adil Moujahid, March 2018, (Source)

Ruby

How Does Bitcoin Force Consensus Among Byzantine Generals? by Fabio Akita, November 2017

blockchain-lite - Build your own blockchains with crypto hashes; revolutionize the world with blockchains, blockchains, blockchains one block at a time! by Gerald Bauer, Ruby Advent Calendar 2017 / Day 1, December 2017

merkletree library - Build Your Own Crypto Hash Trees; Grow Your Own Money on Trees by Gerald Bauer, Ruby Advent Calendar 2017 / Day 19, December 2017

centralbank command line tool (and library) - Print Your Own Money / Cryptocurrency; Run Your Own Federated Central Bank Nodes on the Blockchain Peer-to-Peer over HTTP by Gerald Bauer, Ruby Advent Calendar 2017 / Day 24, December 2017

A guide to building a blockchain & cryptocurrency from scratch (Source) by Antoine Fink, April 2021

Crystal

Write your own blockchain and Proof-of-Work (PoW) algorithm using Crystal by Bradford Lamson-Scribner, May 2018, (Source)

JavaScript

Writing a Tiny Blockchain in JavaScript by Xavier Decuyper, July 2017

Node.js Blockchain Imlementation: BrewChain: Chain+WebSockets+HTTP Server by Darren Beck, November 2017, (Source) -- Protecting the tea making ledger from unscrupulous colleagues

Build your own Blockchain in Javascript/Visualization of Blockchains by Nam Chu Hoai, January 2018

TypeScript

Naivecoin: a tutorial for building a cryptocurrency by Lauri Hartikka, (Source)

Java

Creating Your First Blockchain with Java, Part 1 by Kass, December 2017, (Source)

Kotlin

Let's implement a cryptocurrency in Kotlin by Vasily Fomin, July 2018, (Source)

SQL

Blockchain by Example in SQL Server by Benjamin Campbell, December 2017, (Source)

Rust

Building Blockchain in Rust Series by Jacob Lindahl, GeekLaunch, (Source), (Slide Decks in PDF)

Go

Building Blockchain in Go Series by Ivan Kuznetsov, (Source)

Blockchain Series in Go by by Coral Health (Source)

Talk Notes

More

See Build your own Blockchain / Cryptocurrency @ Build your own (insert technology here)

Samples

Blockchain from Scratch - Ruby Version

class Block

  attr_reader :timestamp
  attr_reader :data
  attr_reader :previous_hash
  attr_reader :hash

  def initialize(data, previous_hash)
    @timestamp     = Time.now
    @data          = data
    @previous_hash = previous_hash
    @hash          = calc_hash
  end

  def self.first( data="Genesis" )    # create genesis (big bang! first) block
    ## note: uses all zero for previous_hash ("0")
    Block.new( data, "0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000" )
  end

  def self.next( previous, data="Transaction Data..." )
    Block.new( data, previous.hash )
  end

private

  def calc_hash
    sha = Digest::SHA256.new
    sha.update( @timestamp.to_s + @previous_hash + @data )
    sha.hexdigest
  end

end  # class Block


#####
## let's get started
##   build a blockchain a block at a time

b0 = Block.first( "Genesis" )
b1 = Block.next( b0, "Transaction Data..." )
b2 = Block.next( b1, "Transaction Data......" )
b3 = Block.next( b2, "More Transaction Data..." )

blockchain = [b0, b1, b2, b3]

pp blockchain

(Source: blockchain.rb)

will pretty print (pp) something like:

[#<Block:0x1eed2a0
  @timestamp     = 1637-09-15 20:52:38,
  @data          = "Genesis",
  @previous_hash = "0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000",
  @hash          = "edbd4e11e69bc399a9ccd8faaea44fb27410fe8e3023bb9462450a0a9c4caa1b">,
 #<Block:0x1eec9a0
  @timestamp     = 1637-09-15 21:02:38,
  @data          = "Transaction Data...",
  @previous_hash = "edbd4e11e69bc399a9ccd8faaea44fb27410fe8e3023bb9462450a0a9c4caa1b",
  @hash          = "eb8ecbf6d5870763ae246e37539d82e37052cb32f88bb8c59971f9978e437743">,
 #<Block:0x1eec838
  @timestamp     = 1637-09-15 21:12:38,
  @data          = "Transaction Data......",
  @previous_hash = "eb8ecbf6d5870763ae246e37539d82e37052cb32f88bb8c59971f9978e437743",
  @hash          = "be50017ee4bbcb33844b3dc2b7c4e476d46569b5df5762d14ceba9355f0a85f4">,
 #<Block:0x1eec6d0
  @timestamp     = 1637-09-15 21:22:38,
  @data          = "More Transaction Data...",
  @previous_hash = "be50017ee4bbcb33844b3dc2b7c4e476d46569b5df5762d14ceba9355f0a85f4",
  @hash          = "5ee2981606328abfe0c3b1171440f0df746c1e1f8b3b56c351727f7da7ae5d8d">]

Comments from the reddit ruby posting:

Wait, so a blockchain is just a linked list?

No. A linked list is only required to have a reference to the previous element, a block must have an identifier depending on the previous block's identifier, meaning that you cannot replace a block without recomputing every single block that comes after. In this implementation that happens as the previous digest is input in the calc_hash method.

What about Proof of Work / Waste?

Let's add a proof of work / waste to the blockchain. In the classic blockchain you have to compute a block hash that starts with leading zeros (00). The more leading zeros the harder (more difficult) to compute. Let's keep it easy to compute with two leading zeros (00), that is, 16^2 = 256 possibilites (^1,2). Three leading zeros (000) would be 16^3 = 4_096 possibilites and four zeros (0000) would be 16^4 = 65_536 and so on.

(^1): 16 possibilties because it's a hex or hexadecimal or base 16 number, that is, 0 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 a (10) b (11) c (12) d (13) e (14) f (15).

(^2): A random secure hash algorithm needs on average 256 tries (might be lets say 305 tries, for example, because it's NOT a perfect statistic distribution of possibilities).

Example:

def compute_hash_with_proof_of_work( difficulty="00" )
  nonce = 0
  loop do
    hash = calc_hash_with_nonce( nonce )
    if hash.start_with?( difficulty )  
      return [nonce,hash]     ## bingo! proof of work if hash starts with leading zeros (00)
    else
      nonce += 1              ## keep trying (and trying and trying)
    end
  end
end

def calc_hash_with_nonce( nonce=0 )
  sha = Digest::SHA256.new
  sha.update( nonce.to_s + @timestamp.to_s + @previous_hash + @data )
  sha.hexdigest
end

(Source: blockchain_with_proof_of_work.rb)

Let's rerun the sample with the proof of work machinery added. Now the sample will pretty print (pp) something like:

[#<Block:0x1e204f0
  @timestamp     = 1637-09-20 20:13:38,
  @data          = "Genesis",
  @previous_hash = "0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000",
  @nonce         = 242,
  @hash          = "00b8e77e27378f9aa0afbcea3a2882bb62f6663771dee053364beb1887e18bcf">,
 #<Block:0x1e56e20
  @timestamp     = 1637-09-20 20:23:38,
  @data          = "Transaction Data...",
  @previous_hash = "00b8e77e27378f9aa0afbcea3a2882bb62f6663771dee053364beb1887e18bcf",
  @nonce         = 46,
  @hash          = "00aae8d2e9387e13c71b33f8cd205d336ac250d2828011f5970062912985a9af">,
 #<Block:0x1e2bd58
  @timestamp     = 1637-09-20 20:33:38,
  @data          = "Transaction Data......",
  @previous_hash = "00aae8d2e9387e13c71b33f8cd205d336ac250d2828011f5970062912985a9af",
  @nonce         = 350,
  @hash          = "00ea45e0f4683c3bec4364f349ee2b6816be0c9fd95cfd5ffcc6ed572c62f190">,
 #<Block:0x1fa8338
  @timestamp     = 1637-09-20 20:43:38,
  @data          = "More Transaction Data...",
  @previous_hash = "00ea45e0f4683c3bec4364f349ee2b6816be0c9fd95cfd5ffcc6ed572c62f190",
  @nonce         = 59,
  @hash          = "00436f0fca677652963e904ce4c624606a255946b921132d5b1f70f7d86c4ab8">]

See the difference? All hashes now start with leading zeros (00) and the nonce is the random "lucky number" that makes it happen. That's the magic behind the proof of work.

Blockchain from Scratch - JavaScript Version

class Block {

  constructor(data, previousHash) {
    this.timestamp    = new Date()
    this.data         = data
    this.previousHash = previousHash
    this.hash         = this.calcHash()
  }

  calcHash() {
    var sha = SHA256.create()
    sha.update( this.timestamp.toString() + this.previousHash + this.data )
    return sha.hex()
  }

  static first( data="Genesis" ) {    // create genesis (big bang! first) block
    // uses all-zero previousHash
    return new Block( data, "0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000" )
  }

  static next( previous, data="Transaction Data..." ) {
    return new Block( data, previous.hash )
  }
}


//////
// let's get started
//   build a blockchain a block at a time

b0 = Block.first( "Genesis" )
b1 = Block.next( b0, "Transaction Data..." )
b2 = Block.next( b1, "Transaction Data......" )
b3 = Block.next( b2, "More Transaction Data..." )


blockchain = [b0, b1, b2, b3]

console.log( blockchain )

(Source: blockchain.js)

will log something like:

[ Block {
     timestamp    : 1637-09-18 08:25:54,
     data         : 'Genesis',
     previousHash : '0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000',
     hash         : 'c396de4c03ddb5275661982adc75ce5fc5905d2a2457d1266c74436c1f3c50f1' },
   Block {
     timestamp    : 1637-09-18 08:35:54,
     data         : 'Transaction Data...',
     previousHash : 'c396de4c03ddb5275661982adc75ce5fc5905d2a2457d1266c74436c1f3c50f1',
     hash         : '493131e09c069645c82795c96e4715cea0f5558be514b5096d853a5b9899154a' },
   Block {
     timestamp    : 1637-09-18 08:45:54,
     data         : 'Transaction Data......',
     previousHash : '493131e09c069645c82795c96e4715cea0f5558be514b5096d853a5b9899154a',
     hash         : '97aa3cb5052615d60ff8e6b41bef606562588c4874f011970ac2f218e2f0f4a8' },
   Block {
     timestamp    : 1637-09-18 08:55:54,
     data         : 'More Transaction Data...',
     previousHash : '97aa3cb5052615d60ff8e6b41bef606562588c4874f011970ac2f218e2f0f4a8',
     hash         : 'e10e020f832e46c2b60e1c3c0412bd370b2fde5f0f782c16eb87d0313ea0d3a3' } ]

Blockchain Articles

Reflections on the Blockchain by Rufus Pollock (Open Knowledge Foundation), July 2016 -- The DAO: Code is not Law – and It’s Dangerous to Think So ++ The Internet changed the world - surely the Blockchain will too? ++ Gold-rush or Internet-rush? ++ Governance Matters in Bitcoin ++ The Myth of a Costless, Ownerless Network ++ Lessons from History

On the Dangers of a Blockchain Monoculture by Tony Arcieri, January 2016 -- The Bitcoin blockchain: the world's worst database ++ Next-generation protocols ++ Decentralized ledger protocols ++ Bitcoin-NG ++ Blockchain! Blockchain! Blockchain! ++ The great decentralized database in the sky

I Don’t Believe in Blockchain by Tim Bray, May 2017

Minimum Viable Blockchain by Ilya Grigorik, May 2014 -- Securing transactions with triple-entry bookkeeping ++ Securing transactions with PKI ++ Balance = Σ(receipts) ++ Multi-party transfers & verification ++ Double-spending and distributed consensus - Requirements for a distributed consensus network; Protecting the network from Sybil attacks; Proof-of-work as a participation requirement ++ Building the minimum viable blockchain - Adding "blocks" & transaction fee incentives; Racing to claim the transaction fees; Resolving chain conflicts; Blocks are never final ++ Properties of the (minimum viable) blockchain

Blockchains by analogies and applications: How blockchain compares to Git, Raft, and other technologies. by Kieren James-Lubin, January 2016 -- Blockchains are databases ++ Understanding transactions ++ Persistent, replicated databases (related technology: Git) ++ Peer-to-peer networks (related technology: BitTorrent) ++ Distributed consensus (related technology: distributed databases, Raft) ++ Minting new coins (mining) ++ Embedded identities (related technology: TLS) ++ Smart contracts: Like SQL expressions & triggers ++ What can we really do with blockchains?

Blockchain Books

Attack of the 50 Foot Blockchain: Bitcoin, Blockchain, Ethereum & Smart Contracts by David Gerard, London, 2017 -- What is a bitcoin? ++ The Bitcoin ideology ++ The incredible promises of Bitcoin! ++ Early Bitcoin: the rise to the first bubble ++ How Bitcoin mining centralised ++ Who is Satoshi Nakamoto? ++ Spending bitcoins in 2017 ++ Trading bitcoins in 2017: the second crypto bubble ++ Altcoins ++ Smart contracts, stupid humans ++ Business bafflegab, but on the Blockchain ++ Case study: Why you can’t put the music industry on a blockchain

Mastering Bitcoin - Programming the Open Blockchain 2nd Edition, by Andreas M. Antonopoulos, 2017 - FREE (Online Source Version) -- What Is Bitcoin? ++ How Bitcoin Works ++ Bitcoin Core: The Reference Implementation ++ Keys, Addresses ++ Wallets ++ Transactions ++ Advanced Transactions and Scripting ++ The Bitcoin Network ++ The Blockchain ++ Mining and Consensus ++ Bitcoin Security ++ Blockchain Applications


BEWARE: Bitcoin is a gigantic ponzi scheme¹. To the moon!? The new gold standard!? Do NOT "invest" trying to get-rich-quick HODLing. Why not? The bitcoin code is archaic and out-of-date. Burn, baby, burn! Proof-of-work / waste is a global energy environmental disaster using 300 kW/h per bitcoin transaction (!) that's about 179 kilograms of CO₂ emissions². Programmable money (or the internet of value) for all future generations with (bitcoin) script without loops and jumps (gotos) and all "stateless"!? LOL.

¹: (Source: Best of Bitcoin Maximalist - Scammers, Morons, Clowns, Shills & BagHODLers - Inside The New New Crypto Ponzi Economics)

²: Assuming let's say 0.596 kilograms of CO₂ per kW/h (that's the energy efficiency in Germany) that's about 179 kilograms of CO₂ per bitcoin transaction (300 kW/h × 0.596 kg). For more insights see the Bitcoin Energy Consumption Index.


Programming Bitcoin from Scratch by Jimmy Song, 2019 - FREE (Online Source Version) -- Chapter 6 - Script - How Script Works • Example Operations • Parsing the Script Fields • Combining the Script Fields • Standard Scripts • p2pk • Problems with p2pk • Solving the Problems with p2pkh • Scripts Can Be Arbitrarily Constructed • Conclusion ++ Chapter 8 - Pay-to-Script Hash - Bare Multisig • Coding OP_CHECKMULTISIG • Problems with Bare Multisig • Pay-to-Script-Hash (p2sh) • Coding p2sh • Conclusion ++ Chapter 13 - Segregated Witness - Pay-to-Witness-Pubkey-Hash (p2wpkh) • p2wpkh Transactions • p2sh-p2wpkh • Coding p2wpkh and p2sh-p2wpkh • Pay-to-Witness-Script-Hash (p2wsh) • p2sh-p2wsh • Coding p2wsh and p2sh-p2wsh • Other Improvements • Conclusion

Programming Bitcoin Script Transaction (Crypto) Contracts Step-by-Step ( Beta / Rough Draft ) by Gerald Bauer et al, 2019 - FREE (Online Version) -- Let's start with building your own bitcoin stack machine from zero / scratch and let's run your own bitcoin ops (operations)...

Programming Blockchains in Ruby from Scratch Step-by-Step Starting w/ Crypto Hashes... ( Beta / Rough Draft ) by Gerald Bauer et al, 2018 - FREE (Online Version) -- (Crypto) Hash ++ (Crypto) Block ++ (Crypto) Block with Proof-of-Work ++ Blockchain! Blockchain! Blockchain! ++ Blockchain Broken? ++ Timestamping ++ Mining, Mining, Mining - What's Your Hash Rate? ++ Bitcoin, Bitcoin, Bitcoin ++ (Crypto) Block with Transactions (Tx)

Mastering Ethereum - Building Contract Services and Decentralized Apps on the Blockchain - by Andreas M. Antonopoulos, Gavin Wood, 2018 - FREE (Online Source Version) What is Ethereum ++ Introduction ++ Ethereum Clients ++ Ethereum Testnets ++ Keys and Addresses ++ Wallets ++ Transactions ++ Contract Services ++ Tokens ++ Oracles ++ Accounting & Gas ++ EVM (Ethereum Virtual Machine) ++
Consensus ++
DevP2P (Peer-To-Peer) Protocol ++ Dev Tools and Frameworks ++ Decentralized Apps ++ Ethereum Standards (EIPs/ERCs)

Building Decentralized Apps on the Ethereum Blockchain by Roberto Infante, 2018 - FREE chapter 1 -- Understanding decentralized applications ++ The Ethereum blockchain ++ Building contract services in (JavaScript-like) Solidity ++ Running contract services on the Ethereum blockchain ++ Developing Ethereum Decentralized apps with Truffle ++ Best design and security practice

Programming Crypto Blockchain Contracts Step-by-Step Book / Guide ( Beta / Rough Draft ) by Gerald Bauer et al, 2019 - FREE (Online Version) -- Let's Start with Ponzi & Pyramid Schemes. Run Your Own Lotteries, Gambling Casinos and more on the Blockchain World Computer...

Programming Cryptocurrencies and Blockchains in Ruby ( Beta / Rough Draft ) by Gerald Bauer et al, 2018 - FREE (Online Version) @ Yuki & Moto Press Bookshelf -- Digital $$$ Alchemy - What's a Blockchain? - How-To Turn Digital Bits Into $$$ or €€€? • Decentralize Payments. Decentralize Transactions. Decentralize Blockchains. • The Proof of the Pudding is ... The Bitcoin (BTC) Blockchain(s) ++ Building Blockchains from Scratch - A Blockchain in Ruby in 20 Lines! A Blockchain is a Data Structure • What about Proof-of-Work? What about Consensus? • Find the Lucky Number - Nonce == Number Used Once ++ Adding Transactions - The World's Worst Database - Bitcoin Blockchain Mining • Tulips on the Blockchain! Adding Transactions ++ Blockchain Lite - Basic Blocks • Proof-of-Work Blocks • Transactions ++ Merkle Tree - Build Your Own Crypto Hash Trees; Grow Your Own Money on Trees • What's a Merkle Tree? • Transactions ++ Central Bank - Run Your Own Federated Central Bank Nodes on the Blockchain Peer-to-Peer over HTTP • Inside Mining - Printing Cryptos, Cryptos, Cryptos on the Blockchain ++ Awesome Crypto ++ Case Studies - Dutch Gulden • Shilling • CryptoKitties (and CryptoCopycats)

Blockchain for Dummies, IBM Limited Edition by Manav Gupta, 2017 - FREE (Digital Download w/ Email) -- Grasping Blockchain Fundamentals ++ Taking a Look at How Blockchain Works ++ Propelling Business with Blockchains ++ Blockchain in Action: Use Cases ++ Hyperledger, a Linux Foundation Project ++ Ten Steps to Your First Blockchain application

Get Rich Quick "Business Blockchain" Bible - The Secrets of Free Easy Money, 2018 - FREE -- Step 1: Sell hot air. How? ++ Step 2: Pump up your tokens. How? ++ Step 3: Revolutionize the World. How?

Best of Bitcoin Maximalist - Scammers, Morons, Clowns, Shills & BagHODLers - Inside The New New Crypto Ponzi Economics by Trolly McTrollface, et al, 2018 - FREE

Crypto Facts - Decentralize Payments - Efficient, Low Cost, Fair, Clean - True or False? by Nouriel Roubini, David Gerard, et al, 2018 - FREE

Crypto is the Mother of All Scams and (Now Busted) Bubbles - While Blockchain Is The Most Over-Hyped Technology Ever, No Better than a Spreadsheet/Database by Nouriel Roubini, 2018 - FREE

IslandCoin White Paper - A Pen and Paper Cash System - How to Run a Blockchain on a Deserted Island by Tal Kol -- Motivation ++ Consensus ++ Transaction and Block Specification - Transaction format • Block format • Genesis block ++ References

Blockchain (Lite) Crypto Hash Libraries

RubyJavaScript

Ruby

blockchain.lite (github: openblockchains/blockchain.lite.rb, gem: blockchain-lite) - build your own blockchain with crypto hashes - revolutionize the world with blockchains, blockchains, blockchains one block at a time

require 'blockchain-lite'

b0 = Block.first( "Genesis" )
b1 = Block.next( b0, "Transaction Data..." )
b2 = Block.next( b1, "Transaction Data......" )
b3 = Block.next( b2, "More Transaction Data..." )

blockchain = [b0, b1, b2, b3]

pp blockchain   

will pretty print (pp) something like:

[#<Block:0x1eed2a0
  @timestamp     = 1637-09-15 20:52:38,
  @data          = "Genesis",
  @previous_hash = "0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000",
  @hash          = "edbd4e11e69bc399a9ccd8faaea44fb27410fe8e3023bb9462450a0a9c4caa1b">,
 #<Block:0x1eec9a0
  @timestamp     = 1637-09-15 21:02:38,
  @data          = "Transaction Data...",
  @hash          = "eb8ecbf6d5870763ae246e37539d82e37052cb32f88bb8c59971f9978e437743",
  @previous_hash = "edbd4e11e69bc399a9ccd8faaea44fb27410fe8e3023bb9462450a0a9c4caa1b">,
  ...

JavaScript

blockchain.lite (github: openblockchains/blockchain.lite.js, npm: blockchain-lite) - build your own blockchain with crypto hashes - revolutionize the world with blockchains, blockchains, blockchains one block at a time

const Blocks = require( "blockchain-lite" )

// use basic block
let Block = Blocks.basic

let b0 = Block.first( 'Genesis' )
let b1 = Block.next( b0, 'Transaction Data...' )
let b2 = Block.next( b1, 'Transaction Data......' )
let b3 = Block.next( b2, 'More Transaction Data...' )

let blockchain = [b0, b1, b2, b3]

console.log( blockchain )

will log something like:

[ Block {
    timestamp:     2017-09-25 17:03:38,
    data:         'Genesis',
    previousHash: '0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000',
    hash:         '08f4fa71628c5bc6b430228738bc8c41afaf508ece0b1cf9c9cac53d02e11829' },
  Block {
    timestamp:     2017-09-25 17:13:38,
    data:         'Transaction Data...',
    previousHash: '08f4fa71628c5bc6b430228738bc8c41afaf508ece0b1cf9c9cac53d02e11829',
    hash:         '740a4aeb3441484c96d1e7f63d31b716220ccee3b6fe94547cae2afbb6010626' },
  Block {
    timestamp:     2017-09-25 17:23:38,
    data:         'Transaction Data......',
    previousHash: '740a4aeb3441484c96d1e7f63d31b716220ccee3b6fe94547cae2afbb6010626',
    hash:         '28b6892a069e2ff7f1c3128ab495d7cd9b9b1636a51a7f69db93a14b1ee6b1a7' },
  Block {
    timestamp:     2017-09-25 17:33:38,
    data:         'More Transaction Data...',
    previousHash: '28b6892a069e2ff7f1c3128ab495d7cd9b9b1636a51a7f69db93a14b1ee6b1a7',
    hash:         '4cc0329b2c0cb32e0451fa3179bd944d4cd0fcf410939172f979e9fd2aa9f5f3' } ]

Git, Git, Git - The Stupid Content Tracker with Crypto Hashes

Everything is local. Distributed is the new centralized.

Quotes - Blockchains and Git

Yep, that's the joke. Nobody has been able to explain to me how the "blockchain" buzzword is significantly different to "git repo". -- Yaakov

But if you said "let's build a currency where all transactions are stored in a git repo" you wouldn't be taken seriously for even 24 hrs. -- Yaakov

Soon explaining git like "a git repo is like a blockchain with commits instead of blocks". -- Nicolás Berger

"A local branch is like a state channel. It can be pushed and merged into the master blockchain at any moment." -- Nicolás Berger

The #Blockchain has changed the world. Here I make the argument that the #Blockchain is just like #git. -- Jackson Kelley

git merge [-m REF] [-g BLOB] --push Merge and push all signed commits to the blockchain. -- Git Commands

Books

Learn Enough Git to Be Dangerous by Michael Hartl - FREE (Online Version) -- Getting started ++ Backing up and sharing ++ Intermediate workflow ++ Collaborating ++ Conclusion ++ Advanced setup

Pro Git by Scott Chacon and Ben Straub, 2nd Edition, 2014 - FREE (Online Version) -- Getting Started ++ Git Basics ++ Git Branching ++ Git on the Server ++ Distributed Git ++ GitHub ++ Git Tools ++ Customizing Git ++ Git and Other Systems ++ Git Internals ++ A1: Git in Other Environments ++ A2: Embedding Git in your Applications ++ A3: Git Commands

Git gets easier once you get the basic idea that branches are homeomorphic endofunctors mapping submanifolds of a Hilbert space. -- Anonymous

Open Distributed Databases on Git

football.db - open public domain football datasets (incl. clubs, national teams, leagues, match schedules, etc.)

world.db - open public domain world (country) datasets

beer.db - open public domain beer & brewery datasets

Add a beer transaction to the #blockchain on #git and win a free Wiener Lager beer! Cheers. Prost. -- Gerald Bauer @ Austria Codes

Open Distributed (Hyper) Ledger Books on Git

Shilling (or Schilling) - Shilling on the Blockchain! - Rock-Solid Alpine Dollar from Austria

Tulips - Tulips on the Blockchain! - Learn by Example from the Real World (Anno 1637) - Buy! Sell! Hold! Enjoy the Beauty of Admiral of Admirals, Semper Augustus, and More

Classic Tulip Mania

A period in the Dutch Golden Age during which contract prices for bulbs of the recently introduced tulip reached extraordinarily high levels and then dramatically collapsed in February 1637.

Quotes - Blockchains are the next Internets / Tulips

People who compare digital tokens to tulips are essentially saying digital tokens are a bubble backed by nothing but pure hype and speculation.

What they fail to understand is that tulips come from dirt, not a blockchain.

And as we all know, blockchain is possibly the best technological innovation since the internet. It will have a tremendous impact on global business and society in general. -- TulipToken

Books

Tulipomania: The Story of the World's Most Coveted Flower & the Extraordinary Passions It Aroused by Mike Dash, 2001 -- A Mania for Tulips ++ The Valley of Tien Shan ++ Within the Abode of Bliss ++ Stranger from the East ++ Clusius ++ Leiden ++ An Adornment to the Cleavage ++ The Tulip in the Mirror ++ Florists ++ Boom ++ At the Sign of the Golden Grape ++ The Orphans of Wouter Winkel ++ Bust ++ Goddess of Whores ++ At the Court of the Tulip King ++ Late Flowering

Tulipmania: Money, Honor, and Knowledge in the Dutch Golden Age by Anne Goldgar, 2007 -- Something Strange ++ Art & Flowers ++ Bloemisten ++ Grieving Money ++ Bad Faith ++ Cabbage Fever ++ Glossary ++ A Note on Money

Breaking News: CryptoKitties (Yes, Cute Little Cartoon Cats) on the Blockchain!

Collectible. Breedable. Adorable.

Collect and breed digital cats. Start meow. Buy! Sell! Hold!

Learn more @ cryptokitties.co

Latest (and Greatest) Investment Opportunity!

Blockchain has unlocked the magic of digital scarcity, and combining that with the power of making the digital goods persistent gives them a potential value that is only limited by how much prestige a wealthy person might place on ownership of the item.

-- Justin Poirier

All I want for Christmas is a CryptoKitty.

-- Kayla Williams

I got a fever. And the only prescription is more CryptoKitties.

-- Eduardo Salazar

My Gen 7 CryptoKitty #104375. The Future is Meow.

-- Anshul Dhawan

  • Fabulous Persian Spock Gerbil Gold Cottoncandy - Extremely rare gen 5 swift virgin | 2.9 ETH
  • Rarity: 0.00264% Gen 5 JAGUAR FABULOUS GOLD DALI!! VIRGIN!
  • Rarity: 0.0015% Princess Bubblegum is now for sale! Gen 12 | Brisk | Virgin | Chartreux | Bubblegum | Otaku | Emeraldgreen | Saycheese | Mauveover | Spock - Starts ETH 20/Ends ETH 10
  • Gold ducat, Gen 5, Virgin, Swift. Very cheap
  • Cheap Gen 1 cute kittie with rare genes! Only 0.125 ETH
  • UNIQUE Virgin Peach Googly Gold Mauveover gen:2 cooldown:1 0.87992% RARE
  • SUPER CHEAP: Gerbil, Ragdoll, Scarlet, Chestnut, Cotton Candy!!! 0.02 ETH (~$14)
  • I'm giving away a Gen 1 FAST Gold for free...

-- CrypoKittiesMarket

Awesome CryptoKitties (and CryptoCopycats)

A collection about Awesome CryptoKitties (Yes, Cute Little Cartoon Cats) on the Blockchain! and CryptoCopycats - digital collectibles secured on a distributed public databases w/ crypto hashes. Are CryptoPuppies the new CryptoKitties? Learn by Example from the Real World (Anno 2017) - Buy! Sell! Hodl!

More @ cryptocopycats/awesome-cryptokitties

Events, Meetups, Orgs

Revolutionize the world one country at a time. Blockchainers of the world, unite!

Awesome Awesomeness

A curated list of awesome lists.

  • Blockchain Stuff -- a curated list of blockchain and general cryptocurrency resources
  • Awesome Blockchain by Igor Barinov et al -- a curated list of the bitcoin blockchain services
  • Awesome Blockchain by Tim Reznich et al -- a curated list of blockchain services and exchanges
  • Awesome Blockchain by istinspring et al -- a curated list of awesome projects and services based on blockchain technology
  • Awesome Coins by Kenneth Reitz et al -- a guide to crypto-currencies and their algos
  • Awesome CryptoKitties (and CryptoCopycats) by Gerald Bauer et al -- a curated list about the awesome crypto kitties and copycats
  • Awesome Git by Dick Tang et al -- a curated list of amazingly awesome Git tools, resources and shiny things
  • Awesome by Sindre Sorhus et al -- a curated list of awesome lists

Author: openblockchains
Source Code: https://github.com/openblockchains/awesome-blockchains
License: CC0-1.0 License

#blockchain 

Devin Pinto

1606971339

Certified Blockchain Expert™ | Blockchain Certification | Blockchain Council

A multitude of use cases around the numerous industrial segments are now contained in the blockchain technology that once began as the underlying system for Bitcoin trading. One of the main impacts on the financial sector has been felt. Blockchain technology has been publicly adopted by businesses like JP Morgan. The financial sector is suffering from data protection problems, faster transactions, transparency and other bottlenecks that hamper the growth of businesses that rely on monetary transactions from banks and NBFCs. Blockchain could therefore be a possible solution here. Banks and financial sectors can easily solve the disadvantages that hold back the banks’ smooth functioning with Blockchain’s involvement.

Some of the biggest developments we have seen in the Blockchain sector are the development of Blockchain platforms such as Hyperledger Sawtooth, Hyperledger Fabric, Corda, etc This approved Blockchain not only ensures that the system operates efficiently, but also ensures that transactions take place at a faster rate. It actually helps the banking system work much better and in a more effective way.

How the financial sector is impacted by Blockchain:

1. Providing a safe platform-
The need for a secured platform is one of the greatest challenges facing most banking and financial institutions. As most of the transactions and other work have now been digitised, most banks and other allied companies are looking for a stable platform that is free of any mistakes or defects. In addition, there is also a high rise in the need for a network that can efficiently combat data breach problems, and so we have Blockchain. By time-stamping all information or data on it this DLT platform works. This guarantees full security. And with the introduction of approved Blockchain networks, the security feature is even more assured.

2. No third party- Time lag and paperwork are two weaknesses of the financial sector that appear to hold up the processes and ultimately influence the company’s efficiency as well. We can solve these problems with the assistance of Blockchain technology and thus ensure quicker transactions. Blockchain technology operates on peer-to-peer transactions, ensuring that for authentication and approval, there is no need to rely on a third party, which speeds up the transaction process.

3. Tracking and tracing- For banking firms, these features can be highly beneficial. Banks invest a large amount of money on authentication and verification, amid all the efforts of false identity cases, and fraud reports are growing, we can easily put an end to it with Blockchain. As data tracking and tracing becomes simpler and history can be easily traced back, compared to the traditional technologies that banks use, it becomes easier to rely on this platform.

These are the three big benefits that Blockchain can reap from the banking and financial field. Blockchain developers and Blockchain experts are in high demand because of this, and we will see an increase in this number in the times to come.

Conclusion- The Blockchain Council provides Blockchain with the best online certificate programme. This detailed curriculum will allow you to absorb all Blockchain-related knowledge while also learning how to incorporate it. Then what are you going to wait for? Register for today’s Blockchain certification.

#blockchain technology #blockchain development #blockchain expert #blockchain professional #blockchain developer

Ajay Kapoor

1623918965

Custom Blockchain Development & Outsourcing Company India

Being one of leading blockchain development companies in India, we have marked a niche by providing some successful Blockchain based software solutions on ethereum, hyperledger, Smart Contracts, and much more. You can leverage Blockchain technology to enhance data security, complete process automation, reduce data storage cost, eliminates duplication of data and reduce time,

We have industry best experts to provide you feature packed Blockchain development services catering to your business challanges. Get in touch now to explore the benefits of Blockchain for your business!

#blockchain-development-company-in-india #blockchain #blockchain-companies-india #blockchain-outsourcing-companies #blockchain-development-services #blockchain-development-company