JavaScript Fundamentals: Syntax & Structure

JavaScript Fundamentals: Syntax & Structure

In this tutorial, we'll go over many of the rules and conventions of JavaScript syntax and code structure.

In this tutorial, we'll go over many of the rules and conventions of JavaScript syntax and code structure.

As with any language, programming languages are defined by sets of rules. The rules (or syntax) are what we follow when we write our code, which form the logical structure of our programs.

Let’s dive right in with the building blocks of JavaScript. We’ll be looking at values (literals & variables), camel casing, unicode, semi colons, indentation, white spacing, commenting, case sensitivity, keywords, operators and expressions! 😅

By taking the time to learn the fundamentals, we’ll be well on our way toward building more functional and readable code!

JavaScript Values

In JavaScript there are two types of values: Fixed values (or literals) and Variable values (variables).


Literals are defined as values that are written in our code, such as numbers, strings, booleans (true or false), as well as object and array literals (don’t worry too much about these just yet). Some examples include:

10          // A number (can be a decimal eg. 10.5)
'Boat'      // A string (can be in double "" or single '' quotes)
true        // A boolean (true or false)
['a', 'b']                           // An array
{color: 'blue', shape: 'Circle'}     // An object

Note: I’ll be looking at data types in detail in my next article, stay tuned!


Variables are named values which store data. In JavaScript we declare our variables with the var, let or const keywords, and we assign values with the equal sign =.

For example, key is defined as a variable. Which is assigned the value abc123:

const key;

key = abc123;

When to use var? Don’t. It really should only be used when working with legacy code. Its the old pre-ES6 syntax.

When to use let? Use it if your variable needs to be updated within the program.

When to use const? Use it if your variable holds a constant value. It cannot be updated.

Camel Case

What if our variable name consists of more than one word? For example, how would we declare a variable we wish to name “first name”?

Could we use hyphens? e.g. first-name Nope, -’s are reserved for subtractions in JavaScript.

What about underscores? e.g. first_name We could, but it has a tendency to make our code look messy and confusing.

The solution? camel case! e.g. firstName. The first word is lower-case, the first letter of any subsequent words are upper-case. This is the convention within the community.

Note: It’s quite acceptable however, to name your const variables in upper-case with underscores e.g. const DEFAULT_PLAYBACK_SPEED = 1; This would make it clear to others that the value is fixed. Otherwise just stick with camelCase!


JavaScript uses the unicode character set. Unicode covers just about all of the characters, punctuations, and symbols that there are! Check out the complete reference. This is great as we can write our names in any language, and we could even use emojis as variable names (because why not? 🤷🏻‍♂️).


JavaScript programs are made up of a number of instructions known as statements. Such as:

// These are all examples of JavaScript statements:

let a = 1000;

a = b + c;

const time =;

JavaScript statements often end in a semicolon ;.

However, semicolons aren’t always mandatory! JavaScript does not have any issues if you don’t use them.

// Still perfectly valid!

let a = 1000

a = b + c

const time =

There are however, some situations where they are mandatory. For example, if you declared multiple variables on one line such as: let a = 1; b = 2; c = 3;, then the ;'s are mandatory.

Semicolons are also mandatory in a for loop, like so:

for (i = 0; i < .length; i++) { 
  // code to execute

When using a block statement however, semicolons are not to be included after the curly braces, for example:

if (name == "Samantha") {
  // code
}                           // <- no ';'


function people(name) {
  // code

If we’re using an object however, such as:

const person = {
  firstName: "Samantha",
  lastName: "Doe",
  age: 30,
  eyeColor: "blue"
};                          // the ';' is mandatory   

Then our ;’s are required!

Over time you’ll start to memorize where semicolons can and can’t be used. Until then it’s wise to use them at the end of all statements (with the exception of block statements!)

Plus it really is a common convention is to use them regardless, it’s considered good practice as its reduces the probability of errors.

Note: Once you really get going with JavaScript, start using a linter such as ESLint. It’ll automatically find syntax errors in your code and make life much easier!


In theory we could write an entire JavaScript program on one line. However this would be just about impossible to read and maintain. Which is why we use lines and indentation. Lets use a conditional statement as an example:

if (loginSuccessful === 1) {
  // code to run if true
} else {
  // code to run if false

Here we can see that any code inside a block is indented. In this case its our comment code // code to run if true and then // code to run if false. You can choose to indent your lines with either a few spaces (2 or 4 are common) or a tab. It’s entirely your choice, the main thing is to be consistent!

If we are nesting our code, we’d indent further like so:

if (loginAttempts < 5){
  if (loginAttempts < 3){
    alert("< 3");
  } else {
    alert("between 3 and 5");
} else {
  if (loginAttempts > 10){
    alert("> 10");
  } else {
    alert("between 5 and 10");

By applying indentation you’ll have much cleaner, more maintainable and easier to read code!

White Space

JavaScript only requires one space between keywords, names and identifiers, otherwise any white space is completely ignored. This means that as far as the language is concerned, there is no difference between the following statements:

const visitedCities="Melbourne, "+"Montreal, "+"Marrakech";
const visitedCities = "Melbourne, " + "Montreal, " + "Marrakech";

I’m sure you’ll find the second line much more readable. And another example:

let x=1*y;       
let x = 1 * y;    

Again, the second line is much easier to read and debug! So feel free to space out your code in a way that makes sense! For that reason, this is also an acceptable use of white space:

const cityName         = "Melbourne";
const cityPopulation   = 5000001;
const cityAirport      = "MEL";


A comment is un-executable code. They’re useful for providing an explanation of some code within a program. And also to ‘comment out’ a section of code to prevent execution — often used when testing an alternative piece of code.

There are two types of comments in JavaScript:

// Comment goes here

/* Comment goes here */

The first syntax is a single line comment. The comment goes to the right of the //

The second a multi-line comment. The comment goes in between the asterisks /* here */

A longer multi-line comment:

/* This is 
a comment spanning
multiple lines */


In JavaScript, the name of a variable, function, or property is known as an identifier. Identifiers may consist of letters, numbers, <div class="section-inner sectionLayout--insetColumn" and_`. No other symbols are permitted, and they cannot begin with a number.

// Valid :)


// Invalid :(

[email protected]

Case Sensitivity

JavaScript is case sensitive! An identifier named test is different from Test.

The following will throw an error:

function test() {
  alert("This is a test!");

function show_alert() {
  Test();                     // error! test(); is correct

In order to ensure that our code is readable, it’s best to try to vary our names, so no identifiers are found looking too similar.

Reserved Words

There are a number of words within JavaScript that may not be used as identifiers. Those words are reserved by the language, as they have built-in functionality. Such as:

break, do, instanceof, typeof, case, else, new, var, catch, finally, return, void, continue, for, switch, while, debugger, function, this, with, default, if, throw, delete, in, try, class, enum, extends, super, const, export, import.

See the full list of reserved keywords.

You certainly don’t need to commit these words to memory! If you get any strange syntax errors pointing to a variable, you can check the list and change the name.

JavaScript Operators

Arithmetical operators + - * and / are primarily used when performing calculations within JavaScript, such as:

(2 + 2) * 100

The assignment operator = is used to assign values to our variables:

let a, b, c;
a = 1;
b = 2;
c = 3;

JavaScript Expressions

An expression is when we combine values, variables and operators to compute a new value (known as a evaluation). Such as:

10 * 10    // Evaluates to 100

let x = 5
x * 10     // Evaluates to 50

const firstName = "Samantha";
const lastName = "Doe";
firstName + " " + lastName;    // Evaluates to: Samantha Doe


And there we go! This article aimed to provide a general overview of the basic syntax and structure of JavaScript. We’ve looked at many of the common conventions, however, remember you can be somewhat flexible — especially when working in collaborative environments with their own particular standards.

Syntax and structuring both have an important role the play for both the functionality of our programs as well as for code readability and maintainability.

I hope you found this article useful!

Learn More

The Complete JavaScript Course 2018: Build Real Projects!

Become a JavaScript developer - Learn (React, Node,Angular)

JavaScript: Understanding the Weird Parts

Vue JS 2 - The Complete Guide (incl. Vue Router & Vuex)

The Full JavaScript & ES6 Tutorial - (including ES7 & React)

JavaScript - Step By Step Guide For Beginners

The Web Developer Bootcamp

MERN Stack Front To Back: Full Stack React, Redux & Node.js

JavaScript Tutorial: if-else Statement in JavaScript

JavaScript Tutorial: if-else Statement in JavaScript

This JavaScript tutorial is a step by step guide on JavaScript If Else Statements. Learn how to use If Else in javascript and also JavaScript If Else Statements. if-else Statement in JavaScript. JavaScript's conditional statements: if; if-else; nested-if; if-else-if. These statements allow you to control the flow of your program's execution based upon conditions known only during run time.

Decision Making in programming is similar to decision making in real life. In programming also we face some situations where we want a certain block of code to be executed when some condition is fulfilled.
A programming language uses control statements to control the flow of execution of the program based on certain conditions. These are used to cause the flow of execution to advance and branch based on changes to the state of a program.

JavaScript’s conditional statements:

  • if
  • if-else
  • nested-if
  • if-else-if

These statements allow you to control the flow of your program’s execution based upon conditions known only during run time.

  • if: if statement is the most simple decision making statement. It is used to decide whether a certain statement or block of statements will be executed or not i.e if a certain condition is true then a block of statement is executed otherwise not.
   // Statements to execute if
   // condition is true

Here, condition after evaluation will be either true or false. if statement accepts boolean values – if the value is true then it will execute the block of statements under it.
If we do not provide the curly braces ‘{‘ and ‘}’ after if( condition ) then by default if statement will consider the immediate one statement to be inside its block. For example,


// Here if the condition is true, if block 
// will consider only statement1 to be inside 
// its block.

Flow chart:


<script type = "text/javaScript"> 

// JavaScript program to illustrate If statement 

var i = 10; 

if (i > 15) 
document.write("10 is less than 15"); 

// This statement will be executed 
// as if considers one statement by default 
document.write("I am Not in if"); 

< /script> 


I am Not in if
  • if-else: The if statement alone tells us that if a condition is true it will execute a block of statements and if the condition is false it won’t. But what if we want to do something else if the condition is false. Here comes the else statement. We can use the else statement with if statement to execute a block of code when the condition is false.
if (condition)
    // Executes this block if
    // condition is true
    // Executes this block if
    // condition is false


<script type = "text/javaScript"> 

// JavaScript program to illustrate If-else statement 

var i = 10; 

if (i < 15) 
document.write("10 is less than 15"); 
document.write("I am Not in if"); 

< /script> 


i is smaller than 15
  • nested-if A nested if is an if statement that is the target of another if or else. Nested if statements means an if statement inside an if statement. Yes, JavaScript allows us to nest if statements within if statements. i.e, we can place an if statement inside another if statement.
if (condition1) 
   // Executes when condition1 is true
   if (condition2) 
      // Executes when condition2 is true


<script type = "text/javaScript"> 

// JavaScript program to illustrate nested-if statement 

var i = 10; 

if (i == 10) { 

// First if statement 
if (i < 15) 
	document.write("i is smaller than 15"); 

// Nested - if statement 
// Will only be executed if statement above 
// it is true 
if (i < 12) 
	document.write("i is smaller than 12 too"); 
	document.write("i is greater than 15"); 
< /script> 


i is smaller than 15
i is smaller than 12 too
  • if-else-if ladder Here, a user can decide among multiple options.The if statements are executed from the top down. As soon as one of the conditions controlling the if is true, the statement associated with that if is executed, and the rest of the ladder is bypassed. If none of the conditions is true, then the final else statement will be executed.
if (condition)
else if (condition)


<script type = "text/javaScript"> 
// JavaScript program to illustrate nested-if statement 

var i = 20; 

if (i == 10) 
document.wrte("i is 10"); 
else if (i == 15) 
document.wrte("i is 15"); 
else if (i == 20) 
document.wrte("i is 20"); 
document.wrte("i is not present"); 
< /script> 


i is 20

How to Retrieve full Profile of LinkedIn User using Javascript

How to Retrieve full Profile of LinkedIn User using Javascript

I am trying to retrieve the full profile (especially job history and educational qualifications) of a linkedin user via the Javascript (Fetch LinkedIn Data Using JavaScript)

Here we are fetching LinkedIn data like Username, Email and other fields using JavaScript SDK.

Here we have 2 workarounds.

  1. Configuration of linkedIn developer api
  2. Javascript Code to fetch records

Configuration of linkedIn developer api

In order to fetch records, first we need to create developer api in linkedin which will act as token/identity while fetching data from other linkedin accounts.

So to create api, navigate to and click on 'Create Application'.

After navigating, fill in details like name, description and other required fields and then submit.

As we submit, it will create Client ID and Client Secret shown below, which we will be using in our code while communicating to fetch records from other LinkedIn account.

Note: We need to provide localhost Url here under Oauth 2.0. I am using my localhost, but you can probably use other production URLs under Oauth 2.0 where your app is configured. It will make your api  consider the Url as trusted which fetching records.

Javascript Code to fetch records

For getting user details like first name, last name,User image can be written as,

<script type="text/javascript" src="">  
    api_key: XXXXXXX //Client ID  
    onLoad: OnLinkedInFrameworkLoad //Method that will be called on page load  
    authorize: true  
<script type="text/javascript">  
    function OnLinkedInFrameworkLoad() {  
        IN.Event.on(IN, "auth", OnLinkedInAuth);  
    function OnLinkedInAuth() {  
    function ShowProfileData(profiles) {  
        var member = profiles.values[0];  
        var id =;  
        var firstName = member.firstName;  
        var lastName = member.lastName;  
        var photo = member.pictureUrl;  
        var headline = member.headline;  
        //use information captured above  
        var stringToBind = "<p>First Name: " + firstName + " <p/><p> Last Name: " + lastName + "<p/><p>User ID: " + id + " and Head Line Provided: " + headline + "<p/>"  
        document.getElementById('profiles').innerHTML = stringToBind;  

Kindly note we need to include '' as src under script type as it will act on this Javascript SDK provided by Linkedin.

In the same way we can also fetch records of any organization with the companyid as keyword.

    <script type="text/javascript" src="">  
        api_key: XXXXXXX ////Client ID  
        onLoad: onLinkedInLoad  
        authorize: true  
    <div id="displayUpdates"></div>  
    <script type="text/javascript">  
        function onLinkedInLoad() {  
            IN.Event.on(IN, "auth", onLinkedInAuth);  
            console.log("On auth");  
        function onLinkedInAuth() {  
            var cpnyID = XXXXX; //the Company ID for which we want updates  
            IN.API.Raw("/companies/" + cpnyID + "/updates?event-type=status-update&start=0&count=10&format=json").result(displayCompanyUpdates);  
            console.log("After auth");  
        function displayCompanyUpdates(result) {  
            var div = document.getElementById("displayUpdates");  
            var el = "<ul>";  
            var resValues = result.values;  
            for (var i in resValues) {  
                var share = resValues[i].updateContent.companyStatusUpdate.share;  
                var isContent = share.content;  
                var isTitled = isContent,  
                    isLinked = isContent,  
                    isDescription = isContent,  
                    isThumbnail = isContent,  
                    isComment = isContent;  
                if (isTitled) {  
                    var title = isContent.title;  
                } else {  
                    var title = "News headline";  
                var comment = share.comment;  
                if (isLinked) {  
                    var link = isContent.shortenedUrl;  
                } else {  
                    var link = "#";  
                if (isDescription) {  
                    var description = isContent.description;  
                } else {  
                    var description = "No description";  
                if (isThumbnailz) { 
                var thumbnailUrl = isContent.thumbnailUrl; 
                } else { 
                var thumbnailUrl = ""; 
                if (share) {  
                    var content = "<a target='_blank' href=" + link + ">" + comment + "</a><br>";  
                    //el += "<li><img src='" + thumbnailUrl + "' alt=''>" + content + "</li>";  
                    el += "<li><div>" + content + "</div></li>";  
            el += "</ul>";  
            document.getElementById("displayUpdates").innerHTML = el;  

We can get multiple metadata while fetching records for any any organization. We can get company updates as shown below.


We can also fetch any company specific data like company job updates/post, total likes, comments, and number of views along with a lot of metadata we can fetch which I have shown below.

Thank you for reading !

7 Best Javascript Iframe Libraries

7 Best Javascript Iframe Libraries

Iframes let you build user experiences into embeddable ‘cross-domain components’, which let users interact with other sites without being redirected. I have compiled 7 best Javascript iframe libraries.

Iframes let you build user experiences into embeddable ‘cross-domain components’, which let users interact with other sites without being redirected. I have compiled 7 best Javascript iframe libraries.

1. Zoid

A cross-domain component toolkit, supporting:

  • Render an iframe or popup on a different domain, and pass down props, including objects and functions
  • Call callbacks natively from the child window without worrying about post-messaging or cross-domain restrictions
  • Create and expose components to share functionality from your site to others!
  • Render your component directly as a React, Vue or Angular component!
    It's 'data-down, actions up' style components, but 100% cross-domain using iframes and popups!


2. Postmate

Postmate is a promise-based API built on postMessage. It allows a parent page to speak with a child iFrame across origins with minimal effort.


3. Iframe Resizer

Keep same and cross domain iFrames sized to their content with support for window/content resizing, in page links, nesting and multiple iFrames



4. Iframely

Embed proxy. Supports over 1800 domains via custom parsers, oEmbed, Twitter Cards and Open Graph



5. React Frame component

This component allows you to encapsulate your entire React application or per component in an iFrame.



6. Seamless.js

A seamless iframe makes it so that visitors are unable to distinguish between content within the iframe and content beside the iframe. Seamless.js is a JavaScript library (with no dependencies) that makes working with iframes easy by doing all the seamless stuff for you automatically.



7. Porthole

A proxy to safely communicate to cross-domain iframes in javascript



Thank for read!