John David

John David


An Introduction to Data Structures

Hello everyone and welcome to an Introduction to Data Structures. In this lecture-style course, I’ll be taking through the topic of Data Structures in relation to Computer Science. We’ll go over what Data Structures are, how we measure a Data Structures efficiency, and then hop into talking about 12 of the most common Data Structures which will come up throughout your Computer Science journey.

💻 (00:00) Introduction
⌨️ (01:06) Timestamps
⌨️ (01:23) Script and Visuals
⌨️ (01:34) References Research
⌨️ (01:56) Questions
⌨️ (02:12) Shameless Plug
⌨️ (02:51) What are Data Structures?
⌨️ (04:36) Series Overview
💻 (06:55) Measuring Efficiency with BigO Notation
⌨️ (09:45) Time Complexity Equations
⌨️ (11:13) The Meaning of BigO
⌨️ (12:42) Why BigO?
⌨️ (13:18) Quick Recap
⌨️ (14:27) Types of Time Complexity Equations
⌨️ (19:42) Final Note on Time Complexity Equations
💻 (20:21) The Array
⌨️ (20:58) Array Basics
⌨️ (22:09) Array Names
⌨️ (22:59) Parallel Arrays
⌨️ (23:59) Array Types
⌨️ (24:30) Array Size
⌨️ (25:45) Creating Arrays
⌨️ (26:11) Populate-First Arrays
⌨️ (28:09) Populate-Later Arrays
⌨️ (30:22) Numerical Indexes
⌨️ (31:57) Replacing information in an Array
⌨️ (32:42) 2-Dimensional Arrays
⌨️ (35:01) Arrays as a Data Structure
⌨️ (42:21) Pros and Cons
💻 (43:33) The ArrayList
⌨️ (44:42) Structure of the ArrayList
⌨️ (45:19) Initializing an ArrayList
⌨️ (47:34) ArrayList Functionality
⌨️ (49:30) ArrayList Methods
⌨️ (50:26) Add Method
⌨️ (53:57) Remove Method
⌨️ (55:33) Get Method
⌨️ (55:59) Set Method
⌨️ (56:57) Clear Method
⌨️ (57:30) toArray Method
⌨️ (59:00) ArrayList as a Data Structure
⌨️ (1:03:12) Comparing and Contrasting with Arrays
💻 (1:05:02) The Stack
⌨️ (1:05:06) The Different types of Data Structures
⌨️ (1:05:51) Random Access Data Structures
⌨️ (1:06:10) Sequential Access Data Structures
⌨️ (1:07:36) Stack Basics
⌨️ (1:09:01) Common Stack Methods
⌨️ (1:09:45) Push Method
⌨️ (1:10:32) Pop Method
⌨️ (1:11:46) Peek Method
⌨️ (1:12:27) Contains Method
⌨️ (1:13:23) Time Complexity Equations
⌨️ (1:15:28) Uses for Stacks
💻 (1:18:01) The Queue
⌨️ (1:18:51) Queue Basics
⌨️ (1:20:44) Common Queue Methods
⌨️ (1:21:13) Enqueue Method
⌨️ (1:22:20) Dequeue Method
⌨️ (1:23:08) Peek Method
⌨️ (1:24:15) Contains Method
⌨️ (1:25:05) Time Complexity Equations
⌨️ (1:27:05) Common Queue Uses
💻 (1:28:16) The Linked List
⌨️ (1:31:37 ) LinkedList Visualization
⌨️ (1:33:55) Adding and Removing Information
⌨️ (1:41:28) Time Complexity Equations
⌨️ (1:44:26) Uses for LinkedLists
💻 (1:47:19) The Doubly-LinkedList
⌨️ (1:48:44) Visualization
⌨️ (1:50:56) Adding and Removing Information
⌨️ (1:58:30) Time Complexity Equations
⌨️ (1:59:06) Uses of a Doubly-LinkedList
💻 (2:00:21) The Dictionary
⌨️ (2:01:15) Dictionary Basics
⌨️ (2:02:00) Indexing Dictionaries
⌨️ (2:02:40) Dictionary Properties
💻 (2:05:53) Hash Table Mini-Lesson
⌨️ (2:13:26) Time Complexity Equations
💻 (2:16:39) Trees
⌨️ (2:16:55) Introduction to Hierarchical Data
⌨️ (2:18:54) Formal Background on the Tree
⌨️ (2:20:03) Tree Terminology and Visualization
⌨️ (2:25:08) Different types of Trees
⌨️ (2:28:07) Uses for the Tree
💻 (2:29:00) Tries
⌨️ (2:29:50) Trie Basics
⌨️ (2:30:41) Trie Visualization
⌨️ (2:34:33) Flagging
⌨️ (2:35:15) Uses for Tries
💻 (2:38:25) Heaps
⌨️ (2:38:51) Heap Basics
⌨️ (2:39:19) Min-Heaps
⌨️ (2:40:07) Max-Heaps
⌨️ (2:40:59) Building Heaps
⌨️ (2:44:20) Deleting from Heaps
⌨️ (2:46:00) Heap Implementations
💻 (2:48:15) Graphs
⌨️ (2:49:25) Graph Basics
⌨️ (2:52:04) Directed vs. Undirected Graphs
⌨️ (2:53:45) Cyclic vs. Acyclic Graphs
⌨️ (2:55:04 Weighted Graphs
⌨️ (2:55:46) Types of Graphs
💻 (2:58:20) Conclusion
💻 (2:58:43) Shameless Plug

#data-science #machine-learning #developer

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An Introduction to Data Structures
 iOS App Dev

iOS App Dev


Your Data Architecture: Simple Best Practices for Your Data Strategy

If you accumulate data on which you base your decision-making as an organization, you should probably think about your data architecture and possible best practices.

If you accumulate data on which you base your decision-making as an organization, you most probably need to think about your data architecture and consider possible best practices. Gaining a competitive edge, remaining customer-centric to the greatest extent possible, and streamlining processes to get on-the-button outcomes can all be traced back to an organization’s capacity to build a future-ready data architecture.

In what follows, we offer a short overview of the overarching capabilities of data architecture. These include user-centricity, elasticity, robustness, and the capacity to ensure the seamless flow of data at all times. Added to these are automation enablement, plus security and data governance considerations. These points from our checklist for what we perceive to be an anticipatory analytics ecosystem.

#big data #data science #big data analytics #data analysis #data architecture #data transformation #data platform #data strategy #cloud data platform #data acquisition

Gerhard  Brink

Gerhard Brink


Getting Started With Data Lakes

Frameworks for Efficient Enterprise Analytics

The opportunities big data offers also come with very real challenges that many organizations are facing today. Often, it’s finding the most cost-effective, scalable way to store and process boundless volumes of data in multiple formats that come from a growing number of sources. Then organizations need the analytical capabilities and flexibility to turn this data into insights that can meet their specific business objectives.

This Refcard dives into how a data lake helps tackle these challenges at both ends — from its enhanced architecture that’s designed for efficient data ingestion, storage, and management to its advanced analytics functionality and performance flexibility. You’ll also explore key benefits and common use cases.


As technology continues to evolve with new data sources, such as IoT sensors and social media churning out large volumes of data, there has never been a better time to discuss the possibilities and challenges of managing such data for varying analytical insights. In this Refcard, we dig deep into how data lakes solve the problem of storing and processing enormous amounts of data. While doing so, we also explore the benefits of data lakes, their use cases, and how they differ from data warehouses (DWHs).

This is a preview of the Getting Started With Data Lakes Refcard. To read the entire Refcard, please download the PDF from the link above.

#big data #data analytics #data analysis #business analytics #data warehouse #data storage #data lake #data lake architecture #data lake governance #data lake management

Cyrus  Kreiger

Cyrus Kreiger


4 Tips To Become A Successful Entry-Level Data Analyst

Companies across every industry rely on big data to make strategic decisions about their business, which is why data analyst roles are constantly in demand. Even as we transition to more automated data collection systems, data analysts remain a crucial piece in the data puzzle. Not only do they build the systems that extract and organize data, but they also make sense of it –– identifying patterns, trends, and formulating actionable insights.

If you think that an entry-level data analyst role might be right for you, you might be wondering what to focus on in the first 90 days on the job. What skills should you have going in and what should you focus on developing in order to advance in this career path?

Let’s take a look at the most important things you need to know.

#data #data-analytics #data-science #data-analysis #big-data-analytics #data-privacy #data-structures #good-company

Rylan  Becker

Rylan Becker


Introduction to Data Structures and Algorithms

Introduction to Data Structures and Algorithms

Welcome to the introduction to data structures tutorial. Have you ever used a DVD case to store multiple DVDs or even a simple register used to store data manually? Both of the above real-life examples are a form of data structures.

Here DVDs in a DVD case and records in the register are examples of data and their arrangement in a particular structure makes them more easily accessible. Combining a similar concept with the digital world gives us data structures in computers.

A set of data in mathematics might be unchanging but in computers, they can grow, shrink or change with the use of algorithms. These are dynamic sets.

What is a Data Structure?

A data structure is a specific way of arranging the data in a computer so that its usage is more effective and efficient.

  • Data structures are a set of algorithms.
  • They are useful to store data in a way that makes it extremely accessible and easy to manipulate

Basic Terminologies of Data Structure

Here are a few standard terms that we will be using frequently in our Data Structure’s learning journey:

1. Data: Data is the elementary value or we can also say that it is a collection of values. For example, employee name and employee ID are data about an employee.

2. Group Item: Data items having sub-data items are known as group items. For example, names. I can have the first name and surname of the employee.

3. Record: Record is the collection of various data items. For example in the case of employee data, the record might consist of name, address, designation, pay scale, and working hours.

4. File: A file is a collection of multiple records of the same entity. For example, a collection of 500 employee records is a file.

5. Entity: Entity is a class of certain objects. Each entity has various attributes.

6. Attribute: Each attribute represents a particular property of the entity.

7. Field: Field is an elementary unit of the information that represents the attribute of an entity.

Types of Data structures

There are 2 types of data structures:

1. Primitive data structure

A primitive data structure or data type is defined by a programming language and the type and size of the variables, values are specific to the language. It does not have any additional methods. For example int, float, double, long, etc. These data types can hold a single value.

2. Non-primitive data structure

These data structures are defined by the programmers and not by the programming languages. These data structures can hold multiple values and make them easily accessible.

Non-primitive data structures can further be classified into two types:

a. Linear Data Structure

In the linear data structure, as the name suggests, data elements are arranged sequentially or linearly where each element is in connection with its previous and next element.

Since a single level is involved in a linear data structure, therefore, the whole data structure is traversable through all the elements in a single run only. These data structures are easy to implement. For example array, linked list, stack, and queue.

b. Non-linear Data Structure

In a non-linear data structure, the elements’ arrangement is not sequential or linear. Instead, they are arranged hierarchically. Hence we cannot traverse through each element in one run.

Non-linear data structures are a little bit more difficult to implement than linear data structures but they use computer memory more efficiently compared to linear data structures. For example graphs and trees.

Data structures classification can also be done in the following two categories :

  • Static data structures
  • Dynamic data structures
1. Static Data Structure

Static data structures have a specific memory size, the allocation of which is done at the time of compilation. Therefore, these data structures have fix memory size.

An array is the best example of static data structure.

2. Dynamic Data Structure

Dynamic data structures have flexible memory sizes since the memory allocation is done at the run time. Hence, dynamic data structures can shrink or grow as and when required by deallocating or allocating the memory respectively.

For example, linked lists, stack, queue, graphs, and trees are dynamic data structures.

#data structure tutorials #basics of data structures #introduction to data structures

Cyrus  Kreiger

Cyrus Kreiger


An Introduction to Data Connectors: Your First Step to Data Analytics

Modern analytics teams are hungry for data. They are generating incredible insights that make their organizations smarter and are emphasizing the need for data-driven decision making across the board. However, data comes in many shapes and forms and is often siloed away. What actually makes the work of analytics teams possible is the aggregation of data from a variety of sources into a single location where it is easy to query and transform. And, of course, this data needs to be accurate and up-to-date at all times.

Let’s take an example. Maybe you’re trying to understand how COVID-19 is impacting your churn rates, so you can plan your sales and marketing spends appropriately in 2021. For this, you need to extract and combine data from a few different sources:

  • MySQL database that details all the interactions your users are having with your product
  • Salesforce account that contains the latest information about your current and prospective customers
  • Zendesk account that has all support tickets raised by your customers

#data-analytics #data-science #data-engineering #data #data-warehouse #snowflake #data-connector #machine-learning