Fannie  Zemlak

Fannie Zemlak


RSocket in Cloud Native

In the mission of the cloud-native computing foundation, It states “the techniques enable loosely coupled systems that are resilient, manageable, and observable.” Those three characterizes are the core of the cloud-native computing foundation. Other technologies play a support role.

1. Reactive Programming

1.1 Imperative Programming vs. Reactive Programming

With an imperative approach, a developer writes code that describes in exacting detail the steps that the computer must take to accomplish the goal. Those steps are executed in the order as the developer lays out without considering other systems the code interacts with.

With a reactive approach, a developer can build a non-blocking, asynchronous code that can handle back-pressure (flow control). As a result, the code will observe and react to any actions outside of the system without being restricted by the code programming instruction. It will work well under the pressure.

1.2 Reactive Stream

The Reactive stream is about I/O, asynchronous stream processing with non-blocking backpressure. Asynchronous is about situation and non-blocking is about handling. It has an advantage in a large data processing system.

The concept of backpressure is that a client is a king to ensure the other party can handle its task properly with a given amount of data. For example, in an airport check-in line, the counter clerk will ask whoever on the line comes to the counter once the clerk is available to provide a service. It could be one person or a group of several people coming forward to the check-in counter. That is to say, that node sends a signal on how much data it can handle and the other node sends over data within the data amount the part indicates at the time. In such fashion, a node will handle amount of traffic date it can handle from other nodes.

In terms of asynchronous, any programming languages created in the past decade have the feature. It comes with different terms such as callback-based, Rx/Reactor, co-routines, asynchronous/await, etc. in the form of either build-in and library.

2. RSocket

Although various programming languages have a reactive feature, none of those languages have a mechanism of communication in a reactive fashion. For example, two parties/nodes can be reactive on their own, but there isn’t a correlation between them in a reactive fashion. That could lead to an application system break under high pressure. One party/node could engage a communication while the other party/node is busy with a heavy data load. That is the motivation of the circuit break design pattern. The design pattern can be used to check the availability of an external service and detects failures and prevents the application from trying to perform the action that is doomed to fail.

To address this issue, a new application protocol, RSocket, a new application protocol for multiplexed, duplex communication, is formed. Like many cloud-related open source technologies, it was initially developed by NetFlix. Its initial release was in October 2015.

RSocket is a binary protocol for use on byte stream transports such as TCP, WebSockets, and Aeron. The “R” stands for reactive. A network socket is an internal endpoint for sending or receiving data within a node a computer network. Concretely, it is a representation of this endpoint in networking software and is a form of system resource. RSocket is on the same level of HTTP in the communication protocol layer.

RSocket honors reactive syntax for modern cloud application and it has the following features:

  • Provides a standard approach to connecting and communicating
  • Solves a problem in a consistent way across your applications

In the language scope, RSocket doesn’t reinvent the wheel. In different languages, RSocket achieves its goal with various approaches with existing features and/or libraries. For example, it uses the Reactor in Java. It uses the Event-Loop of Node.js in Javascript. And it uses Goroutines in Go.

2.1 RSocket Interaction Models

As mentioned before, RSocket is on the same level of HTTP in the communication protocol. Http is designed for communication between humans and a computer. After a human submits a request to a computer through a web browser, the computer will send some human-readable data back based on the request. Http is not designed for communication between computers.

RSocket has four communication interaction models. Those four models cover all communication requirements between computers. It enables the following symmetric interaction models via async message passing over a single connection:

**request-response **— send one message and receive one back

In this interaction model, RSocket behavior likes HTTP. A request is sent and a response will be returned based on the request. In this model, RSocket won’t show any advantages in a low data flow situation.

fire-and-forget — send a one-way message

It is used in a situation that an application doesn’t need to wait for an action result of an external system. For example, acknowledgment isn’t needed in the situation for writing a message into an external log file system.

**request-stream **— send one message and receive a stream of messages back

One example of the usage scenario is requiring a video file, one party sending a request, and the other party sending back a stream of video data based on the request.

**channel **— send streams of messages in both directions

One example of using the channel is online chat. A connect is set up on both ends and data constantly flow forward and backward between those two ends.

2.2 RSocket Design Features

2.2.1 Message-Based Binary Protocol.

All Data Is in a Framed Format.

  • requester-responser

The interaction is broken down into frames that encapsulate messages.

  • The Framing Is Binary

(not a human-readable format like JSON or XML) (benefit — at least 30% faster than HTTP format)

  • Payload Agnostic

Data can be in various format: Protobuf, GraphSQL, Json, custom binary

2.2.2 Multiplexed/Connection-Oriented

  • Create single the connection between two nodes
  • Interactions are broken into “logic stream” with an ID
  • Multiplexing solves the issue by annotating each message on the connection with stream id that partitions the connection into multiple “logical stream”
  • Logic stream and connection allow for “soft sticky” state (session)
  • Cancel frame while the connection is still up (finding a double frame)
  • Resume: reconnect and breaking point. For example, the connection is off in the third frame. After the resume, the following frame, the fourth frame will be sent.

2.2.3 Bi-directional Communication

In the HTTP protocol, only the client can initialize a communication, and the server only can respond to a request from its client. That is designed for human and computer interaction. Also, in the HTTP, a connection is set up when the client issues a request. TCP is bi-directional communication, in which any party can initialize a communication. RSocket is similar to TCP in the way of bi-directional communication.

Resilient is the first citizen in the RSocket. And RSocket doesn’t need an external force to make it resilient.

#tutorial #microservices #reactive #reactive architecture #rsocket #reactive development

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RSocket in Cloud Native
Autumn  Blick

Autumn Blick


How native is React Native? | React Native vs Native App Development

If you are undertaking a mobile app development for your start-up or enterprise, you are likely wondering whether to use React Native. As a popular development framework, React Native helps you to develop near-native mobile apps. However, you are probably also wondering how close you can get to a native app by using React Native. How native is React Native?

In the article, we discuss the similarities between native mobile development and development using React Native. We also touch upon where they differ and how to bridge the gaps. Read on.

A brief introduction to React Native

Let’s briefly set the context first. We will briefly touch upon what React Native is and how it differs from earlier hybrid frameworks.

React Native is a popular JavaScript framework that Facebook has created. You can use this open-source framework to code natively rendering Android and iOS mobile apps. You can use it to develop web apps too.

Facebook has developed React Native based on React, its JavaScript library. The first release of React Native came in March 2015. At the time of writing this article, the latest stable release of React Native is 0.62.0, and it was released in March 2020.

Although relatively new, React Native has acquired a high degree of popularity. The “Stack Overflow Developer Survey 2019” report identifies it as the 8th most loved framework. Facebook, Walmart, and Bloomberg are some of the top companies that use React Native.

The popularity of React Native comes from its advantages. Some of its advantages are as follows:

  • Performance: It delivers optimal performance.
  • Cross-platform development: You can develop both Android and iOS apps with it. The reuse of code expedites development and reduces costs.
  • UI design: React Native enables you to design simple and responsive UI for your mobile app.
  • 3rd party plugins: This framework supports 3rd party plugins.
  • Developer community: A vibrant community of developers support React Native.

Why React Native is fundamentally different from earlier hybrid frameworks

Are you wondering whether React Native is just another of those hybrid frameworks like Ionic or Cordova? It’s not! React Native is fundamentally different from these earlier hybrid frameworks.

React Native is very close to native. Consider the following aspects as described on the React Native website:

  • Access to many native platforms features: The primitives of React Native render to native platform UI. This means that your React Native app will use many native platform APIs as native apps would do.
  • Near-native user experience: React Native provides several native components, and these are platform agnostic.
  • The ease of accessing native APIs: React Native uses a declarative UI paradigm. This enables React Native to interact easily with native platform APIs since React Native wraps existing native code.

Due to these factors, React Native offers many more advantages compared to those earlier hybrid frameworks. We now review them.

#android app #frontend #ios app #mobile app development #benefits of react native #is react native good for mobile app development #native vs #pros and cons of react native #react mobile development #react native development #react native experience #react native framework #react native ios vs android #react native pros and cons #react native vs android #react native vs native #react native vs native performance #react vs native #why react native #why use react native

Adaline  Kulas

Adaline Kulas


Multi-cloud Spending: 8 Tips To Lower Cost

A multi-cloud approach is nothing but leveraging two or more cloud platforms for meeting the various business requirements of an enterprise. The multi-cloud IT environment incorporates different clouds from multiple vendors and negates the dependence on a single public cloud service provider. Thus enterprises can choose specific services from multiple public clouds and reap the benefits of each.

Given its affordability and agility, most enterprises opt for a multi-cloud approach in cloud computing now. A 2018 survey on the public cloud services market points out that 81% of the respondents use services from two or more providers. Subsequently, the cloud computing services market has reported incredible growth in recent times. The worldwide public cloud services market is all set to reach $500 billion in the next four years, according to IDC.

By choosing multi-cloud solutions strategically, enterprises can optimize the benefits of cloud computing and aim for some key competitive advantages. They can avoid the lengthy and cumbersome processes involved in buying, installing and testing high-priced systems. The IaaS and PaaS solutions have become a windfall for the enterprise’s budget as it does not incur huge up-front capital expenditure.

However, cost optimization is still a challenge while facilitating a multi-cloud environment and a large number of enterprises end up overpaying with or without realizing it. The below-mentioned tips would help you ensure the money is spent wisely on cloud computing services.

  • Deactivate underused or unattached resources

Most organizations tend to get wrong with simple things which turn out to be the root cause for needless spending and resource wastage. The first step to cost optimization in your cloud strategy is to identify underutilized resources that you have been paying for.

Enterprises often continue to pay for resources that have been purchased earlier but are no longer useful. Identifying such unused and unattached resources and deactivating it on a regular basis brings you one step closer to cost optimization. If needed, you can deploy automated cloud management tools that are largely helpful in providing the analytics needed to optimize the cloud spending and cut costs on an ongoing basis.

  • Figure out idle instances

Another key cost optimization strategy is to identify the idle computing instances and consolidate them into fewer instances. An idle computing instance may require a CPU utilization level of 1-5%, but you may be billed by the service provider for 100% for the same instance.

Every enterprise will have such non-production instances that constitute unnecessary storage space and lead to overpaying. Re-evaluating your resource allocations regularly and removing unnecessary storage may help you save money significantly. Resource allocation is not only a matter of CPU and memory but also it is linked to the storage, network, and various other factors.

  • Deploy monitoring mechanisms

The key to efficient cost reduction in cloud computing technology lies in proactive monitoring. A comprehensive view of the cloud usage helps enterprises to monitor and minimize unnecessary spending. You can make use of various mechanisms for monitoring computing demand.

For instance, you can use a heatmap to understand the highs and lows in computing visually. This heat map indicates the start and stop times which in turn lead to reduced costs. You can also deploy automated tools that help organizations to schedule instances to start and stop. By following a heatmap, you can understand whether it is safe to shut down servers on holidays or weekends.

#cloud computing services #all #hybrid cloud #cloud #multi-cloud strategy #cloud spend #multi-cloud spending #multi cloud adoption #why multi cloud #multi cloud trends #multi cloud companies #multi cloud research #multi cloud market

Thurman  Mills

Thurman Mills


Becoming Cloud Native

There are few companies operating in today’s markets affected most recently as we are with the events of 2020 that have not undergone a digital transformation of some sort. Research shows that 80% of executives are accelerating plans to digitize work processes and deploy new technologies in response to the impact of COVID on the business world. The traditional model of business is undergoing radical change in an endeavour to employ digital technologies better to suit multiple purposes across a variety of sectors, and cloud native is one of the key drivers that re-architects cloud environments with the intent of adapting the means for how to deliver services. cloud native is a modern and advanced software development approach; which is why it is becoming of high importance to many companies.

Digital Transformation Risks

But moving to a new software development approach is not easy, and organizations can be slow to adopt radical change in the interests of safeguarding their market, output and business. So, to mitigate risk, organizations can take a step-by-step approach to becoming cloud native in several phases, where they can first replicate the new approach on a smaller scale inside a department/team/project architecture to test the results. If positive, it is then possible to scale the approach organization-wide continuously till the whole enterprise cloud architecture becomes cloud native. If implemented correctly, the cloud native approach supports organizations to improve speed, agility, and resilience in the app development and management process.

#cloud native #cloud #cloud computing #cloud native development #cloud-native applications

Adaline  Kulas

Adaline Kulas


What are the benefits of cloud migration? Reasons you should migrate

The moving of applications, databases and other business elements from the local server to the cloud server called cloud migration. This article will deal with migration techniques, requirement and the benefits of cloud migration.

In simple terms, moving from local to the public cloud server is called cloud migration. Gartner says 17.5% revenue growth as promised in cloud migration and also has a forecast for 2022 as shown in the following image.

#cloud computing services #cloud migration #all #cloud #cloud migration strategy #enterprise cloud migration strategy #business benefits of cloud migration #key benefits of cloud migration #benefits of cloud migration #types of cloud migration

Start With CI/CD Using the Cloud Native Toolkit From the IBM Garage

Today’s blog post is about the awesome IBM Garage Cloud Native Toolkit to support continuous integration and continuous delivery (CICD) in today’s agile world.

Today’s blog post is about the awesome IBM Garage Cloud Native Toolkit to support continuous integration and continuous delivery (CICD).

I want to provide a basic overview from my perspective, which I structured in the following sections:

  • Motivation
  • Basic Overview
  • Try it out
  • Open-Source Tools/Technologies
  • What are the major tasks inside an OOTB Tekton pipeline?
  • Summary

#cloud native #cloud native applications #cloud native apps #cloud #ci/cd