1644206740

Solving Wordle using information theory | The Mathematically Optimal Wordle Strategy

An excuse to teach a lesson on information theory and entropy.

To be honest, even after realizing this differed from the proper rule, I stuck with it because it made the computation of the full matrix of word-combination patterns more elegant (and faster), and the normal rule has always slightly bothered me. Of course, it doesn't make any difference for the actual lesson here on entropy, which is the primary goal, and at least as I've gone back tried rerunning some of the models with the correct convention, it doesn't really change the final results.

Contents:
0:00 - What is Wordle?
2:43 - Initial ideas
8:04 - Information theory basics
18:15 - Incorporating word frequencies
27:49 - Final performance

Note, the way I wrote the rules for coloring while doing this project differs slightly from the real Wordle when it comes to multiple letters. For example, suppose in a word like "woody" the first 'o' is correct, hence green, then in the real Wordle that second 'o' would be grey, whereas the way I wrote things the rule as simply any letter which is in the word somewhere, but not in the right position, will be yellow.

Help fund future projects: https://www.patreon.com/3blue1brown​
Special thanks to these supporters: https://3b1b.co/lessons/wordle #thanks

Original wordle site:
https://www.powerlanguage.co.uk/wordle/

Music by Vincent Rubinetti.
https://www.vincentrubinetti.com/

Shannon and von Neumann artwork by Kurt Bruns.

Code for this video:
https://github.com/3b1b/videos/blob/master/_2022/wordle.py

These animations are largely made using a custom python library, manim.  See the FAQ comments here:
https://www.3blue1brown.com/faq
https://github.com/3b1b/manim
https://github.com/ManimCommunity/manim/

You can find code for specific videos and projects here:
https://github.com/3b1b/videos/

1644206740

Solving Wordle using information theory | The Mathematically Optimal Wordle Strategy

An excuse to teach a lesson on information theory and entropy.

To be honest, even after realizing this differed from the proper rule, I stuck with it because it made the computation of the full matrix of word-combination patterns more elegant (and faster), and the normal rule has always slightly bothered me. Of course, it doesn't make any difference for the actual lesson here on entropy, which is the primary goal, and at least as I've gone back tried rerunning some of the models with the correct convention, it doesn't really change the final results.

Contents:
0:00 - What is Wordle?
2:43 - Initial ideas
8:04 - Information theory basics
18:15 - Incorporating word frequencies
27:49 - Final performance

Note, the way I wrote the rules for coloring while doing this project differs slightly from the real Wordle when it comes to multiple letters. For example, suppose in a word like "woody" the first 'o' is correct, hence green, then in the real Wordle that second 'o' would be grey, whereas the way I wrote things the rule as simply any letter which is in the word somewhere, but not in the right position, will be yellow.

Help fund future projects: https://www.patreon.com/3blue1brown​
Special thanks to these supporters: https://3b1b.co/lessons/wordle #thanks

Original wordle site:
https://www.powerlanguage.co.uk/wordle/

Music by Vincent Rubinetti.
https://www.vincentrubinetti.com/

Shannon and von Neumann artwork by Kurt Bruns.

Code for this video:
https://github.com/3b1b/videos/blob/master/_2022/wordle.py

These animations are largely made using a custom python library, manim.  See the FAQ comments here:
https://www.3blue1brown.com/faq
https://github.com/3b1b/manim
https://github.com/ManimCommunity/manim/

You can find code for specific videos and projects here:
https://github.com/3b1b/videos/

1620729846

Why Use WordPress? What Can You Do With WordPress?

Can you use WordPress for anything other than blogging? To your surprise, yes. WordPress is more than just a blogging tool, and it has helped thousands of websites and web applications to thrive. The use of WordPress powers around 40% of online projects, and today in our blog, we would visit some amazing uses of WordPress other than blogging.
What Is The Use Of WordPress?

WordPress is the most popular website platform in the world. It is the first choice of businesses that want to set a feature-rich and dynamic Content Management System. So, if you ask what WordPress is used for, the answer is – everything. It is a super-flexible, feature-rich and secure platform that offers everything to build unique websites and applications. Let’s start knowing them:

1. Multiple Websites Under A Single Installation
WordPress Multisite allows you to develop multiple sites from a single WordPress installation. You can download WordPress and start building websites you want to launch under a single server. Literally speaking, you can handle hundreds of sites from one single dashboard, which now needs applause.
It is a highly efficient platform that allows you to easily run several websites under the same login credentials. One of the best things about WordPress is the themes it has to offer. You can simply download them and plugin for various sites and save space on sites without losing their speed.

2. WordPress Social Network
WordPress can be used for high-end projects such as Social Media Network. If you don’t have the money and patience to hire a coder and invest months in building a feature-rich social media site, go for WordPress. It is one of the most amazing uses of WordPress. Its stunning CMS is unbeatable. And you can build sites as good as Facebook or Reddit etc. It can just make the process a lot easier.
To set up a social media network, you would have to download a WordPress Plugin called BuddyPress. It would allow you to connect a community page with ease and would provide all the necessary features of a community or social media. It has direct messaging, activity stream, user groups, extended profiles, and so much more. You just have to download and configure it.
If BuddyPress doesn’t meet all your needs, don’t give up on your dreams. You can try out WP Symposium or PeepSo. There are also several themes you can use to build a social network.

3. Create A Forum For Your Brand’s Community
Communities are very important for your business. They help you stay in constant connection with your users and consumers. And allow you to turn them into a loyal customer base. Meanwhile, there are many good technologies that can be used for building a community page – the good old WordPress is still the best.
It is the best community development technology. If you want to build your online community, you need to consider all the amazing features you get with WordPress. Plugins such as BB Press is an open-source, template-driven PHP/ MySQL forum software. It is very simple and doesn’t hamper the experience of the website.
Other tools such as wpFoRo and Asgaros Forum are equally good for creating a community blog. They are lightweight tools that are easy to manage and integrate with your WordPress site easily. However, there is only one tiny problem; you need to have some technical knowledge to build a WordPress Community blog page.

4. Shortcodes
Since we gave you a problem in the previous section, we would also give you a perfect solution for it. You might not know to code, but you have shortcodes. Shortcodes help you execute functions without having to code. It is an easy way to build an amazing website, add new features, customize plugins easily. They are short lines of code, and rather than memorizing multiple lines; you can have zero technical knowledge and start building a feature-rich website or application.
There are also plugins like Shortcoder, Shortcodes Ultimate, and the Basics available on WordPress that can be used, and you would not even have to remember the shortcodes.

5. Build Online Stores
If you still think about why to use WordPress, use it to build an online store. You can start selling your goods online and start selling. It is an affordable technology that helps you build a feature-rich eCommerce store with WordPress.
WooCommerce is an extension of WordPress and is one of the most used eCommerce solutions. WooCommerce holds a 28% share of the global market and is one of the best ways to set up an online store. It allows you to build user-friendly and professional online stores and has thousands of free and paid extensions. Moreover as an open-source platform, and you don’t have to pay for the license.
Apart from WooCommerce, there are Easy Digital Downloads, iThemes Exchange, Shopify eCommerce plugin, and so much more available.

6. Security Features
WordPress takes security very seriously. It offers tons of external solutions that help you in safeguarding your WordPress site. While there is no way to ensure 100% security, it provides regular updates with security patches and provides several plugins to help with backups, two-factor authorization, and more.
By choosing hosting providers like WP Engine, you can improve the security of the website. It helps in threat detection, manage patching and updates, and internal security audits for the customers, and so much more.

#use of wordpress #use wordpress for business website #use wordpress for website #what is use of wordpress #why use wordpress #why use wordpress to build a website

1605176864

How to do Problem Solving as a Developer

In this video, I will be talking about problem-solving as a developer.

#problem solving skills #problem solving how to #problem solving strategies #problem solving #developer

1660108440

wordcloud2

R interface to wordcloud for data visualization. Timdream's wordcloud2.js is used in this package.

Original description

Installation

``````devtools::install_github("lchiffon/wordcloud2")
``````

knitr and shiny is support in wordcloud2 package.

Example

``````library(wordcloud2)
wordcloud2(demoFreq, size = 1,shape = 'star')
``````

``````wordcloud2(demoFreq, size = 2, minRotation = -pi/2, maxRotation = -pi/2)
``````

``````wordcloud2(demoFreq, size = 2, minRotation = -pi/6, maxRotation = -pi/6,
rotateRatio = 1)
``````

Chinese version

``````## Sys.setlocale("LC_CTYPE","eng")
wordcloud2(demoFreqC, size = 2, fontFamily = "微软雅黑",
color = "random-light", backgroundColor = "grey")
``````

Example of successfully deploying interactivate clickable wordcloud with special shape on R-shiny

Thanks JacobXPX's contribution to this feature:

Thanks AdamSpannbauer for pointing out the issues.

hover information display are fixed, refering AdeelK93's previous work, thanks!

multiple wordclouds which seperatedly click are supported.

`clickedWordInputId` is changed to be automatically generated by: paste0(outputId, "_clicked_word")).

See sample below for more details:

``````library(shiny)
library(wordcloud2)
shinyApp(
ui=shinyUI(fluidPage(
#using default clicked word input id
wordcloud2Output("my_wc", width = "50%", height = "400px"),
#using custom clicked word input id
wordcloud2Output("my_wc2", width = "50%", height = "400px"),

verbatimTextOutput("print"),
verbatimTextOutput("print2")
)),
server=shinyServer(function(input,output,session){

figPath = system.file("examples/a.png",package = "wordcloud2")

output\$my_wc  = renderWordcloud2(wordcloud2(data = demoFreq, figPath = figPath, size = 0.4,color = "blue"))
output\$my_wc2 = renderWordcloud2(wordcloud2(demoFreq))

#using default clicked word input id
output\$print  = renderPrint(input\$my_wc_clicked_word)
#using custom clicked word input id
output\$print2 = renderPrint(input\$my_wc2_clicked_word)
})
)
``````

run the above code and click refresh, it will work.

contributors

Author: Lchiffon
Source Code: https://github.com/Lchiffon/wordcloud2

1659736920

Mailboxer

This project is based on the need for a private message system for ging / social_stream. Instead of creating our core message system heavily dependent on our development, we are trying to implement a generic and potent messaging gem.

After looking for a good gem to use we noticed the lack of messaging gems and functionality in them. Mailboxer tries to fill this void delivering a powerful and flexible message system. It supports the use of conversations with two or more participants, sending notifications to recipients (intended to be used as system notifications “Your picture has new comments”, “John Doe has updated his document”, etc.), and emailing the messageable model (if configured to do so). It has a complete implementation of a `Mailbox` object for each messageable with `inbox`, `sentbox` and `trash`.

The gem is constantly growing and improving its functionality. As it is used with our parallel development ging / social_stream we are finding and fixing bugs continously. If you want some functionality not supported yet or marked as TODO, you can create an issue to ask for it. It will be great feedback for us, and we will know what you may find useful in the gem.

Mailboxer was born from the great, but outdated, code from lpsergi / acts_as_messageable.

We are now working to make exhaustive documentation and some wiki pages in order to make it even easier to use the gem to its full potential. Please, give us some time if you find something missing or ask for it. You can also find us on the Gitter room for this repo. Join us there to talk.

Installation

``````gem 'mailboxer'
``````

Then run:

``````\$ bundle install
``````

Run install script:

``````\$ rails g mailboxer:install
``````

And don't forget to migrate your database:

``````\$ rake db:migrate
``````

You can also generate email views:

``````\$ rails g mailboxer:views
``````

If upgrading from 0.11.0 to 0.12.0, run the following generators:

``````\$ rails generate mailboxer:namespacing_compatibility
\$ rails generate mailboxer:install -s
``````

``````\$ rake db:migrate
``````

Requirements & Settings

Emails

We are now adding support for sending emails when a Notification or a Message is sent to one or more recipients. You should modify the mailboxer initializer (/config/initializer/mailboxer.rb) to edit these settings:

``````Mailboxer.setup do |config|
#Enables or disables email sending for Notifications and Messages
config.uses_emails = true
#Configures the default `from` address for the email sent for Messages and Notifications of Mailboxer
...
end
``````

You can change the way in which emails are delivered by specifying a custom implementation of notification and message mailers:

``````Mailboxer.setup do |config|
config.message_mailer = CustomMessageMailer
...
end
``````

If you have subclassed the Mailboxer::Notification class, you can specify the mailers using a member method:

``````class NewDocumentNotification < Mailboxer::Notification
def mailer_class
end
end

def mailer_class
end
end
``````

Otherwise, the mailer class will be determined by appending 'Mailer' to the mailable class name.

User identities

Users must have an identity defined by a `name` and an `email`. We must ensure that Messageable models have some specific methods. These methods are:

``````#Returning any kind of identification you want for the model
def name
end
``````
``````#Returning the email address of the model if an email should be sent for this object (Message or Notification).
#If no mail has to be sent, return nil.
def mailboxer_email(object)
#Check if an email should be sent for that object
#if true
return "define_email@on_your.model"
#if false
#return nil
end
``````

These names are explicit enough to avoid colliding with other methods, but as long as you need to change them you can do it by using mailboxer initializer (/config/initializer/mailboxer.rb). Just add or uncomment the following lines:

``````Mailboxer.setup do |config|
# ...
#Configures the methods needed by mailboxer
config.email_method = :mailboxer_email
config.name_method = :name
config.notify_method = :notify
# ...
end
``````

You may change whatever you want or need. For example:

``````config.email_method = :notification_email
config.name_method = :display_name
config.notify_method = :notify_mailboxer
``````

Will use the method `notification_email(object)` instead of `mailboxer_email(object)`, `display_name` for `name` and `notify_mailboxer` for `notify`.

Using default or custom method names, if your model doesn't implement them, Mailboxer will use dummy methods so as to notify you of missing methods rather than crashing.

``````class User < ActiveRecord::Base
acts_as_messageable
end
``````

You are not limited to the User model. You can use Mailboxer in any other model and use it in several different models. If you have ducks and cylons in your application and you want to exchange messages as if they were the same, just add `acts_as_messageable` to each one and you will be able to send duck-duck, duck-cylon, cylon-duck and cylon-cylon messages. Of course, you can extend it for as many classes as you need.

Example:

``````class Duck < ActiveRecord::Base
acts_as_messageable
end
``````
``````class Cylon < ActiveRecord::Base
acts_as_messageable
end
``````

Mailboxer API

Warning for version 0.8.0

Version 0.8.0 sees `Messageable#read` and `Messageable#unread` renamed to `mark_as_(un)read`, and `Receipt#read` and `Receipt#unread` to `is_(un)read`. This may break existing applications, but `read` is a reserved name for Active Record, and the best pratice in this case is simply avoid using it.

How can I send a message?

``````#alfa wants to send a message to beta
alfa.send_message(beta, "Body", "subject")
``````

How can I read the messages of a conversation?

As a messageable, what you receive are receipts, which are associated with the message itself. You should retrieve your receipts for the conversation and get the message associated with them.

This is done this way because receipts save the information about the relation between messageable and the messages: is it read?, is it trashed?, etc.

``````#alfa gets the last conversation (chronologically, the first in the inbox)
conversation = alfa.mailbox.inbox.first

#alfa gets it receipts chronologically ordered.
receipts = conversation.receipts_for alfa

#using the receipts (i.e. in the view)
receipts.each do |receipt|
...
message = receipt.message
...
end
``````

How can I reply to a message?

``````#alfa wants to reply to all in a conversation
#using a receipt

#using a conversation
``````
``````#alfa wants to reply to the sender of a message (and ONLY the sender)
#using a receipt
``````

How can I delete a message from trash?

``````#delete conversations forever for one receipt (still in database)
receipt.mark_as_deleted

#you can mark conversation as deleted for one participant
conversation.mark_as_deleted participant

#Mark the object as deleted for messageable
#Object can be:
#* A Receipt
#* A Conversation
#* A Message
#* An array with any of them
alfa.mark_as_deleted conversation

# get available message for specific user
conversation.messages_for(alfa)
``````

How can I retrieve my conversations?

``````#alfa wants to retrieve all his conversations
alfa.mailbox.conversations

#A wants to retrieve his inbox
alfa.mailbox.inbox

#A wants to retrieve his sent conversations
alfa.mailbox.sentbox

#alfa wants to retrieve his trashed conversations
alfa.mailbox.trash
``````

How can I paginate conversations?

You can use Kaminari to paginate the conversations as normal. Please, make sure you use the last version as mailboxer uses `select('DISTINCT conversations.*')` which was not respected before Kaminari 0.12.4 according to its changelog. Working correctly on Kaminari 0.13.0.

``````#Paginating all conversations using :page parameter and 9 per page
conversations = alfa.mailbox.conversations.page(params[:page]).per(9)

#Paginating received conversations using :page parameter and 9 per page
conversations = alfa.mailbox.inbox.page(params[:page]).per(9)

#Paginating sent conversations using :page parameter and 9 per page
conversations = alfa.mailbox.sentbox.page(params[:page]).per(9)

#Paginating trashed conversations using :page parameter and 9 per page
conversations = alfa.mailbox.trash.page(params[:page]).per(9)
``````

You can take a look at the full documentation for Mailboxer in rubydoc.info.

Do you want to test Mailboxer?

Thanks to Roman Kushnir (@RKushnir) you can test Mailboxer with this sample app.

I need a GUI!

If you need a GUI you should take a look at these links:

Contributors

Author: mailboxer
Source code: https://github.com/mailboxer/mailboxer