FREE URDU/HINDI Lecture 20 Union Operator in Oracle PL/SQL
SQL stands for Structured Query Language. SQL is a scripting language expected to store, control, and inquiry information put away in social databases. The main manifestation of SQL showed up in 1974, when a gathering in IBM built up the principal model of a social database. The primary business social database was discharged by Relational Software later turning out to be Oracle.
Models for SQL exist. In any case, the SQL that can be utilized on every last one of the major RDBMS today is in various flavors. This is because of two reasons:
1. The SQL order standard is genuinely intricate, and it isn’t handy to actualize the whole standard.
2. Every database seller needs an approach to separate its item from others.
Right now, contrasts are noted where fitting.
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As a result of its adaptability, it has become one of the most high-in-demand languages, around the world. As a result, a PL SQL developer’s salary in India is significantly increasing.
Before we talk about PL SQL developer salary in India and the factors that affect a candidate’s chances of being paid higher than the others, let us start by discussing the concept of PL SQL first – how it came into being and how it is different from other programming languages of Oracle.
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When you develop large chunks of T-SQL code with the help of the SQL Server Management Studio tool, it is essential to test the “Live” behavior of your code by making sure that each small piece of code works fine and being able to allocate any error message that may cause a failure within that code.
The easiest way to perform that would be to use the T-SQL debugger feature, which used to be built-in over the SQL Server Management Studio tool. But since the T-SQL debugger feature was removed completely from SQL Server Management Studio 18 and later editions, we need a replacement for that feature. This is because we cannot keep using the old versions of SSMS just to support the T-SQL Debugger feature without “enjoying” the new features and bug fixes that are released in the new SSMS versions.
If you plan to wait for SSMS to bring back the T-SQL Debugger feature, vote in the Put Debugger back into SSMS 18 to ask Microsoft to reintroduce it.
As for me, I searched for an alternative tool for a T-SQL Debugger SSMS built-in feature and found that Devart company rolled out a new T-SQL Debugger feature to version 6.4 of SQL – Complete tool. SQL Complete is an add-in for Visual Studio and SSMS that offers scripts autocompletion capabilities, which help develop and debug your SQL database project.
The SQL Debugger feature of SQL Complete allows you to check the execution of your scripts, procedures, functions, and triggers step by step by adding breakpoints to the lines where you plan to start, suspend, evaluate, step through, and then to continue the execution of your script.
You can download SQL Complete from the dbForge Download page and install it on your machine using a straight-forward installation wizard. The wizard will ask you to specify the installation path for the SQL Complete tool and the versions of SSMS and Visual Studio that you plan to install the SQL Complete on, as an add-in, from the versions that are installed on your machine, as shown below:
Once SQL Complete is fully installed on your machine, the dbForge SQL Complete installation wizard will notify you of whether the installation was completed successfully or the wizard faced any specific issue that you can troubleshoot and fix easily. If there are no issues, the wizard will provide you with an option to open the SSMS tool and start using the SQL Complete tool, as displayed below:
When you open SSMS, you will see a new “Debug” tools menu, under which you can navigate the SQL Debugger feature options. Besides, you will see a list of icons that will be used to control the debug mode of the T-SQL query at the leftmost side of the SSMS tool. If you cannot see the list, you can go to View -> Toolbars -> Debugger to make these icons visible.
During the debugging session, the SQL Debugger icons will be as follows:
The functionality of these icons within the SQL Debugger can be summarized as:
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In this tutorial, we will look at the Packages which can be made in PL/SQL. We will be learning various reasons and the methods one can use to create the packages that are put to use in the industries.
Will also see the various reasons for the creation of packages and the composition of the same.
Let us now dive into the world of packages.
A package is a collection object that contains definitions for a group of related small functions or programs.
It includes various entities like the variables, constants, cursors, exceptions, procedures, and many more. All packages have a specification and a body.
Some of the properties are optional while some are mandatory and the definition is essential. When we define the package the body definition needs to be present and the specifications could be optional.
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Business software giant Oracle is urging customers to update their systems in the October release of its quarterly Critical Patch Update (CPU), which fixes 402 vulnerabilities across various product families.
Well over half (272) of these vulnerabilities open products up to remote exploitation without authentication. That means that the flaw may be exploited over a network without requiring user credentials.
The majority of the flaws are in Oracle Financial Services Applications (53), Oracle MySQL (53), Oracle Communications (52), Oracle Fusion Middleware (46), Oracle Retail Applications (28) and Oracle E-Business Suite (27). But overall, 27 Oracle product families are affected by the flaws. Users can find a patch availability document for each product, available here.
“Oracle continues to periodically receive reports of attempts to maliciously exploit vulnerabilities for which Oracle has already released security patches,” according to the company’s release on Tuesday. “In some instances, it has been reported that attackers have been successful because targeted customers had failed to apply available Oracle patches. Oracle therefore strongly recommends that customers remain on actively-supported versions and apply Critical Patch Update security patches without delay.”
While details of the flaws themselves are scant, two of the critical vulnerabilities disclosed by Oracle rank the highest severity score – 10 out of 10 – on the CVSS scale.
These include a flaw in the self-service analytics component of Oracle Healthcare Foundation, which is a unified healthcare-analytics platform that is part of the Oracle Health Science Applications suite. The flaw (CVE-2020-1953), which can be remotely exploited without requiring any user credentials, requires no user interaction and is easy to exploit, according to Oracle. Affected supported versions include 7.1.1, 7.2.0, 7.2.1 and 7.3.0.
The second severe flaw (CVE-2020-14871) exists in the pluggable authentication module of Oracle Solaris, its enterprise operating system for Oracle Database and Java applications (part of the Oracle Systems risk matrix). The flaw is also remotely exploitable without user credentials, requires no user interaction and is a “low-complexity” attack. Versions 10 and 11 are affected.
Sixty-five of the vulnerabilities also had a CVSS base score of 9.8 (and six had a score of 9.4) out of 10, making them critical in severity.
Oracle did offer some workarounds, advising that for attacks that require certain privileges or access to certain packages, removing the privileges or the ability to access the packages from users that do not need the privileges may help reduce the risk of successful attack. Users can also reduce the risk of successful attack by blocking network protocols required by an attack.
However, both these approaches may break application functionality, and Oracle does not recommend that either approach be considered a long-term solution as neither corrects the underlying problem.
“Due to the threat posed by a successful attack, Oracle strongly recommends that customers apply Critical Patch Update security patches as soon as possible,” according to the company.
Oracle releases its CPUs on the Tuesday closest to the 17th day of January, April, July and October.
Previous quarterly updates have stomped out hundreds of bugs across the company’s product lines, including one in April that patched 405. There are also out-of-band updates; in June for instance, Oracle warned of a critical remote code-execution flaw in its WebLogic Server being actively exploited in the wild.
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