Annalise  Hyatt

Annalise Hyatt

1598705520

Microsoft’s DoWhy is a Cool Framework for Causal Inference

I recently started a new newsletter focus on AI education. TheSequence is a no-BS( meaning no hype, no news etc) AI-focused newsletter that takes 5 minutes to read. The goal is to keep you up to date with machine learning projects, research papers and concepts. Please give it a try by subscribing below:

The human mind has a remarkable ability to associate causes with a specific event. From the outcome of an election to an object dropping on the floor, we are constantly associating chains of events that cause a specific effect. Neuropsychology refers to this cognitive ability as causal reasoning. Computer science and economics study a specific form of causal reasoning known as causal inference which focuses on exploring relationships between two observed variables. Over the years, machine learning has produced many methods for causal inference but they remain mostly difficult to use in mainstream applications. Recently, Microsoft Research open sourced DoWhy, a framework for causal thinking and analysis.

The challenge with causal inference is not that is a new discipline, quite the opposite, but that the current methods represent a very small and simplistic version of causal reasoning. Most models that try to connect causes such as linear regression rely on empirical analysis that makes some assumption about the data. Pure causal inference relies on counterfactual analysis which is a closer representation to how humans make decisions. Imagine a scenario in which you are traveling with your families for vacations to an unknown destination. Before and after the vacation you are wrestling with a few counterfactual questions:

Image for post

Answering these questions is the focus of causal inference. Unlike supervised learning, causal inference depends on estimation of unobserved quantities. This if often known as the “fundamental problem” of causal inference which implies that a model never has a purely objective evaluation through a held-out test set. In our vacation example, you can either observe the effects on going on vacation or not going on vacations but never both. This challenge forces causal inference to make critical assumptions about the data generation process. Traditional machine learning frameworks for causal inference try to take shortcuts around the “fundamental problem” resulting on a very frustrating experience for data scientists and developers.

Introducing DoWhy

Microsoft’s DoWhy_ is a Python-based library for causal inference and analysis that attempts to streamline the adoption of causal reasoning in machine learning applications. Inspired by Judea Pearl’s do-calculus for causal inference, DoWhy combines several causal inference methods under a simple programming model that removes many of the complexities of traditional approaches. Compared to its predecessors, DoWhy makes three key contributions to the implementation of causal inference models._

  1. Provides a principled way of modeling a given problem as a causal graph so that all assumptions explicit.
  2. Provides a unified interface for many popular causal inference methods, combining the two major frameworks of graphical models and potential outcomes.
  3. Automatically tests for the validity of assumptions if possible and assesses robustness of the estimate to violations.

#2020 aug tutorials # overviews #causality #inference #machine learning #microsoft

What is GEEK

Buddha Community

Microsoft’s DoWhy is a Cool Framework for Causal Inference
Annalise  Hyatt

Annalise Hyatt

1598705520

Microsoft’s DoWhy is a Cool Framework for Causal Inference

I recently started a new newsletter focus on AI education. TheSequence is a no-BS( meaning no hype, no news etc) AI-focused newsletter that takes 5 minutes to read. The goal is to keep you up to date with machine learning projects, research papers and concepts. Please give it a try by subscribing below:

The human mind has a remarkable ability to associate causes with a specific event. From the outcome of an election to an object dropping on the floor, we are constantly associating chains of events that cause a specific effect. Neuropsychology refers to this cognitive ability as causal reasoning. Computer science and economics study a specific form of causal reasoning known as causal inference which focuses on exploring relationships between two observed variables. Over the years, machine learning has produced many methods for causal inference but they remain mostly difficult to use in mainstream applications. Recently, Microsoft Research open sourced DoWhy, a framework for causal thinking and analysis.

The challenge with causal inference is not that is a new discipline, quite the opposite, but that the current methods represent a very small and simplistic version of causal reasoning. Most models that try to connect causes such as linear regression rely on empirical analysis that makes some assumption about the data. Pure causal inference relies on counterfactual analysis which is a closer representation to how humans make decisions. Imagine a scenario in which you are traveling with your families for vacations to an unknown destination. Before and after the vacation you are wrestling with a few counterfactual questions:

Image for post

Answering these questions is the focus of causal inference. Unlike supervised learning, causal inference depends on estimation of unobserved quantities. This if often known as the “fundamental problem” of causal inference which implies that a model never has a purely objective evaluation through a held-out test set. In our vacation example, you can either observe the effects on going on vacation or not going on vacations but never both. This challenge forces causal inference to make critical assumptions about the data generation process. Traditional machine learning frameworks for causal inference try to take shortcuts around the “fundamental problem” resulting on a very frustrating experience for data scientists and developers.

Introducing DoWhy

Microsoft’s DoWhy_ is a Python-based library for causal inference and analysis that attempts to streamline the adoption of causal reasoning in machine learning applications. Inspired by Judea Pearl’s do-calculus for causal inference, DoWhy combines several causal inference methods under a simple programming model that removes many of the complexities of traditional approaches. Compared to its predecessors, DoWhy makes three key contributions to the implementation of causal inference models._

  1. Provides a principled way of modeling a given problem as a causal graph so that all assumptions explicit.
  2. Provides a unified interface for many popular causal inference methods, combining the two major frameworks of graphical models and potential outcomes.
  3. Automatically tests for the validity of assumptions if possible and assesses robustness of the estimate to violations.

#2020 aug tutorials # overviews #causality #inference #machine learning #microsoft

Mike  Kozey

Mike Kozey

1656151740

Test_cov_console: Flutter Console Coverage Test

Flutter Console Coverage Test

This small dart tools is used to generate Flutter Coverage Test report to console

How to install

Add a line like this to your package's pubspec.yaml (and run an implicit flutter pub get):

dev_dependencies:
  test_cov_console: ^0.2.2

How to run

run the following command to make sure all flutter library is up-to-date

flutter pub get
Running "flutter pub get" in coverage...                            0.5s

run the following command to generate lcov.info on coverage directory

flutter test --coverage
00:02 +1: All tests passed!

run the tool to generate report from lcov.info

flutter pub run test_cov_console
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
File                                         |% Branch | % Funcs | % Lines | Uncovered Line #s |
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
lib/src/                                     |         |         |         |                   |
 print_cov.dart                              |  100.00 |  100.00 |   88.37 |...,149,205,206,207|
 print_cov_constants.dart                    |    0.00 |    0.00 |    0.00 |    no unit testing|
lib/                                         |         |         |         |                   |
 test_cov_console.dart                       |    0.00 |    0.00 |    0.00 |    no unit testing|
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
 All files with unit testing                 |  100.00 |  100.00 |   88.37 |                   |
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|

Optional parameter

If not given a FILE, "coverage/lcov.info" will be used.
-f, --file=<FILE>                      The target lcov.info file to be reported
-e, --exclude=<STRING1,STRING2,...>    A list of contains string for files without unit testing
                                       to be excluded from report
-l, --line                             It will print Lines & Uncovered Lines only
                                       Branch & Functions coverage percentage will not be printed
-i, --ignore                           It will not print any file without unit testing
-m, --multi                            Report from multiple lcov.info files
-c, --csv                              Output to CSV file
-o, --output=<CSV-FILE>                Full path of output CSV file
                                       If not given, "coverage/test_cov_console.csv" will be used
-t, --total                            Print only the total coverage
                                       Note: it will ignore all other option (if any), except -m
-p, --pass=<MINIMUM>                   Print only the whether total coverage is passed MINIMUM value or not
                                       If the value >= MINIMUM, it will print PASSED, otherwise FAILED
                                       Note: it will ignore all other option (if any), except -m
-h, --help                             Show this help

example run the tool with parameters

flutter pub run test_cov_console --file=coverage/lcov.info --exclude=_constants,_mock
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
File                                         |% Branch | % Funcs | % Lines | Uncovered Line #s |
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
lib/src/                                     |         |         |         |                   |
 print_cov.dart                              |  100.00 |  100.00 |   88.37 |...,149,205,206,207|
lib/                                         |         |         |         |                   |
 test_cov_console.dart                       |    0.00 |    0.00 |    0.00 |    no unit testing|
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
 All files with unit testing                 |  100.00 |  100.00 |   88.37 |                   |
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|

report for multiple lcov.info files (-m, --multi)

It support to run for multiple lcov.info files with the followings directory structures:
1. No root module
<root>/<module_a>
<root>/<module_a>/coverage/lcov.info
<root>/<module_a>/lib/src
<root>/<module_b>
<root>/<module_b>/coverage/lcov.info
<root>/<module_b>/lib/src
...
2. With root module
<root>/coverage/lcov.info
<root>/lib/src
<root>/<module_a>
<root>/<module_a>/coverage/lcov.info
<root>/<module_a>/lib/src
<root>/<module_b>
<root>/<module_b>/coverage/lcov.info
<root>/<module_b>/lib/src
...
You must run test_cov_console on <root> dir, and the report would be grouped by module, here is
the sample output for directory structure 'with root module':
flutter pub run test_cov_console --file=coverage/lcov.info --exclude=_constants,_mock --multi
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
File                                         |% Branch | % Funcs | % Lines | Uncovered Line #s |
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
lib/src/                                     |         |         |         |                   |
 print_cov.dart                              |  100.00 |  100.00 |   88.37 |...,149,205,206,207|
lib/                                         |         |         |         |                   |
 test_cov_console.dart                       |    0.00 |    0.00 |    0.00 |    no unit testing|
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
 All files with unit testing                 |  100.00 |  100.00 |   88.37 |                   |
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
File - module_a -                            |% Branch | % Funcs | % Lines | Uncovered Line #s |
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
lib/src/                                     |         |         |         |                   |
 print_cov.dart                              |  100.00 |  100.00 |   88.37 |...,149,205,206,207|
lib/                                         |         |         |         |                   |
 test_cov_console.dart                       |    0.00 |    0.00 |    0.00 |    no unit testing|
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
 All files with unit testing                 |  100.00 |  100.00 |   88.37 |                   |
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
File - module_b -                            |% Branch | % Funcs | % Lines | Uncovered Line #s |
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
lib/src/                                     |         |         |         |                   |
 print_cov.dart                              |  100.00 |  100.00 |   88.37 |...,149,205,206,207|
lib/                                         |         |         |         |                   |
 test_cov_console.dart                       |    0.00 |    0.00 |    0.00 |    no unit testing|
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|
 All files with unit testing                 |  100.00 |  100.00 |   88.37 |                   |
---------------------------------------------|---------|---------|---------|-------------------|

Output to CSV file (-c, --csv, -o, --output)

flutter pub run test_cov_console -c --output=coverage/test_coverage.csv

#### sample CSV output file:
File,% Branch,% Funcs,% Lines,Uncovered Line #s
lib/,,,,
test_cov_console.dart,0.00,0.00,0.00,no unit testing
lib/src/,,,,
parser.dart,100.00,100.00,97.22,"97"
parser_constants.dart,100.00,100.00,100.00,""
print_cov.dart,100.00,100.00,82.91,"29,49,51,52,171,174,177,180,183,184,185,186,187,188,279,324,325,387,388,389,390,391,392,393,394,395,398"
print_cov_constants.dart,0.00,0.00,0.00,no unit testing
All files with unit testing,100.00,100.00,86.07,""

Installing

Use this package as an executable

Install it

You can install the package from the command line:

dart pub global activate test_cov_console

Use it

The package has the following executables:

$ test_cov_console

Use this package as a library

Depend on it

Run this command:

With Dart:

 $ dart pub add test_cov_console

With Flutter:

 $ flutter pub add test_cov_console

This will add a line like this to your package's pubspec.yaml (and run an implicit dart pub get):

dependencies:
  test_cov_console: ^0.2.2

Alternatively, your editor might support dart pub get or flutter pub get. Check the docs for your editor to learn more.

Import it

Now in your Dart code, you can use:

import 'package:test_cov_console/test_cov_console.dart';

example/lib/main.dart

import 'package:flutter/material.dart';

void main() {
  runApp(MyApp());
}

class MyApp extends StatelessWidget {
  // This widget is the root of your application.
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return MaterialApp(
      title: 'Flutter Demo',
      theme: ThemeData(
        // This is the theme of your application.
        //
        // Try running your application with "flutter run". You'll see the
        // application has a blue toolbar. Then, without quitting the app, try
        // changing the primarySwatch below to Colors.green and then invoke
        // "hot reload" (press "r" in the console where you ran "flutter run",
        // or simply save your changes to "hot reload" in a Flutter IDE).
        // Notice that the counter didn't reset back to zero; the application
        // is not restarted.
        primarySwatch: Colors.blue,
        // This makes the visual density adapt to the platform that you run
        // the app on. For desktop platforms, the controls will be smaller and
        // closer together (more dense) than on mobile platforms.
        visualDensity: VisualDensity.adaptivePlatformDensity,
      ),
      home: MyHomePage(title: 'Flutter Demo Home Page'),
    );
  }
}

class MyHomePage extends StatefulWidget {
  MyHomePage({Key? key, required this.title}) : super(key: key);

  // This widget is the home page of your application. It is stateful, meaning
  // that it has a State object (defined below) that contains fields that affect
  // how it looks.

  // This class is the configuration for the state. It holds the values (in this
  // case the title) provided by the parent (in this case the App widget) and
  // used by the build method of the State. Fields in a Widget subclass are
  // always marked "final".

  final String title;

  @override
  _MyHomePageState createState() => _MyHomePageState();
}

class _MyHomePageState extends State<MyHomePage> {
  int _counter = 0;

  void _incrementCounter() {
    setState(() {
      // This call to setState tells the Flutter framework that something has
      // changed in this State, which causes it to rerun the build method below
      // so that the display can reflect the updated values. If we changed
      // _counter without calling setState(), then the build method would not be
      // called again, and so nothing would appear to happen.
      _counter++;
    });
  }

  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    // This method is rerun every time setState is called, for instance as done
    // by the _incrementCounter method above.
    //
    // The Flutter framework has been optimized to make rerunning build methods
    // fast, so that you can just rebuild anything that needs updating rather
    // than having to individually change instances of widgets.
    return Scaffold(
      appBar: AppBar(
        // Here we take the value from the MyHomePage object that was created by
        // the App.build method, and use it to set our appbar title.
        title: Text(widget.title),
      ),
      body: Center(
        // Center is a layout widget. It takes a single child and positions it
        // in the middle of the parent.
        child: Column(
          // Column is also a layout widget. It takes a list of children and
          // arranges them vertically. By default, it sizes itself to fit its
          // children horizontally, and tries to be as tall as its parent.
          //
          // Invoke "debug painting" (press "p" in the console, choose the
          // "Toggle Debug Paint" action from the Flutter Inspector in Android
          // Studio, or the "Toggle Debug Paint" command in Visual Studio Code)
          // to see the wireframe for each widget.
          //
          // Column has various properties to control how it sizes itself and
          // how it positions its children. Here we use mainAxisAlignment to
          // center the children vertically; the main axis here is the vertical
          // axis because Columns are vertical (the cross axis would be
          // horizontal).
          mainAxisAlignment: MainAxisAlignment.center,
          children: <Widget>[
            Text(
              'You have pushed the button this many times:',
            ),
            Text(
              '$_counter',
              style: Theme.of(context).textTheme.headline4,
            ),
          ],
        ),
      ),
      floatingActionButton: FloatingActionButton(
        onPressed: _incrementCounter,
        tooltip: 'Increment',
        child: Icon(Icons.add),
      ), // This trailing comma makes auto-formatting nicer for build methods.
    );
  }
}

Author: DigitalKatalis
Source Code: https://github.com/DigitalKatalis/test_cov_console 
License: BSD-3-Clause license

#flutter #dart #test 

Top Microsoft big data solutions Companies | Best Microsoft big data Developers

An extensively researched list of top Microsoft big data analytics and solution with ratings & reviews to help find the best Microsoft big data solutions development companies around the world.
An exclusive list of Microsoft Big Data consulting and solution providers, after examining various factors of expert big data analytics firms and found the equivalent matches that boast the ace qualities with proven fineness in data analytics. For business growth and enterprise acceleration getting inputs from the whole data of the organization have become necessary, thus we bring to you the most trustworthy Microsoft Big Data consultants and solutions providers for your assistance.
Let’s take a look at the List of Best Microsoft big data solutions Companies.

#microsoft big data solutions development companies #microsoft big data analytics and solution #microsoft big data consultants #microsoft big data developers #microsoft big data #microsoft big data solution providers

Mikel  Okuneva

Mikel Okuneva

1603785600

Microsoft’s Turing Language Model Can Now Interpret 94 Languages

Recently, the developers at Microsoft detailed the Turing multilingual language model (T-ULRv2) and announced that the AI model has achieved the top rank at the Google XTREME public leaderboard.

The Cross-lingual TRansfer Evaluation of Multilingual Encoders, also known as XTREME benchmark includes 40 typologically diverse languages, which span 12 language families. XTREME also consists of nine tasks that require reasoning about different levels of syntax as well as semantics.

The Turing multilingual language model (T-ULRv2) is created by the Microsoft Turing team in collaboration with Microsoft Research. The model is also known to beat the previous best from Alibaba (VECO) by 3.5 points in average score.


Saurabh Tiwary, Vice President & Distinguished Engineer at Microsoft mentioned that in order to achieve this milestone, the team leveraged StableTune, which is a multilingual fine-tuning technique based on stability training along with the pre-trained model. The other popular language models on the XTREME leaderboard include XLM-R, mBERT, XLM, among others. Ming Zhou, Assistant Managing Director at Microsoft Research Asia, stated in a blog post that the Microsoft Turing team has long believed that language representation should be universal. Also, this kind of approach would allow for the trained model to be fine-tuned in one language and applied to a different one in a zero-shot fashion.

For a few years now, unsupervised pre-trained language modelling has become the backbone of all-natural language processing (NLP) models, with transformer-based models at the heart of all such innovation. According to Zhou, this type of models has the capability to overcome the challenge of requiring labelled data to train the model in every language.

How T-ULRv2 Works

The Turing multilingual language model (T-ULRv2) model is the latest cross-lingual innovation at the tech giant. It incorporates the InfoXLM (Information-Theoretic Framework for Cross-Lingual Language Model Pre-Training),which is a cross-lingual pre-trained model for language understanding and generation to create a universal model that represents 94 languages in the same vector space.

TT-ULRv2 is a transformer architecture with 24 layers and 1,024 hidden states. The architecture also includes a total of 550 million parameters. The pre-training of this model includes three different tasks, which are multilingual masked language modelling (MMLM), translation language modelling (TLM) and cross-lingual contrast (XLCo).


#developers corner #google xtreme #microsoft #microsoft ai #microsoft ai model #microsoft turing nlg #t-ulrv2 model #turing multilingual language model

Best Android Mobile App Development Frameworks

Are you looking for the best Android app development frameworks? Get the best Android app development frameworks that help to build the top-notch Android mobile app.

For more info:
Website: https://www.appcluesinfotech.com/
Email: info@appcluesinfotech.com
Call: +1-978-309-9910

#best android mobile app development frameworks #top mobile app development frameworks #android app development frameworks #top frameworks for android app development #most popular android app development frameworks #app development frameworks