Getting started with Node js Modules

Getting started with Node js Modules

Module in Node.js is a simple or complex functionality organized in single or multiple JavaScript files which can be reused throughout the Node.js application.

Each module in Node.js has its own context, so it cannot interfere with other modules or pollute global scope. Also, each module can be placed in a separate .js file under a separate folder.

Node.js implements CommonJS modules standard. CommonJS is a group of volunteers who define JavaScript standards for web server, desktop, and console application.

You may also like: Deep Dive Into Node.js Module Architecture

Node.js includes three types of modules:

  • Core Modules
  • Local Modules
  • Third Party Modules

Each module of any type exposes a public API that the programmer can use after the module is imported into the current script. To use a module of any type, you have to use the require function like this:

var module = require('module_name');

This will import a core module or a module installed by NPM. The require function returns an object that represents the JavaScript API exposed by the module. Depending on the module, that object can be any JavaScript value — a function, an object with some properties that can be functions, an array, or any other type of JavaScript object.

The CommonJS module system is the only way you can share objects or functions among files in Node. For a sufficiently complex application you should divide some of the classes, objects, or functions into reusable well-defined modules. To the module user, a module exposes exactly what you specify it to.

In Node, files and modules are in one-to-one correspondence, which you can see in the following example. Start by creating a file named circle.js, which just exports the Circle constructor:

function Circle(x, y, r) {

  function r_squared() {
    return Math.pow(r, 2);

  function area() {
    return Math.PI * r_squared();

  return {
    area: area

module.exports = Circle;

The important bit here lies on the last line, where you define what is to be exported by the module. module is a variable that represents the module you are currently in. module.exports is the object that the module will export to other scripts that require this module. You can export any object. In this case, you are just exporting the Circle constructor function, which a module user can use to create fully functional Circle instances.

you can also export more complex objects. module.exports is initialized with an empty object, which you can populate with the attributes you want to export. For instance, you can devise a module that exports a set of functions:

function printA() {

function printB() {

function printC() {

module.exports.printA = printA;
module.exports.printB = printB;
module.exports.pi = Math.PI;

This module exports two functions (printA and printB) and a number (pi). A client of this module would look something like this:

var myModule2 = require('./myModule2');
myModule2.printA(); // -> A
myModule2.printB(); // -> B
console.log(myModule2.pi); // -> 3.141592653589793

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