Using BLoC in Flutter Redux

Using BLoC in Flutter Redux

After using flutter for some time, it seems there are no the go-to way to handle ... Bloc /// /// like reducers in redux, but don't return a new state.

State management is a huge issue for the Flutter community. Coming from an Angular background I got accustomed to using Redux and therefore it made sense for me to follow the same pattern in Flutter. I also used services to encapsulate business logic and expose the state to the UI. It was a good exercise for me to try and emulate the same architecture in Flutter, especially with the emerging of the BLoC pattern.

The following article is my personal take on the matter, I don’t claim it to be the only way of achieving this architecture.

The BLoC pattern

The Business Logic Component pattern or as it is widely known the BLoC pattern is an architecture designed to decouple business logic from the view. It has helped teams to have a single codebase in regards to their business logic and expose them in various frameworks, most notable AngularDart and Flutter

In the BLoC pattern, you create a component that interfaces with the view only through Streams. This goes for all interaction either coming into the BLoC or coming out of it. The outgoing communication is straight forward as you only need to wrap your view Widget in a StreamBuilder and listen to the values coming out of the exposed outgoing stream.

class ExampleBloc {
	 final StreamController<int> _outController =  StreamController<int>();
	  
	  int get out => _outController.stream;
	}
	

	...
	  
	StreamBuilder<int>(
	  stream: exampleBloc.out
	  builder: (context, snapshot) {
	    if (!snapshot.hasData) {
	      return Container();
	    }
	    final out = snapshot.data;
	    return Text('$out');
	  }
	)

For the incoming communication, you have to also expose a Sink in which the view will push events from the user. In your BLoC, you subscribe to the incoming Stream and delegate the action either to a private method or a Repository, if it is about fetching data.

class ExampleBloc {
	 int counter = 0;
	 final StreamController<int> _incrementController =  StreamController<int>();
	 final StreamController<int> _outController =  StreamController<int>();
	 
	 ExampleBloc() {
	    _outController.sink.add(counter);
	    _incrementController.listen(_incrementBy);
	  }
	 
	 /// Do the actions or delegate in a repository
	 void _incrementBy(int value) {
	   counter += value;
	   //Notify subscribers
	   _outController.sink.add(counter);
	 }
	  
	  int get out => _outController.stream;
	  int get incrementBy => _incrementController.sink;
	}
	

	...
	  
	FloatingActionButton(
	  onPressed: () => exampleBloc.incrementBy.add(1),
	  tooltip: 'Increment By 1',
	)

What remains to be tackled is the state keeping as we really do not want to keep it in our BLoC.

Redux Store with BLoC

As we mentioned before the BLoC should not be responsible to keep the application’s state. It should delegate this responsibility to some other component dedicated to doing state management. In this example, we will use the Redux Store.

The BLoC could funnel events coming from the Sink to the Store as Actions and connect the application state from the Store to the Stream so that the Widget gets it.

/// The action to be dispatched from the BLoC to the Store
	class IncrementByAction {
	  final int value;
	  const IncrementByAction(this.value);
	}
	

	/// The state of the application as it is managed by the Store
	class AppState {
	  final int counter;
	  
	  const AppState(this.counter);
	  
	  factory AppState.initial() => AppState(0);
	  
	  AppState incrementBy(int value) => AppState(counter+value);
	}
	

	final store = new Store<AppState>(
	  TypedReducer<AppState, ChangeLocaleAction>((AppState state, IncrementByAction action) => state.incrementBy(action.value)),
	  initialState: AppState.initial(),
	  middleware: [],
	);
	

	/// The BLoC delegates all state management to the Store
	class ExampleBloc {
	 final Store<AppState> store;
	 final StreamController<int> _incrementController =  StreamController<int>();
	 
	 ExampleBloc(this.store) {
	   _incrementController.listen(_incrementBy);
	 }
	  
	 /// Dispatch the Store Action to change the AppState
	 void _incrementBy(int value) {
	   store.dispatch(IncrementByAction(value));
	 }
	  
	  /// To connect the state from the store to the ougoing stream of the BLoC subscribe to store.onChange
	  int get out => this.store.onChange.map((AppState state) => state.counter);
	  int get incrementBy => _incrementController.sink;
	}
	/*
	 * No changes are needed in the UI as the BLoC's api did not change.
	 */
	...
	FloatingActionButton(
	  onPressed: () => exampleBloc.incrementBy.add(1),
	  tooltip: 'Increment By 1',
	)
	...
	StreamBuilder<int>(
	  stream: exampleBloc.out
	  builder: (context, snapshot) {
	    if (!snapshot.hasData) {
	      return Container();
	    }
	    final out = snapshot.data;
	    return Text('$out');
	  }
	)

The obvious benefit of using this approach is that if you do not have to change the BLoC’s API and thus no change in the UI (Widgets) is needed.

However, there is another approach that kind of breaks the BLoC all Streams contract. It uses methods for actions and getters for state subscribing. It is all made possible by the use of StoreConnector.

/// The action to be dispatched from the BLoC to the Store
	class IncrementByAction {
	  final int value;
	  const IncrementByAction(this.value);
	}
	

	/// The state of the application as it is managed by the Store
	class AppState {
	  final int counter;
	  
	  const AppState(this.counter);
	  
	  factory AppState.initial() => AppState(0);
	  
	  AppState incrementBy(int value) => AppState(counter+value);
	}
	

	final store = new Store<AppState>(
	  TypedReducer<AppState, ChangeLocaleAction>((AppState state, IncrementByAction action) => state.incrementBy(action.value)),
	  initialState: AppState.initial(),
	  middleware: [],
	);
	

	/// The BLoC acts like a proxy to the store
	class ExampleBloc {
	 final Store<AppState> store;
	 
	 ExampleBloc(this.store);
	  
	  /// To connect the state from the store to the ougoing stream of the BLoC subscribe to store.onChange
	  int get counter => this.store.state.counter;
	  void incrementBy(int value) {
	      store.dispatch(IncrementByAction(value));
	  }
	}
	...
	StoreConnector<AppState, DebtorBloc>(
	    converter: (store) => ExampleBloc(store),
	    builder: (BuildContext context, ExampleBloc bloc) {
	      return FloatingActionButton(
	        onPressed: () => exampleBloc.incrementBy(1),
	        tooltip: 'Increment By 1',
	      );
	    }
	)
	...
	StoreConnector<AppState, DebtorBloc>(
	    converter: (store) => ExampleBloc(store),
	    builder: (BuildContext context, ExampleBloc bloc) {
	      final out = bloc.counter;
	      return Text('$out');
	    }
	)

The BLoC pattern is a great way to encapsulate business logic and Redux is a great state management paradigm. Combining the two of them can create a clean logic layer in your application, which is going to help you tremendously in creating clean UI code.

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When it comes to Hybrid Mobile App Development Framework, Flutter is gaining the momentum. And, we as top development company don't hesitate to say that it is going to be future cross-platform mobile app development. Though there are few other frameworks available for cross-platform and hybrid mobile app development, Flutter is an increasing trend. In fact, intellectuals are comparing Flutter vs. React Native vs. Ionic and finding the best solutions out of them. Some of the top companies have already adapted Flutter, and they are very positive about it.


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Flutter is the future of mobile app development 👏👏👏

Flutter is a new mobile app SDK to help developers and designers build modern mobile apps for iOS and Android.” The modern, reactive ...🎁🎁🎁🎁

Flutter is a new mobile app SDK to help developers and designers build modern mobile apps for iOS and Android.” The modern, reactive ...

I dabbled a bit in Android and iOS development quite a few years back using Java and Objective-C. After spending about a month working with both of them, I decided to move on. I just couldn’t get into it.

But recently, I learned about Flutter and decided to give mobile app development another shot. I instantly fell in love with it as it made developing multi-platform apps a ton of fun. Since learning about it, I’ve created an app and a library using it. Flutter seems to be a very promising step forward and I’d like to explain a few different reasons why I believe this.

Powered by Dart

Flutter uses the Google-developed Dart language. If you’ve used Java before, you’ll be fairly familiar with the syntax of Dart as they are quite similar. Besides the syntax, Dart is a fairly different language.

I’m not going to be talking about Dart in depth as it’s a bit out of scope, but I’d like to discuss one of the most helpful features in my opinion. This feature being support for asynchronous operations. Not only does Dart support it, but it makes it exceptionally easy.

This is something you’ll most likely be using throughout all of your Flutter applications if you’re doing IO or other time-consuming operations such as querying a database. Without asynchronous operations, any time-consuming operations will cause the program to freeze up until they complete. To prevent this, Dart provides us with the async and await keywords which allow our program to continue execution while waiting for these longer operations to complete.

Let's take a look at a couple of examples: one without asynchronous operations and one with.

// Without asynchronous operations
	import 'dart:async';
	

	main() {
	    longOperation();
	    printSomething();
	}
	

	longOperation() {
	    Duration delay = Duration(seconds: 3);
	    Future.delayed(delay);
	    print('Waited 3 seconds to print this and blocked execution.');
	}
	

	printSomething() {
	    print('That sure took a while!');
	}

And the output:

3 seconds to print this and blocked execution.
That sure took a while!

This isn’t ideal. No one wants to use an app that freezes up when it executes long operations. So let’s modify this a bit and make use of the async and await keywords.

// With asynchronous operations
	import 'dart:async';
	

	main() {
	    longOperation();
	    printSomething();
	}
	

	Future<void> longOperation() async {
	    var retVal = await runLongOperation();
	

	    print(retVal);
	}
	

	const retString = 'Waited 3 seconds to return this without blocking execution.';
	Duration delay = Duration(seconds: 3);
	

	Future<String> runLongOperation() => Future.delayed(delay, () => retString);
	

	printSomething() {
	    print('I printed right away!');
	}

And the output once again:

I printed right away!
Waited 3 seconds to return this without blocking execution.

Thanks to asynchronous operations, we’re able to execute code that takes a while to complete without blocking the execution of the rest of our code.

Write Once, Run on Android and iOS

Developing mobile apps can take a lot of time considering you need to use a different codebase for Android and iOS. That is unless you use an SDK like Flutter, where you have a single codebase that allows you to build your app for both operating systems. Not only that, but you can run them completely natively. This means things such as scrolling and navigation, to name a few, act just like they should for the OS being used.

To keep with the theme of simplicity, as long as you have a device or simulator running, Flutter makes building and running your app for testing as simple as clicking a button.

UI Development

UI development is one of those things that I almost never look forward to. I’m more of a backend developer, so when it comes to working on something that is heavily dependent on it, I want something simple. This is where Flutter shines in my eyes.

UI is created by combining different widgets together and modifying them to fit the look of your app. You have near full control over how these widgets display, so you’ll always end up with exactly what you’re looking for. For laying out the UI, you have widgets such as Row, Column, and Container. For content, you have widgets like Text and RaisedButton. This is only a few of the widgets Flutter offers, there are a lot more. Using these widgets, we can build a very simple UI:

@override
	Widget build(BuildContext context) {
	    return Scaffold(
	        appBar: AppBar(
	            title: Text('Flutter App'),
	            centerTitle: true,
	            elevation: 0,
	        ),
	        body: Row(
	            mainAxisAlignment: MainAxisAlignment.center,
	            children: [
	                Column(
	                    mainAxisAlignment: MainAxisAlignment.center,
	                    children: [
	                        Container(
	                            child: Text('Some text'),
	                        ),
	                        Container(
	                            child: RaisedButton(
	                                onPressed: () {
	                                    // Do something on press
	                                },
	                                child: Text('PRESS ME'),
	                            ),
	                        ),
	                    ],
	                ),
	            ],
	        ),
	    );
	}

Flutter has more tricks up its sleeve that makes theming your app a breeze. You could go through and manually change the fonts, colors, and looks for everything one by one, but that takes way too long. Instead, Flutter provides us with something called ThemeData that allows us to set values for colors, fonts, input fields, and much more. This feature is great for keeping the look of your app consistent.

theme: ThemeData(
	    brightness: Brightness.dark,
	    canvasColor: Colors.grey[900],
	    primarySwatch: Colors.teal,
	    primaryColor: Colors.teal[500],
	    fontFamily: 'Helvetica',
	    primaryTextTheme: Typography.whiteCupertino.copyWith(
	        display4: TextStyle(
	            color: Colors.white,
	            fontSize: 36,
	        ),
	    ),
	),

With this ThemeData, we set the apps colors, font family, and some text styles. Everything besides the text styles will automatically be applied app-wide. Text styles have to be set manually for each text widget, but it's still simple:

child: Text(
	   'Some text',
	   style: Theme.of(context).primaryTextTheme.display4,
),

To make things even more efficient, Flutter can hot reload apps so you don’t need to restart it every time you make a change to the UI. You can now make a change, save it, then see the change within a second or so.

Libraries

Flutter provides a lot of great features out of the box, but there are times when you need a bit more than it offers. This is no problem at all considering the extensive number of libraries available for Dart and Flutter. Interested in putting ads in your app? There’s a library for that. Want new widgets? There are libraries for that.

If you’re more of a do-it-yourselfer, make your own library and share it with the rest of the community in no time at all. Adding libraries to your project is simple and can be done by adding a single line to your pubspec.yaml file. For example, if you wanted to add the sqflite library:

dependencies:
 flutter:
  sdk: flutter
 sqflite: ^1.0.0

After adding it to the file, run flutter packages get and you're good to go. Libraries make developing Flutter apps a breeze and save a lot of time during development.

Backend Development

Most apps nowadays depend on some sort of data, and that data needs to be stored somewhere so it can be displayed and worked with later on. So keeping this in mind when looking to create apps with a new SDK, such as Flutter, is important.

Once again, Flutter apps are made using Dart, and Dart is great when it comes to backend development. I’ve talked a lot about simplicity in this article, and backend development with Dart and Flutter is no exception to this. It’s incredibly simple to create data-driven apps, for beginners and experts alike, but this simplicity by no means equates to a lack of quality.

To tie this in with the previous section, libraries are available so you can work with the database of your choosing. Using the sqflite library, we can be up and running with an SQLite database fairly quickly. And thanks to singletons, we can access the database and query it from practically anywhere without needing to recreate an object every single time.

class DBProvider {
	    // Singleton
	    DBProvider._();
	

	    // Static object to provide us access from practically anywhere
	    static final DBProvider db = DBProvider._();
	    Database _database;
	

	    Future<Database> get database async {
	        if (_database != null) {
	            return _database;
	        }
	

	        _database = await initDB();
	        return _database;
	    }
	

	    initDB() async {
	        // Retrieve your app's directory, then create a path to a database for your app.
	        Directory documentsDir = await getApplicationDocumentsDirectory();
	        String path = join(documentsDir.path, 'money_clip.db');
	

	        return await openDatabase(path, version: 1, onOpen: (db) async {
	            // Do something when the database is opened
	        }, onCreate: (Database db, int version) async {
	            // Do something, such as creating tables, when the database is first created.
	            // If the database already exists, this will not be called.
	        }
	    }
	}

After retrieving data from a database, you can convert that to an object using a model. Or if you want to store an object in the database, you can convert it to JSON using the same model.

class User {
	    int id;
	    String name;
	

	    User({
	        this.id,
	        this.name,
	    });
	

	    factory User.fromJson(Map<String, dynamic> json) => new User(
	        id: json['id'],
	        name: json['name'],
	    );
	

	    Map<String, dynamic> toJson() => {
	        'id': id,
	        'name': name,
	    };
}

This data isn’t all that useful without a way to display it to the user. This is where Flutter comes in with widgets such as the FutureBuilder or StreamBuilder. If you're interested in a more in-depth look at creating data-driven apps using Flutter, SQLite, and other technologies, I encourage you to check out the article I wrote on that:

https://medium.com/@erigitic/using-streams-blocs-and-sqlite-in-flutter-2e59e1f7cdce

Final Thoughts

With Flutter, the possibilities are practically endless, so even super extensive apps can be created with ease. If you develop mobile apps and have yet to give Flutter a try, I highly recommend you do as I’m sure you’ll fall in love with it as well. After using Flutter for quite a few months, I think it’s safe to say that it’s the future of mobile development. If not, it’s definitely a step in the right direction.