Using React and XState to Build a Sign In Form

How to do login form validation in Reactjs

How to do login form validation in Reactjs

This is a step-by-step tutorial that will show you how to do basic login form. Want to learn how to do login form validation in Reactjs?

For almost every login form that you create, you will want some sort of validation. In Reactjs, working with and validating forms can be a bit verbose, so in this article we are going to use a package called Formik to help us out!

Table of Contents

  • Creating the Reactjs Project
  • Installing Necessary Packages
  • Creating the Validated Form Component
  • Display the Login Form
  • Adding Validation Messages Logic
  • Displaying Validation/Error Messages
  • Test it Out
  • Conclusion


TLDR

  • Create a Reactjs project
  • Add the Formik (and Yup) packages
  • Customize the Formik component with an onSubmit callback and a validate function for error messages
  • then display those error messages to the user.> View the final code on CodeSandbox!

Here's a sneak peak at what we are going to create.


Creating the Reactjs Project

For this demo, I'll be using CodeSandbox. You can use CodeSandbox as well or use your local environment. Totally up to you.

Regardless of what you use for this demo, you need to start with a new React app using Create React App. In CodeSandbox, I'm going to choose to do just that.


Installing Necessary Packages

Now that we have our initial project created, we need to install three packages.

  • Formik - makes handling validation, error messages, and form submission easier
  • Email-validator - tiny package to validate emails (I hope this one is self-explanatory : )
  • Yup - schema validator that is commonly used in conjuntion with Formik

Formik

In your terminal, you'll need to install Formik.

npm install Formik

I'll do the same in the CodeSandbox dependency GUI.


Email-Validator

Now install email-validator.

npm install email-validator

Again installing from the CodeSandbox GUI.


Yup


npm install Yup


And again in CodeSandbox.


Creating the Validated Form Component

Now, we can start to stub out our ValidatedFormComponent. For now, we just want to create the basics and import it into the root file in the app to see it get displayed.

  • Create new functional component
  • Add dummy display content
  • Import in index.js

So, create a new file in your src **directory called ValidatedLoginForm.js. **Inside of that file, add the basic code for a functional component.

import React from "react";
const ValidatedLoginForm = () => (
  <div>
    <h1>Validated Form Component</h1>
  </div>
);

export default ValidatedLoginForm;

Then, include it in your index.js file.

function App() {
return (
<div className="App">
<ValidatedLoginForm />
</div>
);
}

and you should see it displayed.

Now, let's start with the Formik stuff. First, import Formik, Email-Valiator, and Yup in your new component.

import { Formik } from "formik";
import _ as EmailValidator from "email-validator";
import _ as Yup from "yup";

Now, let's stub out the Formik tag with initial values. Think of initial values as setting your state initially.

You'll also need an onSubmit callback. This callback will take two parameters, *values and an object that we can destructure. The values represented the input values from your form. I'm adding some dummy code here to simulate an async login call, then logging out what the values are.

In the callback, I'm also calling the setSubmitting function that was destructured from the second parameters. This will allow us to enable/disable the submit button while the asynchronous login call is happening.

<Formik
initialValues={{ email: "", password: "" }}
onSubmit={(values, { setSubmitting }) => {
setTimeout(() => {
console.log("Logging in", values);
setSubmitting(false);
}, 500);
}}
>
<h1>Validated Login Form</h1>
</Formik>

Render Props

The Formik component uses render props to supply certain variables and functions to the form that we create. If you're not very familiar with render props, I would take a second to check out Render Props Explained.

In short, render props are used to pass properties to children elements of a component. In this case, Formik will pass properties to our form code, which is the child. Notice that I'm using destructuring to get a reference to several specific variables and functions.

    { props => {
const {
values,
touched,
errors,
isSubmitting,
handleChange,
handleBlur,
handleSubmit
} = props;
return (
<div>
<h1>Validated Login Form</h1>
</div>
);
}}
Display the Login Form

Now, we can actually start to write the code to display the form. For what it's worth, in the finished CodeSandbox, I also created a LoginForm.js *component to show how basic login forms are handled from scratch. You can also use that as a reference for the form we are going to add now.

The form is pretty simple with two inputs (email and password), labels for each, and a submit button.

{ props => {
const {
values,
touched,
errors,
isSubmitting,
handleChange,
handleBlur,
handleSubmit
} = props;
return (
<form onSubmit={handleSubmit}>
<label htmlFor="email">Email</label>
<input name="email" type="text" placeholder="Enter your email" />

      &lt;label htmlFor="email"&gt;Password&lt;/label&gt;
      &lt;input
        name="password"
        type="password"
        placeholder="Enter your password"
      /&gt;
      &lt;button type="submit" &gt;
        Login
      &lt;/button&gt;
    &lt;/form&gt;
  );
}}

Notice that the *onSubmit *is calling the *handleSubmit *from the props.

I mentioned earleir that we could disable our submit button while the user is already attempting to login. We can add that small change now by using the *isSubmitting *property that we destructured from props above.

  <button type="submit" disabled={isSubmitting}>
Login
</button>

I would recommend adding the CSS from the finished CodeSandbox as well. Otherwise you won't get the full effect. You can copy the below css into your styles.css file.

.App {
font-family: sans-serif;
}

h1 {
text-align: center;
}

form {
max-width: 500px;
width: 100%;
margin: 0 auto;
}

label,
input {
display: block;
width: 100%;
}

label {
margin-bottom: 5px;
height: 22px;
}

input {
margin-bottom: 20px;
padding: 10px;
border-radius: 3px;
border: 1px solid #777;
}

input.error {
border-color: red;
}

.input-feedback {
color: rgb(235, 54, 54);
margin-top: -15px;
font-size: 14px;
margin-bottom: 20px;
}

button {
padding: 10px 15px;
background-color: rgb(70, 153, 179);
color: white;
border: 1px solid rgb(70, 153, 179);
background-color: 250ms;
}

button:hover {
cursor: pointer;
background-color: white;
color: rgb(70, 153, 179);
}

Adding Validation Messages Logic

Now we need to figure out how to validate our inputs. The first question is, what constraints do we want to have on our input. Let's start with email. Email input should...

  • Be required
  • Look like a real email

Password input should...

  • Be required
  • Be at least 8 characters long
  • contain at least one number

We'll cover two ways to create these messages, one using Yup and one doing it yourself. We recommend using Yup and you'll see why shortly.


Doing it Yourself

The first option is creating our validate function. The purpose of the function is to iterate through the values of our form, validate these values in whatever way we see fit, and return an errors *object that has key value pairs of value->message.

Inside of the Formik tag, you can add the following code. This will always add an "Invalid email" error for email. We will start with this and go from there.

    validate={values => {
let errors = {};
errors.email = "Invalid email";
return errors;
}}

Now, we can ensure that the user has input something for the email.

validate={values => {
let errors = {};
if (!values.email) {
errors.email = "Required";
}
return errors;
}}

Then, we can check that the email is actually a valid looking email by using the email-validator package. This will look almost the same as the equivalent check for email.

  validate={values => {
let errors = {};
if (!values.email) {
errors.email = "Required";
} else if (!EmailValidator.validate(values.email)) {
errors.email = "Invalid email address";
}
return errors;
}}

That takes care of email, so now for password. We can first check that the user input something.

validate={values => {
let errors = {};
if (!values.password) {
errors.password = "Required";
}
return errors;
}}

Now we need to check the length to be at least 8 characters.

validate={values => {
const passwordRegex = /(?=.[0-9])/;
if (!values.password) {
errors.password = "Required";
} else if (values.password.length < 8) {
errors.password = "Password must be 8 characters long.";
}

  return errors;
}}

And lastly, that the password contains at least one number. For this, we can use regex.

 validate={values => {
let errors = {};

  const passwordRegex = /(?=.*[0-9])/;
  if (!values.password) {
    errors.password = "Required";
  } else if (values.password.length &lt; 8) {
    errors.password = "Password must be 8 characters long.";
  } else if (!passwordRegex.test(values.password)) {
    errors.password = "Invalida password. Must contain one number";
  }

  return errors;
}}

Here's the whole thing.

  validate={values => {
let errors = {};
if (!values.email) {
errors.email = "Required";
} else if (!EmailValidator.validate(values.email)) {
errors.email = "Invalid email address";
}

  const passwordRegex = /(?=.*[0-9])/;
  if (!values.password) {
    errors.password = "Required";
  } else if (values.password.length &lt; 8) {
    errors.password = "Password must be 8 characters long.";
  } else if (!passwordRegex.test(values.password)) {
    errors.password = "Invalida password. Must contain one number";
  }

  return errors;
}}

Using Yup (Recommended)

Ok, you might have noticed that handling the validate logic on our own gets a bit verbose. We have to manually do all of the checks ourselves. It wasn't that bad I guess, but with the Yup package, it gets all the more easy!

Yup is the recommended way to handle validation messages.

Yup makes input validation a breeze!

When using Yup, we no longer will see the Validate *property, but insead use validationSchema. Let's start with email. Here is the equivalent validation using Yup.

validationSchema={Yup.object().shape({
email: Yup.string()
.email()
.required("Required")
})}

Much shorter right?! Now, for password.

validationSchema={Yup.object().shape({
email: Yup.string()
.email()
.required("Required"),
password: Yup.string()
.required("No password provided.")
.min(8, "Password is too short - should be 8 chars minimum.")
.matches(/(?=.[0-9])/, "Password must contain a number.")
})}

Pretty SWEET!


Displaying Validation/Error Messages

Now that we have the logic for creating error messages, we need to display them. We will need to update the inputs in our form a bit.

We need to update several properties for both email and password inputs.

  • value
  • onChange
  • onBlur
  • className

Email

Let's start by updating value, onChange, and onBlur. Each of these will use properties from the render props.

<input
name="email"
type="text"
placeholder="Enter your email"
value={values.email}
onChange={handleChange}
onBlur={handleBlur}
/>

Then we can add a conditional "error" class if there are any errors. We can check for errors by looking at the errors object (remeber how we calculated that object ourselves way back when).

We can also check the touched property, to see whether or not the user has interacted with the email input before showing an error message.

<input
name="email"
type="text"
placeholder="Enter your email"
value={values.email}
onChange={handleChange}
onBlur={handleBlur}
className={errors.email && touched.email && "error"}
/>

And lastly, if there are errors, we will display them to the user. All in all, email will look like this.

<label htmlFor="email">Email</label>
<input
name="email"
type="text"
placeholder="Enter your email"
value={values.email}
onChange={handleChange}
onBlur={handleBlur}
className={errors.email && touched.email && "error"}
/>
{errors.email && touched.email && (
<div className="input-feedback">{errors.email}</div>
)}

Password

Now we need to do the same with password. I won't walk through each step beause they are exactly the same as email. Here's the final code.

<label htmlFor="email">Password</label>
<input
name="password"
type="password"
placeholder="Enter your password"
value={values.password}
onChange={handleChange}
onBlur={handleBlur}
className={errors.password && touched.password && "error"}
/>
{errors.password && touched.password && (
<div className="input-feedback">{errors.password}</div>
)}
Test it Out

Let's try it out! You can start by clicking the button without entering anything. You should see validation messages.

Now, we can get more specific for testing messages. Refresh your page to do this.Click inside of the email input, but don't type anything.

Then, click away from the input. You should see the "Required" message pop up. Notice that this message doesn't pop up automatically when the page loads. We only want to display error messages after the user has interacted with the input.

Now, start to type. You should get a message about not being a valid email.

And lastly, type in a valid looking email, and your error message goes away.

Now, same for password. Click on the input, then away, and you'll get the required message.

Then, start typing and you'll see the length validation.

Then, type 8 or more characters that does not include a number, and you'll see the "must contain a number" message.

And lastly, add a number, and error messages go away.


Conclusion

Whew, that was a long one! Again, validation can be a tricky thing, but with the help of a few packages, it becomes a bit easier. At the end of the day though, I think we've got a pretty legit login form with Reactjs!

Thanks for reading

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Originally published on https://scotch.io

What is JavaScript – All You Need To Know About JavaScript

What is JavaScript – All You Need To Know About JavaScript

In this article on what is JavaScript, we will learn the basic concepts of JavaScript.

After decades of improvement, JavaScript has become one of the most popular programming languages of all time. It all started in the year 1995 when Brendan Eich created JavaScript in a span of 10 days. Since then, it has seen multiple versions, updates and has grown to the next level.

Here’s a list of topics that I’ll be covering in this blog:

  1. What is JavaScript
  2. What can JavaScript do?
  3. JavaScript Frameworks
  4. The Big Picture: HTML, CSS & JavaScript
  5. Benefits of JavaScript
  6. Fundamentals of JavaScript
    VariablesConstantsData TypesObjectsArraysFunctionsConditional statementsLoopsSwitch case
What is JavaScript?

JavaScript is a high level, interpreted, programming language used to make web pages more interactive.

Have you ever thought that your website is missing something? Maybe it’s not engaging enough or it’s not as creative as you want it to be. JavaScript is that missing piece which can be used to enhance web pages, applications, etc to provide a more user-friendly experience.

What is JavaScript?

JavaScript is the language of the web, it is used to make the web look alive by adding motion to it. To be more precise, it’s a programming language that let’s you implement complex and beautiful things/design on web pages. When you notice a web page doing more than just sit there and gawk at you, you can bet that the web page is using JavaScript.

Feature of JavaScript

Scripting language and not Java: In fact, JavaScript has nothing to do with Java. Then why is it called “Java” Script? When JavaScript was first released it was called Mocha, it was later renamed to LiveScript and then to JavaScript when Netscape (founded JavaScript) and Sun did a license agreement. Object-based scripting language which supports polymorphism, encapsulation and to some extent inheritance as well.**Interpreted language: **It doesn’t have to be compiled like Java and C which require a compiler.JavaScript runs in a browser: You can run it on Google Chrome, Internet Explorer, Safari, etc. JavaScript can execute not only in the browser but also on the server and any device which has a JavaScript Engine.

What is JavaScript – Stackoverflow stats

Currently, we have 100s of programming languages and every day new languages are being created. Among these are few powerful languages that bring about big changes in the market and JavaScript is one of them.

JavaScript has always been on the list of popular programming languages. According to StackOverflow, for the 6th year in a row, JavaScript has remained the most popular and commonly used programming language.

What can JavaScript do?

JavaScript is mainly known for creating beautiful web pages & applications. An example of this is Google Maps. If you want to explore a specific map, all you have to do is click and drag with the mouse. And what sort of language could do that? You guessed it! It’s JavaScript.JavaScript can also be used in smart watches. An example of this is the popular smartwatch maker called Pebble. Pebble has created Pebble.js which is a small JavaScript Framework that allows a developer to create an application for the Pebble line of watches in JavaScript.

What is JavaScript – Applications of JavaScript
Most popular websites like Google, Facebook, Netflix, Amazon, etc make use of JavaScript to build their websites.Among things like mobile applications, digital art, web servers and server applications, JavaScript is also used to make Games. A lot of developers are building small-scale games and apps using JavaScript.## JavaScript Frameworks

One major reason for the popularity of JavaScript is the JavaScript Frameworks. Here’s a brief introduction of the most trending JavaScript frameworks :

  1. AngularJS is Google’s web development framework which provides a set of modern development and design features for rapid application development.

  2. ReactJS is another top JavaScript framework mainly maintained by Facebook and it’s behind the User Interface of Facebook and Instagram, showing off its efficiency in maintaining such high traffic applications.

What is JavaScript – JavaScript Frameworks

  1. MeteorJS is mainly used for providing back-end development. Using JavaScript on the back-end to save time and build expertise is one of the major ideas behind Meteor.

  2. jQuery can be used when you want to extend your website and make it more interactive. Companies like Google, WordPress and IBM rely on jQuery.

The Big Picture: HTML, CSS & JavaScript

Anyone familiar with JavaScript knows that it has something to do with HTML and CSS. But what is the relationship between these three? Let me explain this with an analogy.

What is JavaScript – HTML, CSS and JavaScript

Think of HTML (HyperText Markup Language) as the skeleton of the web. It is used for displaying the web.

On the other hand, CSS is like our clothes. We put on fashionable clothes to look better. Similarly, the web is quite stylish as well. It uses CSS which stands for Cascading Style Sheets for styling purpose.

Then there is JavaScript which puts life into a web page. Just like how kids move around using the skateboard, the web also motions with the help of JavaScript.

Benefits of JavaScript

There has to be a reason why so many developers love working on JavaScript. Well, there are several benefits of using JavaScript for developing web applications, here’s a few benefits:

It’s easy to learn and simple to implement. It is a weak-type programming language unlike the strong-type programming languages like Java and C++, which have strict rules for coding.

It’s all about being fast in today’s world and since JavaScript is mainly a client-side programming language, it is very fast because any code can run immediately instead of having to contact the server and wait for an answer.

Rich set of frameworks like AngularJS, ReactJS are used to build web applications and perform different tasks.

**Builds interactive websites: **We all get attracted to beautifully designed websites and JavaScript is the reason behind such attractive websites and applications.

JavaScript is an interpreted language that does not require a compiler because the web interprets JavaScript. All you need is a browser like Google Chrome or Internet Explorer and you can do all sorts of stuff in the browser.

JavaScript is platform independent and it is supported by all major browsers like Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Safari, etc.

JavaScript Fundamentals

In this What is JavaScript blog, we’ll cover the following basic fundamentals of JavaScript
VariablesConstantsData TypesObjectsArraysFunctionsConditional statementsLoopsSwitch case## Variables

Variable is a name given to a memory location which acts as a container for storing data temporarily. They are nothing but reserved memory locations to store values.

What is JavaScript – Variables

To declare a variable in JavaScript use the ‘let’ keyword. For example:

let age;
age=22;

In the above example, I’ve declared a variable ‘age’ by using the ‘let’ keyword and then I’ve stored a value (22) in it. So here a memory location is assigned to the ‘age’ variable and it contains a value i.e. ’22’.

Constants

Constants are fixed values that don’t change during execution time.

To declare a constant in JavaScript use the ‘const’ keyword. For example:

const mybirthday;
mybirthday='3rd August'; 

Data types

You can assign different types of values to a variable such as a number or a string. In JavaScript, there are two categories of data types :

What is JavaScript – Data Types

Objects

An object is a standalone entity with properties and types and it is a lot like an object in real life. For example, consider a girl, whose name is Emily, age is 22 and eye-color is brown. In this example the object is the girl and her name, age and eye-color are her properties.

What is JavaScript – Objects example

Objects are variables too, but they contain many values, so instead of declaring different variables for each property, you can declare an object which stores all these properties.

To declare an object in JavaScript use the ‘let’ keyword and make sure to use curly brackets in such a way that all property-value pairs are defined within the curly brackets. For example:

let girl= {
name: 'Emily',
age: 22,
eyeColour: 'Brown'
};

In the above example, I’ve declared an object called ‘girl’ and it has 3 properties (name, age, eye colour) with values (Emily, 22, Brown).

Arrays

An array is a data structure that contains a list of elements which store multiple values in a single variable.

For example, let’s consider a scenario where you went shopping to buy art supplies. The list of items you bought can be put into an array.

What is JavaScript – Arrays example

To declare an array in JavaScript use the ‘let’ keyword with square brackets and all the array elements must be enclosed within them. For example:

let shopping=[];
shopping=['paintBrush','sprayPaint','waterColours','canvas'];

In the above example I’ve declared an array called ‘shopping’ and I’ve added four elements in it.

Also, array elements are numbered from zero. For example this is how you access the first array element:

shopping[0];		

Functions

A function is a block of organised, reusable code that is used to perform single, related action.

Let’s create a function that calculates the product of two numbers.

To declare a function in JavaScript use the ‘function’ keyword. For example:

function product(a, b) {
return a*b;
}

In the above example, I’ve declared a function called ‘product’ and I’ve passed 2 parameters to this function, ‘a’ and ‘b’ which are variables whose product is returned by this function. Now, in order to call a function and pass a value to these parameters you’ll have to follow the below syntax:

product(8,2);

In the above code snippet I’m calling the product function with a set of values (8 & 2). These are values of the variables ‘a’ and ‘b’ and they’re called as arguments to the function.

Conditional statements – if

Conditional statement is a set of rules performed if a certain condition is met. The ‘if’ statement is used to execute a block of code, only if the condition specified holds true.

What is JavaScript – if flowchart

To declare an if statement in JavaScript use the ‘if’ keyword. The syntax is:

if(condition) {
statement;
}

Now let’s look at an example:

let numbers=[1,2,1,2,3,2,3,1];
if(numbers[0]==numbers[2]) {
console.log('Correct!');
}

In the above example I’ve defined an array of numbers and then I’ve defined an if block. Within this block is a condition and a statement. The condition is ‘(numbers[0]==numbers[2])’ and the statement is ‘console.log(‘Correct!’)’. If the condition is met, only then the statement will be executed.

Conditional statements- Else if

Else statement is used to execute a block of code if the same condition is false.

What is JavaScript – Else-if flowchart

The syntax is:

if(condition) {
statement a;
}
else (condition) {
statement b;
}

Now let’s look at an example:

let numbers=[1,2,1,2,3,2,3,1];
if(numbers[0]==numbers[4] {
console.log("Correct!");
}
else {
console.log("Wrong, please try again");
}

In the above example, I’ve defined an if block as well as an else block. So if the conditions within the if block holds false then the else block gets executed. Try this for yourself and see what you get!

**Loops **

Loops are used to repeat a specific block until some end condition is met. There are three categories of loops in JavaScript :

  1. while loop
  2. do while loop
  3. for loop
While loop

While the condition is true, the code within the loop is executed.

What is JavaScript – while loop flowchart

The syntax is:

while(condition) {
loop code;
}

Now let’s look at an example:

let i=0;
while(i < 5) {
console.log("The number is " +i);
i++;
}

In the above example, I’ve defined a while loop wherein I’ve set a condition. As long as the condition holds true, the while loop is executed. Try this for yourself and see what you get!

Do while loop

This loop will first execute the code, then check the condition and while the condition holds true, execute repeatedly.

What is JavaScript – Do while loop flowchart

Refer the syntax to better understand it:

do {
loop code;
} while(condition);

This loop executes the code block once before checking if the condition is true, then it will repeat the loop as long as the condition holds true.

Now let’s look at an example:

do {
console.log("The number is " +i);
i++;
}
while(i > 5);

The above code is similar to the while loop code except, the code block within the do loop is first executed and only then the condition within the while loop is checked. If the condition holds true then the do loop is executed again.

For loop

The for loop repeatedly executes the loop code while a given condition is TRUE. It tests the condition before executing the loop body.

What is JavaScript – for loop flowchart

The syntax is:

for(begin; condition; step) {
loop code;
}

In the above syntax:

  • begin statement is executed one time before the execution of the loop code
  • condition defines the condition for executing the loop code
  • step statement is executed every time after the code block has been executed

For example:

for (i=0;i<5;i++) {
console.log("The number is " +i);
}

In the above example, I’ve defined a for loop within which I’ve defined the begin, condition and step statements. The begin statement is that ‘i=0’. After executing the begin statement the code within the for loop is executed one time. Next, the condition is checked, if ‘i<5’ then, the code within the loop is executed. After this, the last step statement (i++) is executed. Try this and see what you get!

Switch Case

The switch statement is used to perform different actions based on different conditions.

What is JavaScript – Switch case flowchart

Let’s look at the syntax for switch case:

switch(expression) {
case 1:
code block 1
break;
case 2:
code block 2
break;
default:
code block 3
break;
}

How does it work?

  • Switch expression gets evaluated once
  • Value of the expression is compared with the values of each case
  • If there is a match, the associated block of code is executed

Let’s try this with an example:

let games='football';
switch(games) {
case "throwball":
console.log("I dislike throwball!");
break;
case "football":
console.log("I love football!");
break;
case "cricket":
console.log("I'm a huge cricket fan!");
break;
default:
console.log("I like other games");
break;
}

In the above example the switch expression is ‘games’ and the value of games is ‘football’. The value of ‘games’ is compared with the value of each case. In this example it is compared to ‘throwball’, ‘cricket’ and ‘football’. The value of ‘games’ matches with the case ‘football’, therefore the code within the ‘football’ case is executed. Try this for yourself and see what you get!

With this, we come to the end of this blog. I hope you found this blog informative and I hope you have a basic understanding of JavaScript. In my next blog on JavaScript I’ll be covering in-depth concepts, so stay tuned.

Also, check out our video on JavaScript Fundamentals if you want to get started as soon as possible and don’t forget to leave a comment if you have any doubt and also, let us know whether you’d want us to create more content on JavaScript. We are listening!