How to build a Laravel REST API with Test-Driven Development

How to build a Laravel REST API with Test-Driven Development

In this article, we’ll be going on a Laravel journey driven by tests. We’ll create a Laravel REST API complete with authentication and CRUD functionality without opening Postman or a browser. 😲

In this article, we’ll be going on a Laravel journey driven by tests. We’ll create a Laravel REST API complete with authentication and CRUD functionality without opening Postman or a browser. 😲

There is a famous quote by James Grenning, one of the pioneers in TDD and Agile development methodologies:

If you’re not doing test-driven development, you’re doing debug-later development - James Grenning> If you’re not doing test-driven development, you’re doing debug-later development - James Grenning## Setting up the project

Start by creating a new Laravel project with composer create-project --prefer-dist laravel/laravel tdd-journey.

Next, we need to run the authentication scaffolder that we would use, go ahead and run php artisan make:auth then php artisan migrate.

We will not actually be using the routes and views generated. For this project, we would be using jwt-auth. So go ahead and set it up in your application.

If you’re not doing test-driven development, you’re doing debug-later development - James Grenning
Finally, you can delete ExampleTest in both the tests/Unit and tests/Feature folders so that it doesn’t interfere with our test results and we’re good to go.

Writing the code
  1. Begin by setting your auth configuration to use the JWT driver as default:
<?php 
// config/auth.php file
'defaults' => [
    'guard' => 'api',
    'passwords' => 'users',
],
'guards' => [
    ...
    'api' => [
        'driver' => 'jwt',
        'provider' => 'users',
    ],
],

Then add the following to your routes/api.php file:

<?php
Route::group(['middleware' => 'api', 'prefix' => 'auth'], function () {
    Route::post('authenticate', '[email protected]')->name('api.authenticate');
    Route::post('register', '[email protected]')->name('api.register');
});

  1. Now that we have our driver set up, set up your user model in the same way:
<?php
...
class User extends Authenticatable implements JWTSubject
{
    ...
     //Get the identifier that will be stored in the subject claim of the JWT.
    public function getJWTIdentifier()
    {
        return $this->getKey();
    }
    // Return a key value array, containing any custom claims to be           added to the JWT.
    public function getJWTCustomClaims()
    {
        return [];
    }
}

What we did was that we just implemented the JWTSubject and added the required methods.

  1. Next, we need to add our authentication methods in the controller.

Run php artisan make:controller AuthController and add the following methods:

<?php
...
class AuthController extends Controller
{
    
    public function authenticate(Request $request){
        //Validate fields
        $this->validate($request,['email' => 'required|email','password'=> 'required']);
        //Attempt validation
        $credentials = $request->only(['email','password']);
        if (! $token = auth()->attempt($credentials)) {
            return response()->json(['error' => 'Incorrect credentials'], 401);
        }
        return response()->json(compact('token'));
    }
    public function register(Request $request){
        //Validate fields
        $this->validate($request,[
            'email' => 'required|email|max:255|unique:users',
            'name' => 'required|max:255',
            'password' => 'required|min:8|confirmed',
        ]);
        //Create user, generate token and return
        $user =  User::create([
            'name' => $request->input('name'),
            'email' => $request->input('email'),
            'password' => Hash::make($request->input('password')),
        ]);
        $token = JWTAuth::fromUser($user);
        return response()->json(compact('token'));
    }
}

This step is pretty straight forward, all we do is add the authenticate and register methods to our controller. In the authenticate method, we validate the input, attempt a login and return the token if successful. In the register method, we validate the input, create a new user with the input and generate a token for the user based on that.

  1. Next, onto the good part. Testing what we just wrote. Generate the test classes using php artisan make:test AuthTest. In the new tests/Feature/AuthTest add these methods:
<?php 
/**
 * @test 
 * Test registration
 */
public function testRegister(){
    //User's data
    $data = [
        'email' => '[email protected]',
        'name' => 'Test',
        'password' => 'secret1234',
        'password_confirmation' => 'secret1234',
    ];
    //Send post request
    $response = $this->json('POST',route('api.register'),$data);
    //Assert it was successful
    $response->assertStatus(200);
    //Assert we received a token
    $this->assertArrayHasKey('token',$response->json());
    //Delete data
    User::where('email','[email protected]')->delete();
}
/**
 * @test
 * Test login
 */
public function testLogin()
{
    //Create user
    User::create([
        'name' => 'test',
        'email'=>'[email protected]',
        'password' => bcrypt('secret1234')
    ]);
    //attempt login
    $response = $this->json('POST',route('api.authenticate'),[
        'email' => '[email protected]',
        'password' => 'secret1234',
    ]);
    //Assert it was successful and a token was received
    $response->assertStatus(200);
    $this->assertArrayHasKey('token',$response->json());
    //Delete the user
    User::where('email','[email protected]')->delete();
}

The comments in the code above pretty much describes the code. One thing you should note is how we create and delete the user in each test. The whole point of tests are that they should be independent of each other and the database state ideally.

Now run $vendor/bin/phpunit or $ phpunit if you have it globally installed. Running that should give you successful assertions. If that was not the case, you can look through the logs, fix and retest. This is the beautiful cycle of TDD.

  1. Now that we have our authentication working, let’s add the item for the CRUD. For this tutorial, we’re going to use food recipes as our CRUD items, because, why not?

Start by creating our migration php artisan make:migration createrecipestable and add the following:

<?php 
...
public function up()
{
    Schema::create('recipes', function (Blueprint $table) {
        $table->increments('id');
        $table->string('title');
        $table->text('procedure')->nullable();
        $table->tinyInteger('publisher_id')->nullable();
        $table->timestamps();
    });
}
public function down()
{
    Schema::dropIfExists('recipes');
}

Then run the migration. Now add the model using php artisan make:model Recipe and add this to our model.

<?php 
...
protected $fillable = ['title','procedure'];
/**
 * The owner of this delicious recipe
 * @return \Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\Relations\BelongsTo
 */
public function publisher(){
    return $this->belongsTo(User::class);
}

Then add this method to the user model.

<?php
...
  /**
 * Get all recipes
 * @return \Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\Relations\HasMany
 */
public function recipes(){
    return $this->hasMany(Recipe::class);
}

  1. Now we need endpoints for managing our recipes. First, we’ll create the controller php artisan make:controller RecipeController. Next, edit the routes/api.php file and add the create endpoint.
<?php 
...
  Route::group(['middleware' => ['api','auth'],'prefix' => 'recipe'],function (){
    Route::post('create','[email protected]')->name('recipe.create');
});

In the controller, add the create method as well

<?php 
...
  public function create(Request $request){
    //Validate
    $this->validate($request,['title' => 'required','procedure' => 'required|min:8']);
    //Create recipe and attach to user
    $user = Auth::user();
    $recipe = Recipe::create($request->only(['title','procedure']));
    $user->recipes()->save($recipe);
    //Return json of recipe
    return $recipe->toJson();
}

Generate the feature test with php artisan make:test RecipeTest and edit the contents as under:

<?php 
...
class RecipeTest extends TestCase
{
    use RefreshDatabase;
    ...
    //Create user and authenticate the user
    protected function authenticate(){
        $user = User::create([
            'name' => 'test',
            'email' => '[email protected]',
            'password' => Hash::make('secret1234'),
        ]);
        $token = JWTAuth::fromUser($user);
        return $token;
    }
  
    public function testCreate()
    {
        //Get token
        $token = $this->authenticate();
        $response = $this->withHeaders([
            'Authorization' => 'Bearer '. $token,
        ])->json('POST',route('recipe.create'),[
            'title' => 'Jollof Rice',
            'procedure' => 'Parboil rice, get pepper and mix, and some spice and serve!'
        ]);
        $response->assertStatus(200);
    }
}

The code is quite self-explanatory. All we do is create a method that handles the registering of a user and token generation, then we use that token in the testCreate() method. Note the use of the RefreshDatabase trait, the trait is Laravel’s convenient way of resetting your database after each test, which is perfect for our nifty little project.

OK, so for now, all we want to assert is the status of the response, go ahead and run $ vendor/bin/phpunit.

If all goes well, you should receive an error. 😆

There was 1 failure:
1) Tests\Feature\RecipeTest::testCreate
Expected status code 200 but received 500.
Failed asserting that false is true.
/home/user/sites/tdd-journey/vendor/laravel/framework/src/Illuminate/Foundation/Testing/TestResponse.php:133
/home/user/sites/tdd-journey/tests/Feature/RecipeTest.php:49
FAILURES!
Tests: 3, Assertions: 5, Failures: 1.

Looking at the log files, we can see the culprit is the publisher and recipesrelationship in the Recipe and User classes. Laravel tries to find a user_idcolumn in the table and use that as the foreign key, but in our migration we set publisher_id as the foreign key. Now, adjust the lines as under:

//Recipe file
public function publisher(){
    return $this->belongsTo(User::class,'publisher_id');
}
//User file
public function recipes(){
    return $this->hasMany(Recipe::class,'publisher_id');
}

And then re-run the test. If all goes well we get all green tests! 👍

...                                                                 3 / 3 (100%)
...
OK (3 tests, 5 assertions)

Now we still need to test the creation of the recipe. To do that we can assert the recipes count of the user. Update your testCreate method as under:

<?php
...
//Get token
$token = $this->authenticate();
$response = $this->withHeaders([
    'Authorization' => 'Bearer '. $token,
])->json('POST',route('recipe.create'),[
    'title' => 'Jollof Rice',
    'procedure' => 'Parboil rice, get pepper and mix, and some spice and serve!'
]);
$response->assertStatus(200);
//Get count and assert
$count = User::where('email','[email protected]')->first()->recipes()->count();
$this->assertEquals(1,$count);

We can now go ahead and fill the rest of our methods. Time for some changes. First, our routes/api.php

<?php
...
Route::group(['middleware' => ['api','auth'],'prefix' => 'recipe'],function (){
    Route::post('create','RecipeControlle[email protected]')->name('recipe.create');
    Route::get('all','[email protected]')->name('recipe.all');
    Route::post('update/{recipe}','[email protected]')->name('recipe.update');
    Route::get('show/{recipe}','[email protected]')->name('recipe.show');
    Route::post('delete/{recipe}','[email protected]')->name('recipe.delete');
});

Next, we add the methods to the controller. Update your RecipeControllerclass this way.

<?php 
....
//Create recipe
public function create(Request $request){
    //Validate
    $this->validate($request,['title' => 'required','procedure' => 'required|min:8']);
    //Create recipe and attach to user
    $user = Auth::user();
    $recipe = Recipe::create($request->only(['title','procedure']));
    $user->recipes()->save($recipe);
    //Return json of recipe
    return $recipe->toJson();
}
//Get all recipes
public function all(){
    return Auth::user()->recipes;
}
//Update a recipe
public function update(Request $request, Recipe $recipe){
    //Check is user is the owner of the recipe
    if($recipe->publisher_id != Auth::id()){
        abort(404);
        return;
    }
    //Update and return
    $recipe->update($request->only('title','procedure'));
    return $recipe->toJson();
}
//Show a single recipe's details
public function show(Recipe $recipe){
    if($recipe->publisher_id != Auth::id()){
        abort(404);
        return;
    }
    return $recipe->toJson();
}
//Delete a recipe
public function delete(Recipe $recipe){
    if($recipe->publisher_id != Auth::id()){
        abort(404);
        return;
    }
    $recipe->delete();
}

The code and comments already explain the logic to a good degree.

Lastly our test/Feature/RecipeTest

<?php
...
  use RefreshDatabase;
protected $user;
//Create a user and authenticate him
protected function authenticate(){
    $user = User::create([
        'name' => 'test',
        'email' => '[email protected]',
        'password' => Hash::make('secret1234'),
    ]);
    $this->user = $user;
    $token = JWTAuth::fromUser($user);
    return $token;
}
//Test the create route
public function testCreate()
{
    //Get token
    $token = $this->authenticate();
    $response = $this->withHeaders([
        'Authorization' => 'Bearer '. $token,
    ])->json('POST',route('recipe.create'),[
        'title' => 'Jollof Rice',
        'procedure' => 'Parboil rice, get pepper and mix, and some spice and serve!'
    ]);
    $response->assertStatus(200);
    //Get count and assert
    $count = $this->user->recipes()->count();
    $this->assertEquals(1,$count);
}
//Test the display all routes
public function testAll(){
    //Authenticate and attach recipe to user
    $token = $this->authenticate();
    $recipe = Recipe::create([
        'title' => 'Jollof Rice',
        'procedure' => 'Parboil rice, get pepper and mix, and some spice and serve!'
    ]);
    $this->user->recipes()->save($recipe);
    //call route and assert response
    $response = $this->withHeaders([
        'Authorization' => 'Bearer '. $token,
    ])->json('GET',route('recipe.all'));
    $response->assertStatus(200);
    //Assert the count is 1 and the title of the first item correlates
    $this->assertEquals(1,count($response->json()));
    $this->assertEquals('Jollof Rice',$response->json()[0]['title']);
}
//Test the update route
public function testUpdate(){
    $token = $this->authenticate();
    $recipe = Recipe::create([
        'title' => 'Jollof Rice',
        'procedure' => 'Parboil rice, get pepper and mix, and some spice and serve!'
    ]);
    $this->user->recipes()->save($recipe);
    //call route and assert response
    $response = $this->withHeaders([
        'Authorization' => 'Bearer '. $token,
    ])->json('POST',route('recipe.update',['recipe' => $recipe->id]),[
        'title' => 'Rice',
    ]);
    $response->assertStatus(200);
    //Assert title is the new title
    $this->assertEquals('Rice',$this->user->recipes()->first()->title);
}
//Test the single show route
public function testShow(){
    $token = $this->authenticate();
    $recipe = Recipe::create([
        'title' => 'Jollof Rice',
        'procedure' => 'Parboil rice, get pepper and mix, and some spice and serve!'
    ]);
    $this->user->recipes()->save($recipe);
    $response = $this->withHeaders([
        'Authorization' => 'Bearer '. $token,
    ])->json('GET',route('recipe.show',['recipe' => $recipe->id]));
    $response->assertStatus(200);
    //Assert title is correct
    $this->assertEquals('Jollof Rice',$response->json()['title']);
}
//Test the delete route
public function testDelete(){
    $token = $this->authenticate();
    $recipe = Recipe::create([
        'title' => 'Jollof Rice',
        'procedure' => 'Parboil rice, get pepper and mix, and some spice and serve!'
    ]);
    $this->user->recipes()->save($recipe);
    $response = $this->withHeaders([
        'Authorization' => 'Bearer '. $token,
    ])->json('POST',route('recipe.delete',['recipe' => $recipe->id]));
    $response->assertStatus(200);
    //Assert there are no recipes
    $this->assertEquals(0,$this->user->recipes()->count());
}

Other than the additional test, the only other difference was adding a class-wide user file. That way, the authenticate method not only generates a token, but it sets the user file for subsequent operations.

Now run $ vendor/bin/phpunit and you should have all green tests if done correctly.

Conclusion

Hopefully, this gave you an insight into how TDD works in Laravel. It is definitely a much wider concept than this, one that is not bound to a specific method.

Though this method of development may seem longer than the usual debug later* *procedure, it’s perfect for catching errors early on in your code. Though there are cases where a non-TDD approach is more useful, it’s still a solid skill and habit to get used to.

The entire code for this walkthrough is available on Github here. Feel free to play around with it.

*Originally published by ****Kofo Okesola ***at freecodecamp.org

=========================

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Integrate PHP Laravel 5.8 APIs in Angular 7

Integrate PHP Laravel 5.8 APIs in Angular 7

For PHP Laravel APIs to integrate in Angular 7, we have to write APIs in api.php file in Laravel which is in the routes folder in Laravel project structure. For the sake of this article, we are using example of User API.

we commonly use PHP Laravel 5 for database integration and Angular for frontend single page applications. So it makes sense to write about integrating PHP Laravel APIs with Angular frontend.

1. Develop Laravel API

Lets setup the database first. We follow proper Laravel structure through commands and code.

1.1 Create Laravel API migration

For PHP Laravel APIs to integrate in Angular 7, we have to write APIs in api.php file in Laravel which is in the routes folder in Laravel project structure. For the sake of this article, we are using example of User API. For User API to fetch and save data, you have to first setup database table. For that you have to write the migration for the table the command to create migration is written below.

php artisan make:migration create_user_table

After creating a migration, you have to make a model for the table that you have created. Which can be made by command written below.

1.2 Laravel model command

php artisan make:model User

short hand for creating migration and model both you will use this command

php artisan make:model User -m

After using this command the migration and model is made.

1.3 Laravel migration code example

Now you can write table in the migration. Below is the example to write table in migration.

public function up()
 {
 Schema::create('users', function (Blueprint $table) {
 $table-&gt;increments('id');
 $table-&gt;string('email')-&gt;unique();
 $table-&gt;string('first_name');
 $table-&gt;string('last_name');
 $table-&gt;string('password');
 $table-&gt;enum('account_status',['active','pending','rejected'])-&gt;default('pending');
 $table-&gt;enum('gender',['male','female']);
 $table-&gt;timestamps();
 });
 }

You can see the more about how to write table in the migration go to this link:

https://laravel.com/docs/5.7/migrations. After writing the table you have to run this command to migrate the table into the database

php artisan migrate

After migration, you have to write a method into the model that was created to get, update, or add data into the table. For an API to run you have to make,

Route::post('allUsers','[email protected]');

1. 4 Laravel controller command

php artisan make:controller UserController

1.4 Laravel controller code example

The controller function will look like this.

public function getAllUsers(){
 $count = User::All()-&gt;count();
 if($count &gt; 0){
 $users = User::role(['user','admin','dealer'])-&gt;get();
 return response()-&gt;json($users);
 }else{
 return response()-&gt;json("Users Not Found");
 }
 }

You can also make resource and collection to return the response. You can go this link and check the eloquent resources and collection https://laravel.com/docs/5.7/eloquent-resources.

So in this api the api is using UserController Method getllAllUsers to get the users from the database. After that you have to serve the laravel project to use these apis into angular project.

2. Integrate Laravel API in Angular

First setup your angular project using this command. Using Angular Cli.

ng new project_name

After that make your first component. For making component use this command.

ng generate component Users
// Or short hand:
ng g c Users

Four files will be generated after running that command. After that design your page in the html file

and in the ts file your code goes there. After that you have to make service to integrate the api calls that has been written in the Laravel so to create a service run this command.

ng generate service User
// Or short hand:
ng g s User

After running this command 2 file will be generated you will write the code in the ts file name users.service.ts there you will first import the HttpClient first. Then go to the environment folder and write the the api served url of the laravel project for local the url will look like this.

http://127.0.0.1:8000

The Laravel project will always serve on the 8000 port.

After importing the HttpClient then import the environment.ts file in the users service and get the api url from there. For importing just import the HttpClient into the constructor of the service.ts file.

After importing our service constructor will look like this.

 apiUrl: any;
constructor(private http: HttpClinet){
this.apiUrl = environment.apiUrl;
}

After that write a function to to call the API of the Laravel and we will use the HttpClient in the function an example is written below.

getAllUsers() {
 return this.http.get(this.apiUrl + 'allUsers/')
 .pipe(map((response: any) =&gt; {
 return response.json();
 }));
 }

This function is returning the data of all the users and parse then into the JSON response and return from where this function will get called.

After creating this function to get the data from the Laravel API now we will use this function into the the component that we have created first. To use the users service function import the users.service.ts file into the constructor of the users component. So this is the example to use the this service into the component.

The constructor will look like this after importing

constructor(private usersService: UsersService){
}

Here you can change the variable name for the user Service. You can set the variable name as you like. There is an ngOnInit() function in every component this is the first function to get called when ever the project gets served or this component is called. To get all the users from the service function that is calling Laravel API call to get all users the code will look like this.

allusers: any;
getUsers(){
this.usersService. getAllUsers()
.subscribe({
response =&gt; {
this.allusers=response;
},
 });
}

Here we have made first a global variable that is storing the response from the call into itself so that the response can be used the users.component.html file and anywhere in the users.component.ts file.

The getUsers function is calling the service function gellAllUsers to get the user and save it into the local variable. Now you can use this variable in whatever the way you like into your html page to show it on the webpage.

In Angular, you can also make the model to map the response also so for that you need to make a file names users.model.ts there is no specific command for that. So the model is made for the easiness to use the response of the API. Example is given below.

export class User{
 id: number;
 first_name: string;
 last_name: string;
 email: string;
 gender: string;
 status: string;
}

For mapping the response on to the model we will use Observables. Observable provide the support for passing the messages between creators of the observables and the subscribers in our application. Here the subscriber will be our getUsers function in the users.component.ts file and the Observable will be defined in the users.service.ts.

For using observers we will import the rxjs Observable into the users.service.ts file. Then after that the Observable will be used like this as shown in example below.

getUsers(): Observable&lt;{data: Users[]}&gt;{
 const headers = new HttpHeaders({'Content-Type': 'application/json'});
 return this.http.get&lt;{status_code: number, data: Users[], message: string}&gt;(this.apiUrl +
'allUsers', {headers: headers});
 }

Here the observable is parsing the response into the user model which we have created above as we are getting all the users from the API response so we are use Users[] array. And to get its parsed over here you have to format the response also in the Laravel API function. After this we also need to change the users.component.ts file so it will look like this.

 

allusers: Users[];

First we need to make your allUsers variable type to Users[] as the model and as we have done it in the service file the the gellUsers function will able to map response now.

getUsers(){
this.usersService. getAllUsers()
.subscribe({
response =&gt; {
this.allusers=response;
},
 });
}

Now it has made it easy for you to get the variable easily that are in the users model if you want to see the firstname of all the users you can easily do this

this.allusers.foreach(element =&gt;{
console.log('First Name',element.firstname);
})

as firstname is the variable that is in the model of Users.

If you follow this detailed tutorial, you can learn to write the APIs in Laravel and to integrate them in Angular project.

Thanks for reading. If you liked this post, share it with all of your programming buddies!

This post was originally published here

Laravel API Response - Simple Laravel API response wrapper

Laravel API Response - Simple Laravel API response wrapper

Laravel API Response is a good package that we can use to create API responses easily.

Simple and ready to use API response wrapper for Laravel - Simple Laravel API response wrapper.

Installation
  1. Install package through composer: $ composer require obiefy/api-response
  2. publish config file : php artisan vendor:publish --tag=api-response
Basic usage

Create and return JSON response:

use Obiefy\API\Facades\API;
...
public function index()
{
    $users = User::all();
return API::response(200,'users list', $users);

}

Or you can use helper function:

use Obiefy\API\Facades\API;
...
public function index()
{
$users = User::all();

return api()-&gt;response(200, 'users list', $users);

}

Advanced usage

1. General example

use Obiefy\API\Facades\API;
...
public function index()
{
$users = User::all();

return API::response(200, 'users list', $users);

}

result:

{
"STATUS": 200,
"MESSAGE": "users list",
"DATA": [
{"name": "user name"}
]
}

2. Success response

return api()->ok('Success message`, [
'name' => 'Obay Hamed'
]);

result:

{
"STATUS": 200,
"MESSAGE": "Success message",
"DATA": {"name": "Obay Hamed"}
}

you can also return success message with out passing parametters

return api()->ok();

in this case response message will be the default message from config file config('api.messages.success') the same thing for api()->notFound() and api()->validation().

Source Code: https://github.com/obiefy/api-response

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Further reading

Laravel 5.8 Tutorial for Beginners

Tutorial Laravel 6 with Docker and Docker-Compose

How to Laravel 6 Database Migrations - Add Admin Role to Users

Laravel 6 Release New Features and Upgrade

Laravel 6 CRUD Application Tutorial


Build RESTful API In Laravel 5.8 Example

Build RESTful API In Laravel 5.8 Example

In this tutorial, i will explain you how to create rest api in laravel 5.8 application. we will use passport for api authentication. we will create register and login api with product crud api.

In this tutorial, i will explain you how to create rest api in laravel 5.8 application. we will use passport for api authentication. we will create register and login api with product crud api.

If you want to create web services with php than i will must suggest to use laravel 5.8 to create apis because laravel provide structure with authentication using passport. Based on structure it will become a very easily way to create rest apis.

Just Few days ago, laravel released it's new version as laravel 5.8. As we know laravel is a more popular because of security feature. So many of the developer choose laravel to create rest api for mobile app developing. Yes Web services is a very important when you create web and mobile developing, because you can create same database and work with same data.

Follow bellow few steps to create restful api example in laravel 5.8 app.

Step 1: Download Laravel 5.8

I am going to explain step by step from scratch so, we need to get fresh Laravel 5.8 application using bellow command, So open your terminal OR command prompt and run bellow command:

composer create-project --prefer-dist laravel/laravel blog

Step 2: Install Passport

In this step we need to install passport via the Composer package manager, so one your terminal and fire bellow command:

composer require laravel/passport

After successfully install package, we require to get default migration for create new passport tables in our database. so let's run bellow command.

php artisan migrate

Next, we need to install passport using command, Using passport:install command, it will create token keys for security. So let's run bellow command:

php artisan passport:install

Step 3: Passport Configuration

In this step, we have to configuration on three place model, service provider and auth config file. So you have to just following change on that file.

In model we added HasApiTokens class of Passport,

In AuthServiceProvider we added "Passport::routes()",

In auth.php, we added api auth configuration.

app/User.php

<?php
  
namespace App;
  
use Illuminate\Notifications\Notifiable;
use Illuminate\Contracts\Auth\MustVerifyEmail;
use Laravel\Passport\HasApiTokens;
use Illuminate\Foundation\Auth\User as Authenticatable;
  
class User extends Authenticatable implements MustVerifyEmail
{
    use HasApiTokens, Notifiable;
  
    /**
     * The attributes that are mass assignable.
     *
     * @var array
     */
    protected $fillable = [
        'name', 'email', 'password',
    ];
  
    /**
     * The attributes that should be hidden for arrays.
     *
     * @var array
     */
    protected $hidden = [
        'password', 'remember_token',
    ];
}

app/Providers/AuthServiceProvider.php

<?php

namespace App\Providers;

use Laravel\Passport\Passport;
use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Gate;
use Illuminate\Foundation\Support\Providers\AuthServiceProvider as ServiceProvider;

class AuthServiceProvider extends ServiceProvider
{
    /**
     * The policy mappings for the application.
     *
     * @var array
     */
    protected $policies = [
        'App\Model' => 'App\Policies\ModelPolicy',
    ];

    /**
     * Register any authentication / authorization services.
     *
     * @return void
     */
    public function boot()
    {
        $this->registerPolicies();

        Passport::routes();
    }
}

config/auth.php

<?php

return [
    .....
    'guards' => [
        'web' => [
            'driver' => 'session',
            'provider' => 'users',
        ],
        'api' => [
            'driver' => 'passport',
            'provider' => 'users',
        ],
    ],
    .....
]

Step 4: Add Product Table and Model

next, we require to create migration for posts table using Laravel 5.8 php artisan command, so first fire bellow command:

php artisan make:migration create_products_table

After this command you will find one file in following path database/migrations and you have to put bellow code in your migration file for create products table.

<?php

use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Schema;
use Illuminate\Database\Schema\Blueprint;
use Illuminate\Database\Migrations\Migration;

class CreateProductsTable extends Migration
{
    /**
     * Run the migrations.
     *
     * @return void
     */
    public function up()
    {
        Schema::create('products', function (Blueprint $table) {
            $table->increments('id');
            $table->string('name');
            $table->text('detail');
            $table->timestamps();
        });
    }

    /**
     * Reverse the migrations.
     *
     * @return void
     */
    public function down()
    {
        Schema::dropIfExists('products');
    }
}

After create migration we need to run above migration by following command:

php artisan migrate

After create "products" table you should create Product model for products, so first create file in this path app/Product.php and put bellow content in item.php file:

app/Product.php

<?php

namespace App;

use Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\Model;

class Product extends Model
{
    /**
     * The attributes that are mass assignable.
     *
     * @var array
     */
    protected $fillable = [
        'name', 'detail'
    ];
}

Step 5: Create API Routes

In this step, we will create api routes. Laravel provide api.php file for write web services route. So, let's add new route on that file.

routes/api.php

<?php
  
/*
|--------------------------------------------------------------------------
| API Routes
|--------------------------------------------------------------------------
|
| Here is where you can register API routes for your application. These
| routes are loaded by the RouteServiceProvider within a group which
| is assigned the "api" middleware group. Enjoy building your API!
|
*/
  
Route::post('register', 'API\[email protected]');
  
Route::middleware('auth:api')->group( function () {
	Route::resource('products', 'API\ProductController');
});

Step 6: Create Controller Files

in next step, now we have create new controller as BaseController, ProductController and RegisterController, i created new folder "API" in Controllers folder because we will make alone APIs controller, So let's create both controller:

app/Http/Controllers/API/BaseController.php

<?php

namespace App\Http\Controllers\API;

use Illuminate\Http\Request;
use App\Http\Controllers\Controller as Controller;

class BaseController extends Controller
{
    /**
     * success response method.
     *
     * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
     */
    public function sendResponse($result, $message)
    {
    	$response = [
            'success' => true,
            'data'    => $result,
            'message' => $message,
        ];

        return response()->json($response, 200);
    }

    /**
     * return error response.
     *
     * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
     */
    public function sendError($error, $errorMessages = [], $code = 404)
    {
    	$response = [
            'success' => false,
            'message' => $error,
        ];

        if(!empty($errorMessages)){
            $response['data'] = $errorMessages;
        }

        return response()->json($response, $code);
    }
}

app/Http/Controllers/API/ProductController.php

<?php

namespace App\Http\Controllers\API;

use Illuminate\Http\Request;
use App\Http\Controllers\API\BaseController as BaseController;
use App\Product;
use Validator;

class ProductController extends BaseController
{
    /**
     * Display a listing of the resource.
     *
     * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
     */
    public function index()
    {
        $products = Product::all();

        return $this->sendResponse($products->toArray(), 'Products retrieved successfully.');
    }

    /**
     * Store a newly created resource in storage.
     *
     * @param  \Illuminate\Http\Request  $request
     * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
     */
    public function store(Request $request)
    {
        $input = $request->all();

        $validator = Validator::make($input, [
            'name' => 'required',
            'detail' => 'required'
        ]);

        if($validator->fails()){
            return $this->sendError('Validation Error.', $validator->errors());       
        }

        $product = Product::create($input);

        return $this->sendResponse($product->toArray(), 'Product created successfully.');
    }

    /**
     * Display the specified resource.
     *
     * @param  int  $id
     * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
     */
    public function show($id)
    {
        $product = Product::find($id);

        if (is_null($product)) {
            return $this->sendError('Product not found.');
        }

        return $this->sendResponse($product->toArray(), 'Product retrieved successfully.');
    }

    /**
     * Update the specified resource in storage.
     *
     * @param  \Illuminate\Http\Request  $request
     * @param  int  $id
     * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
     */
    public function update(Request $request, Product $product)
    {
        $input = $request->all();

        $validator = Validator::make($input, [
            'name' => 'required',
            'detail' => 'required'
        ]);

        if($validator->fails()){
            return $this->sendError('Validation Error.', $validator->errors());       
        }

        $product->name = $input['name'];
        $product->detail = $input['detail'];
        $product->save();

        return $this->sendResponse($product->toArray(), 'Product updated successfully.');
    }

    /**
     * Remove the specified resource from storage.
     *
     * @param  int  $id
     * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
     */
    public function destroy(Product $product)
    {
        $product->delete();

        return $this->sendResponse($product->toArray(), 'Product deleted successfully.');
    }
}

app/Http/Controllers/API/RegisterController.php

<?php

namespace App\Http\Controllers\API;

use Illuminate\Http\Request;
use App\Http\Controllers\API\BaseController as BaseController;
use App\User;
use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Auth;
use Validator;

class RegisterController extends BaseController
{
    /**
     * Register api
     *
     * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
     */
    public function register(Request $request)
    {
        $validator = Validator::make($request->all(), [
            'name' => 'required',
            'email' => 'required|email',
            'password' => 'required',
            'c_password' => 'required|same:password',
        ]);

        if($validator->fails()){
            return $this->sendError('Validation Error.', $validator->errors());       
        }

        $input = $request->all();
        $input['password'] = bcrypt($input['password']);
        $user = User::create($input);
        $success['token'] =  $user->createToken('MyApp')->accessToken;
        $success['name'] =  $user->name;

        return $this->sendResponse($success, 'User register successfully.');
    }
}

Now we are ready to to run full restful api and also passport api in laravel. so let's run our example so run bellow command for quick run:

php artisan serve

make sure in details api we will use following headers as listed bellow:

'headers' => [
    'Accept' => 'application/json',
    'Authorization' => 'Bearer '.$accessToken,
]

Here is Routes URL with Verb:

  1. Login: Verb:GET, URL:http://localhost:8000/oauth/token

  2. Register: Verb:GET, URL:http://localhost:8000/api/register

  3. List: Verb:GET, URL:http://localhost:8000/api/products

  4. Create: Verb:POST, URL:http://localhost:8000/api/products

  5. Show: Verb:GET, URL:http://localhost:8000/api/products/{id}

  6. Update: Verb:PUT, URL:http://localhost:8000/api/products/{id}

  7. Delete: Verb:DELETE, URL:http://localhost:8000/api/products/{id}

Now simply you can run above listed url like as bellow screen shot:

Login API:

Register API:

Product List API:

Product Create API:

Product Show API:

Product Update API:

Product Delete API:

I hope it can help you...

Thanks for reading ❤

If you liked this post, share it with all of your programming buddies!