5 Tips to Write Better Conditionals in JavaScript

5 Tips to Write Better Conditionals in JavaScript

When working with JavaScript, we deal a lot with conditionals, here are the 5 tips for you to write better / cleaner conditionals.

When working with JavaScript, we deal a lot with conditionals, here are the 5 tips for you to write better / cleaner conditionals.

1. Use Array.includes for Multiple Criteria

Let's take a look at the example below:

// condition
function test(fruit) {
  if (fruit == 'apple' || fruit == 'strawberry') {
    console.log('red');
  }
}

At first glance, the above example looks good. However, what if we get more red fruits, say cherry and cranberries? Are we going to extend the statement with more || ?

We can rewrite the conditional above by using Array.includes (Array.includes)

function test(fruit) {
  // extract conditions to array
  const redFruits = ['apple', 'strawberry', 'cherry', 'cranberries'];

  if (redFruits.includes(fruit)) {
    console.log('red');
  }
}

We extract the red fruits (conditions) to an array. By doing this, the code looks tidier.

2. Less Nesting, Return Early

Let's expand the previous example to include two more conditions:

function test(fruit, quantity) {
  const redFruits = ['apple', 'strawberry', 'cherry', 'cranberries'];

  // condition 1: fruit must has value
  if (fruit) {
    // condition 2: must be red
    if (redFruits.includes(fruit)) {
      console.log('red');

      // condition 3: must be big quantity
      if (quantity > 10) {
        console.log('big quantity');
      }
    }
  } else {
    throw('No fruit!');
  }
}

// test results
test(null); // error: No fruits
test('apple'); // print: red
test('apple', 20); // print: red, big quantity

Look at the code above, we have:

A general rule I personally follow is return early when invalid conditions found.

/_ return early when invalid conditions found _/

function test(fruit, quantity) {
  const redFruits = ['apple', 'strawberry', 'cherry', 'cranberries'];

  // condition 1: throw error early
  if (!fruit) throw('No fruit!');

  // condition 2: must be red
  if (redFruits.includes(fruit)) {
    console.log('red');

    // condition 3: must be big quantity
    if (quantity > 10) {
      console.log('big quantity');
    }
  }
}

By doing this, we have one less level of nested statement. This coding style is good especially when you have long if statement (imagine you need to scroll to the very bottom to know there is an else statement, not cool).

We can further reduce the nesting if, by inverting the conditions & return early. Look at condition 2 below to see how we do it:

/_ return early when invalid conditions found _/

function test(fruit, quantity) {
  const redFruits = ['apple', 'strawberry', 'cherry', 'cranberries'];

  if (!fruit) throw('No fruit!'); // condition 1: throw error early
  if (!redFruits.includes(fruit)) return; // condition 2: stop when fruit is not red

  console.log('red');

  // condition 3: must be big quantity
  if (quantity > 10) {
    console.log('big quantity');
  }
}

By inverting the conditions of condition 2, our code is now free of a nested statement. This technique is useful when we have long logic to go and we want to stop further process when a condition is not fulfilled.

However, that's no hard rule for doing this. Ask yourself, is this version (without nesting) better / more readable than the previous one (condition 2 with nested)?

Therefore, always aim for Less Nesting and Return Early but don't overdo it. There is an article & StackOverflow discussion that talks further on this topic if you interested:

3. Use Default Function Parameters and Destructuring

I guess the code below might look familiar to you, we always need to check for null / undefined value and assign default value when working with JavaScript:

function test(fruit, quantity) {
  if (!fruit) return;
  const q = quantity || 1; // if quantity not provided, default to one

  console.log(`We have ${q} ${fruit}!`);
}

//test results
test('banana'); // We have 1 banana!
test('apple', 2); // We have 2 apple!

In fact, we can eliminate the variable q by assigning default function parameters.

function test(fruit, quantity = 1) { // if quantity not provided, default to one
  if (!fruit) return;
  console.log(`We have ${quantity} ${fruit}!`);
}

//test results
test('banana'); // We have 1 banana!
test('apple', 2); // We have 2 apple!

Much easier & intuitive isn’t it? Please note that each parameter can has it own default function parameter. For example, we can assign default value to fruit too: function test(fruit = 'unknown', quantity = 1).

What if our fruit is an object? Can we assign default parameter?

function test(fruit) { 
  // printing fruit name if value provided
  if (fruit && fruit.name)  {
    console.log (fruit.name);
  } else {
    console.log('unknown');
  }
}

//test results
test(undefined); // unknown
test({ }); // unknown
test({ name: 'apple', color: 'red' }); // apple

Look at the example above, we want to print the fruit name if it's available or we will print unknown. We can avoid the conditional fruit && fruit.name checking with default function parameter & destructing.

// destructing - get name property only
// assign default empty object {}
function test({name} = {}) {
  console.log (name || 'unknown');
}

//test results
test(undefined); // unknown
test({ }); // unknown
test({ name: 'apple', color: 'red' }); // apple

Since we only need property name from fruit, we can destructure the parameter using {name}, then we can use name as variable in our code instead of fruit.name.

We also assign empty object {} as default value. If we do not do so, you will get error when executing the line test(undefined) - Cannot destructure property name of 'undefined' or 'null'. because there is no name property in undefined.

If you don't mind using 3rd party libraries, there are a few ways to cut down null checking:

Here is an example of using Lodash:

// Include lodash library, you will get _
function test(fruit) {
  console.log(_.get(fruit, 'name', 'unknown'); // get property name, if not available, assign default value 'unknown'
}

//test results
test(undefined); // unknown
test({ }); // unknown
test({ name: 'apple', color: 'red' }); // apple

You may run the demo code here. Besides, if you are a fan of Functional Programming (FP), you may opt to use Lodash fp, the functional version of Lodash (method changed to get or getOr).

4. Favor Map / Object Literal than Switch Statement

Let's look at the example below, we want to print fruits based on color:

function test(color) {
  // use switch case to find fruits in color
  switch (color) {
    case 'red':
      return ['apple', 'strawberry'];
    case 'yellow':
      return ['banana', 'pineapple'];
    case 'purple':
      return ['grape', 'plum'];
    default:
      return [];
  }
}

//test results
test(null); // []
test('yellow'); // ['banana', 'pineapple']

The above code seems nothing wrong, but I find it quite verbose. The same result can be achieve with object literal with cleaner syntax:

function test(color) {
  // use object literal to find fruits in color
  const fruitColor = {
    red: ['apple', 'strawberry'],
    yellow: ['banana', 'pineapple'],
    purple: ['grape', 'plum']
  };

  return fruitColor[color] || [];
}

Alternatively, you may use Map to achieve the same result:

function test(color) {
  // use Map to find fruits in color
  const fruitColor = new Map()
    .set('red', ['apple', 'strawberry'])
    .set('yellow', ['banana', 'pineapple'])
    .set('purple', ['grape', 'plum']);

  return fruitColor.get(color) || [];
}

Map is the object type available since ES2015, allow you to store key value pair.

Should we ban the usage of switch statement? Do not limit yourself to that. Personally, I use object literal whenever possible, but I wouldn't set hard rule to block that, use whichever make sense for your scenario.

Todd Motto has an article that dig deeper on switch statement vs object literal, you may read here.

TL;DR; Refactor the syntax

For the example above, we can actually refactor our code to achieve the same result with Array.filter .

function test(color) {
  // use Array filter to find fruits in color
  const fruits = [
    { name: 'apple', color: 'red' }, 
    { name: 'strawberry', color: 'red' }, 
    { name: 'banana', color: 'yellow' }, 
    { name: 'pineapple', color: 'yellow' }, 
    { name: 'grape', color: 'purple' }, 
    { name: 'plum', color: 'purple' }   ];

  return fruits.filter(f => f.color == color);
}

There's always more than 1 way to achieve the same result. We have shown 4 with the same example. Coding is fun!

5. Use Array.every & Array.some for All / Partial Criteria

This last tip is more about utilizing new (but not so new) Javascript Array function to reduce the lines of code. Look at the code below, we want to check if all fruits are in red color:

function test(fruits) {
  const fruits = [
    { name: 'apple', color: 'red' },
    { name: 'banana', color: 'yellow' },
    { name: 'grape', color: 'purple' }
  ];

  let isAllRed = true;

  // condition: all fruits must be red
  for (let f of fruits) {
    if (!isAllRed) break;
    isAllRed = (f.color == 'red');
  }

  console.log(isAllRed); // false
}

The code is so long! We can reduce the number of lines with Array.every:

function test(fruits) {
  const fruits = [
    { name: 'apple', color: 'red' },
    { name: 'banana', color: 'yellow' },
    { name: 'grape', color: 'purple' }
  ];

  // condition: short way, all fruits must be red
  const isAllRed = fruits.every(f => f.color == 'red');

  console.log(isAllRed); // false
}

Much cleaner now right? In a similar way, if we want to test if any of the fruit is red, we can use Array.some to achieve it in one line.

function test(fruits) {
  const fruits = [
    { name: 'apple', color: 'red' },
    { name: 'banana', color: 'yellow' },
    { name: 'grape', color: 'purple' }
  ];

  // condition: if any fruit is red
  const isAnyRed = fruits.some(f => f.color == 'red');

  console.log(isAnyRed); // true
}

Summary

Let's produce more readable code together. I hope you learn something new in this article.

That's all. Happy coding!

JavaScript Tutorial: if-else Statement in JavaScript

JavaScript Tutorial: if-else Statement in JavaScript

This JavaScript tutorial is a step by step guide on JavaScript If Else Statements. Learn how to use If Else in javascript and also JavaScript If Else Statements. if-else Statement in JavaScript. JavaScript's conditional statements: if; if-else; nested-if; if-else-if. These statements allow you to control the flow of your program's execution based upon conditions known only during run time.

Decision Making in programming is similar to decision making in real life. In programming also we face some situations where we want a certain block of code to be executed when some condition is fulfilled.
A programming language uses control statements to control the flow of execution of the program based on certain conditions. These are used to cause the flow of execution to advance and branch based on changes to the state of a program.

JavaScript’s conditional statements:

  • if
  • if-else
  • nested-if
  • if-else-if

These statements allow you to control the flow of your program’s execution based upon conditions known only during run time.

  • if: if statement is the most simple decision making statement. It is used to decide whether a certain statement or block of statements will be executed or not i.e if a certain condition is true then a block of statement is executed otherwise not.
    Syntax:
if(condition) 
{
   // Statements to execute if
   // condition is true
}

Here, condition after evaluation will be either true or false. if statement accepts boolean values – if the value is true then it will execute the block of statements under it.
If we do not provide the curly braces ‘{‘ and ‘}’ after if( condition ) then by default if statement will consider the immediate one statement to be inside its block. For example,

if(condition)
   statement1;
   statement2;

// Here if the condition is true, if block 
// will consider only statement1 to be inside 
// its block.

Flow chart:

Example:

<script type = "text/javaScript"> 

// JavaScript program to illustrate If statement 

var i = 10; 

if (i > 15) 
document.write("10 is less than 15"); 

// This statement will be executed 
// as if considers one statement by default 
document.write("I am Not in if"); 

< /script> 

Output:

I am Not in if
  • if-else: The if statement alone tells us that if a condition is true it will execute a block of statements and if the condition is false it won’t. But what if we want to do something else if the condition is false. Here comes the else statement. We can use the else statement with if statement to execute a block of code when the condition is false.
    Syntax:
if (condition)
{
    // Executes this block if
    // condition is true
}
else
{
    // Executes this block if
    // condition is false
}


Example:

<script type = "text/javaScript"> 

// JavaScript program to illustrate If-else statement 

var i = 10; 

if (i < 15) 
document.write("10 is less than 15"); 
else
document.write("I am Not in if"); 

< /script> 

Output:

i is smaller than 15
  • nested-if A nested if is an if statement that is the target of another if or else. Nested if statements means an if statement inside an if statement. Yes, JavaScript allows us to nest if statements within if statements. i.e, we can place an if statement inside another if statement.
    Syntax:
if (condition1) 
{
   // Executes when condition1 is true
   if (condition2) 
   {
      // Executes when condition2 is true
   }
}

Example:

<script type = "text/javaScript"> 

// JavaScript program to illustrate nested-if statement 

var i = 10; 

if (i == 10) { 

// First if statement 
if (i < 15) 
	document.write("i is smaller than 15"); 

// Nested - if statement 
// Will only be executed if statement above 
// it is true 
if (i < 12) 
	document.write("i is smaller than 12 too"); 
else
	document.write("i is greater than 15"); 
} 
< /script> 

Output:

i is smaller than 15
i is smaller than 12 too
  • if-else-if ladder Here, a user can decide among multiple options.The if statements are executed from the top down. As soon as one of the conditions controlling the if is true, the statement associated with that if is executed, and the rest of the ladder is bypassed. If none of the conditions is true, then the final else statement will be executed.
if (condition)
    statement;
else if (condition)
    statement;
.
.
else
    statement;


Example:

<script type = "text/javaScript"> 
// JavaScript program to illustrate nested-if statement 

var i = 20; 

if (i == 10) 
document.wrte("i is 10"); 
else if (i == 15) 
document.wrte("i is 15"); 
else if (i == 20) 
document.wrte("i is 20"); 
else
document.wrte("i is not present"); 
< /script> 

Output:

i is 20

How to Retrieve full Profile of LinkedIn User using Javascript

How to Retrieve full Profile of LinkedIn User using Javascript

I am trying to retrieve the full profile (especially job history and educational qualifications) of a linkedin user via the Javascript (Fetch LinkedIn Data Using JavaScript)

Here we are fetching LinkedIn data like Username, Email and other fields using JavaScript SDK.

Here we have 2 workarounds.

  1. Configuration of linkedIn developer api
  2. Javascript Code to fetch records

Configuration of linkedIn developer api

In order to fetch records, first we need to create developer api in linkedin which will act as token/identity while fetching data from other linkedin accounts.

So to create api, navigate to https://linkedin.com/developer/apps and click on 'Create Application'.

After navigating, fill in details like name, description and other required fields and then submit.

As we submit, it will create Client ID and Client Secret shown below, which we will be using in our code while communicating to fetch records from other LinkedIn account.

Note: We need to provide localhost Url here under Oauth 2.0. I am using my localhost, but you can probably use other production URLs under Oauth 2.0 where your app is configured. It will make your api  consider the Url as trusted which fetching records.

Javascript Code to fetch records

For getting user details like first name, last name,User image can be written as,

<script type="text/javascript" src="https://platform.linkedin.com/in.js">  
    api_key: XXXXXXX //Client ID  
    onLoad: OnLinkedInFrameworkLoad //Method that will be called on page load  
    authorize: true  
</script>  
<script type="text/javascript">  
    function OnLinkedInFrameworkLoad() {  
        IN.Event.on(IN, "auth", OnLinkedInAuth);  
    }  
  
    function OnLinkedInAuth() {  
        IN.API.Profile("me").result(ShowProfileData);  
    }  
  
    function ShowProfileData(profiles) {  
        var member = profiles.values[0];  
        var id = member.id;  
        var firstName = member.firstName;  
        var lastName = member.lastName;  
        var photo = member.pictureUrl;  
        var headline = member.headline;  
        //use information captured above  
        var stringToBind = "<p>First Name: " + firstName + " <p/><p> Last Name: " + lastName + "<p/><p>User ID: " + id + " and Head Line Provided: " + headline + "<p/>"  
        document.getElementById('profiles').innerHTML = stringToBind;  
    }  
</script>    

Kindly note we need to include 'https://platform.linkedin.com/in.js' as src under script type as it will act on this Javascript SDK provided by Linkedin.

In the same way we can also fetch records of any organization with the companyid as keyword.

<head>  
    <script type="text/javascript" src="https://platform.linkedin.com/in.js">  
        api_key: XXXXXXX ////Client ID  
        onLoad: onLinkedInLoad  
        authorize: true  
    </script>  
</head>  
  
<body>  
    <div id="displayUpdates"></div>  
    <script type="text/javascript">  
        function onLinkedInLoad() {  
            IN.Event.on(IN, "auth", onLinkedInAuth);  
            console.log("On auth");  
        }  
  
        function onLinkedInAuth() {  
            var cpnyID = XXXXX; //the Company ID for which we want updates  
            IN.API.Raw("/companies/" + cpnyID + "/updates?event-type=status-update&start=0&count=10&format=json").result(displayCompanyUpdates);  
            console.log("After auth");  
        }  
  
        function displayCompanyUpdates(result) {  
            var div = document.getElementById("displayUpdates");  
            var el = "<ul>";  
            var resValues = result.values;  
            for (var i in resValues) {  
                var share = resValues[i].updateContent.companyStatusUpdate.share;  
                var isContent = share.content;  
                var isTitled = isContent,  
                    isLinked = isContent,  
                    isDescription = isContent,  
                    isThumbnail = isContent,  
                    isComment = isContent;  
                if (isTitled) {  
                    var title = isContent.title;  
                } else {  
                    var title = "News headline";  
                }  
                var comment = share.comment;  
                if (isLinked) {  
                    var link = isContent.shortenedUrl;  
                } else {  
                    var link = "#";  
                }  
                if (isDescription) {  
                    var description = isContent.description;  
                } else {  
                    var description = "No description";  
                }  
                /* 
                if (isThumbnailz) { 
                var thumbnailUrl = isContent.thumbnailUrl; 
                } else { 
                var thumbnailUrl = "http://placehold.it/60x60"; 
                } 
                */  
                if (share) {  
                    var content = "<a target='_blank' href=" + link + ">" + comment + "</a><br>";  
                    //el += "<li><img src='" + thumbnailUrl + "' alt=''>" + content + "</li>";  
                    el += "<li><div>" + content + "</div></li>";  
                }  
                console.log(share);  
            }  
            el += "</ul>";  
            document.getElementById("displayUpdates").innerHTML = el;  
        }  
    </script>  
</body>  

We can get multiple metadata while fetching records for any any organization. We can get company updates as shown below.

Conclusion

We can also fetch any company specific data like company job updates/post, total likes, comments, and number of views along with a lot of metadata we can fetch which I have shown below.

Thank you for reading !

7 Best Javascript Iframe Libraries

7 Best Javascript Iframe Libraries

Iframes let you build user experiences into embeddable ‘cross-domain components’, which let users interact with other sites without being redirected. I have compiled 7 best Javascript iframe libraries.

Iframes let you build user experiences into embeddable ‘cross-domain components’, which let users interact with other sites without being redirected. I have compiled 7 best Javascript iframe libraries.

1. Zoid

A cross-domain component toolkit, supporting:

  • Render an iframe or popup on a different domain, and pass down props, including objects and functions
  • Call callbacks natively from the child window without worrying about post-messaging or cross-domain restrictions
  • Create and expose components to share functionality from your site to others!
  • Render your component directly as a React, Vue or Angular component!
    It's 'data-down, actions up' style components, but 100% cross-domain using iframes and popups!

Download


2. Postmate

Postmate is a promise-based API built on postMessage. It allows a parent page to speak with a child iFrame across origins with minimal effort.

Download


3. Iframe Resizer

Keep same and cross domain iFrames sized to their content with support for window/content resizing, in page links, nesting and multiple iFrames

Demo

Download


4. Iframely

Embed proxy. Supports over 1800 domains via custom parsers, oEmbed, Twitter Cards and Open Graph

Demo

Download


5. React Frame component

This component allows you to encapsulate your entire React application or per component in an iFrame.

Demo

Download


6. Seamless.js

A seamless iframe makes it so that visitors are unable to distinguish between content within the iframe and content beside the iframe. Seamless.js is a JavaScript library (with no dependencies) that makes working with iframes easy by doing all the seamless stuff for you automatically.

Demo

Download


7. Porthole

A proxy to safely communicate to cross-domain iframes in javascript

Demo

Download


Thank for read!