Ben Taylor

Ben Taylor

1664156040

Top 10 Yield Aggregators projects on Ethereum

In this article, you will see Top 10 Yield Aggregators projects on Ethereum

1. Yearn.finance

NamedescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
Yearn.finance

Yearn.finance is an aggregator service for decentralized finance (DeFi) investors, using automation to allow them to maximize profits from yield farming.

Yearn.finance set out to simplify DeFi investment and activities such as yield farming for the broader investor sector.

The platform makes use of various bespoke tools to act as an aggregator for DeFi protocols such as Curve, Compound and Aave, bringing those who stake cryptocurrency the highest possible yield.

YFIBinancehttps://yearn.finance/

2. Harvest

NamedescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
HarvestHarvest is described to automatically farm the highest yield available from the newest DeFi protocols, and optimizes the yields that are received using the latest farming techniques. FARM is the governance token for Harvest. It is claimed that FARM holders can vote on proposals for the FARM operational treasury and receive the 5% fee from Harvest operations.
 
FARMBinancehttps://harvest.finance/

3. Bella

NamedescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
Bella

Bella Protocol is a platform that provides a suite of DeFi products designed to make crypto banking simpler and more accessible. The protocol aims to create a better user experience by eliminating the high fee and slow transaction issues that can affect some blockchain platforms — while simultaneously improving the user experience through its simplified DeFi smart portal.

Bella's smart pool feature allows users to access the best yields available in the DeFi market, while benefiting from nearly zero gas fees — since these are directly subsidized by the platform.

The protocol was built by the ARPA team, a blockchain-based layer 2 solution for privacy-preserving computation. The BEL token is an essential component of the Bella Protocol ecosystem and serves as both a reward token that allows holders to participate in the governance of the platform.

BEL can be used to farm fee rewards from the network, get exclusive discounts on Bella protocol products (such as its robo-advisor tool), and for earning staking rewards.

 

BELBinancehttps://bella.fi/

4. Alpha Homora

NamedescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
Alpha Homora

Alpha Venture DAO is a community of daring individuals who aspire to shape the future of Web3 and expand the Web3 ecosystem together with a network of Web3 industry leaders and Alpha community. Alpha Venture DAO aims to be a massive ecosystem of decentralized applications that capture value regardless of which chains or sectors dominate Web3 in the future.

Alpha Venture DAO and ALPHA will be the gateway for the community to contribute meaningfully and "truly" own high-quality Web3 projects. If you believe in Web3 innovation, then Alpha Venture DAO is the place for you. ALPHA token is no longer a token for just one single product or project, but rather a proxy for Web3 innovation.

ALPHABinancehttps://homora.alphaventuredao.io/

5. Akropolis

NamedescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
Akropolis

Akropolis is a company that operates an Ethereum-based decentralized finance protocol that seeks to provide an autonomous financial ecosystem for saving and growing wealth, including through borrowing and lending.

To do so, it offers a series of products including AkropolisOS, a framework for developing for-profit decentralized autonomous organizations, Sparta, a platform for uncollateralized lending, and Delphi, a yield farming aggregator and tool for dollar-cost averaging.

The project uses an ERC-20 token, AKRO, for protocol governance across its suite of products.

AKROBinancehttps://www.akropolis.io/

6. Frontier

NamedescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
Frontier

Frontier is a chain-agnostic decentralized finance (DeFi) aggregator. The project aims to add DeFi support to several blockchains, including BandChain (BAND), Ethereum (ETH), Binance Smart Chain (BSC) and Harmony (ONE).

Frontier’s applications allow users to manage staking, DeFi positions, best-rate asset swapping, liquidity mining, and collateralized debt position (CDP) creation and monitoring.

FRONTBinancehttps://frontier.xyz/

7. o3swap

NamedescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
o3swapO3 Swap is the first cross-chain aggregation protocol that enables free trading of native assets between heterogeneous chains, by deploying "aggregator + asset cross-chain pool" on different public chains and Layer2, provides users to enable cross-chain transactions with one click. Currently, it has access to Heco, ETH, BSC, Neo, and will expand to Polkadot, Polygon, and other ecosystems in the future.o3MEXChttps://o3swap.com/swap

8. Vesper

NamedescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
Vesper

Vesper Finance is a platform of DeFi primitives designed to make your money work harder for you. Vesper works as a "metalayer" for DeFi, routing deposits to highest yield opportunities within risk tolerance for the particular pool. Products are non-custodial and auto-compounding.

Under-the-hood, Vesper enables a truly set-and-forget experience at scale through a unique approach that enables yield aggregating "strategies" to be upgraded, replaced, connected, and concurrent – all with no added burden on the end user.

VSPGatehttps://vesper.finance/

9. Idle

NamedescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
IdleThrough Idle, crypto investors can establish a portfolio that best manages their risk appetite. Once users make a deposit, funds are automatically distributed among a range of DeFi protocols, enabling them to earn interest. Portfolios are regularly rebalanced when better opportunities come along, and a dashboard offers at an at-a-glance insight into how funds are performing.
 
IDLEHotbithttps://idle.finance/

10. Pickle

NamedescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
Pickle

Pickle Finance is a yield aggregator that compounds LPs across various chains. Users realise the power of compounding, while saving time and money compared to manual farming. Pickle Finance has Jars, and Farms. Jars compound returns from other protocols, creating a pToken. Farms provide extra Pickle rewards for staking a jars pToken.

The Pickle Protocol is governed by DILL holders (users that stake PICKLE) who are able to create and vote on proposals for changes to the protocol. DILL holders also get to share in 45% of protocol revenues, as well as boost the PICKLE rewards on their farms.

PICKLEGatehttps://www.pickle.finance/

Read more: Decentralized Lending projects on Ethereum Network

I hope this article will help you. Thank you for reading !

#blockchain #bitcoin #cryptocurrency #eth #ethereum

Top 10 Yield Aggregators projects on Ethereum

Ethereum Merge - A Simplified Guide

The "Ethereum Merge" has been the talk of the town for the past few weeks, with Google hyping it more with a countdown timer featuring two Pandas approaching each other and quoting the merge date of September 15, 2022. Ethereum’s successful merge is a huge step for the community and a pathway towards mainstream adoption that can bring in billions of users to Web 3. Ethereum's blockchain, being the base for thousands of upcoming and well-known firms, has taken this valiant leap in conserving the environment as well as increasing the speed and scalability.

A significant upgrade to its blockchain network—the Merge, Ethereum, the second largest crypto token—has now switched from a proof-of-work (POW) mechanism to a proof-of-stake (POS) mechanism.According to Ethereum developers, this upgrade will make the $60 billion ecosystem that houses crypto exchanges, lending companies, Non Fungible Token (NFT) market places, and other applications more secure and long-lasting.

The Merge officially kicked in at 6:43 am UTC, with more than 45,000 people watching with bated breath on Youtube in the "Ethereum Mainnet Merge Viewing Party." The key metrics trickled in, suggesting that Ethereum’s core systems had remained intact. After about a 15-minute wait, the $200 billion market value giant declared the merge successful. This Ethereum Merge will mark the beginning of energy-efficient crypto operations, which will accelerate the drive for mass adoption of crypto-related products and services.
 

What is Ethereum Merge & its Fundamentals?

In 2008, Bitcoin introduced the world to the idea of decentralized blockchains that facilitate the process of transactions and track assets. The history of any transaction on the blockchain is unaltered because of its distributed and transparent nature across the network.

And with the introduction of Ethereum in 2015, expanding the core concept of Bitcoin with smart computer programmes that effectively use the blockchain as global supercomputers by recording the data on their network.

Decentralized Finance ( DeFi ) and Non Fungible Tokens ( NFTs ), the main catalyst of the recent crypto boom run on the Ethereum blockchain. Unlike a centralized system where a centralized agency or government facilitates the process, Depending on your peers to facilitate the transaction happens in decentralized system. The validators are a set of people or groups who authenticate the transactions. These validators put up collateral that they could stake, earning them rewards in the form of crypto tokens if they validated it correctly. In the event that they screw up or are not able to validate, then their stake is partially or wholly seized by the network. Working on this basic principle, the blockchains have paved two ways of achieving consensus, namely, Proof Of Work ( POW ) and Proof Of Stake ( POS ).


Proof Of Work (POW)   

In Proof Of Work, the investment comes in the form of a significant amount of computational energy being spent on solving complicated mathematical algorithms and equations quickly in order to validate new transactions and keep winning crypto blocks as rewards. Bitcoin, Ethereum, and other major blockchain giants that use Proof of Work consensus typically have massive warehouses stacked with computing machines like shelves of books, with each computer hot to the touch as it strains to run around the clock pumping out cryptocurrencies.

If the validator correctly authenticates, he is rewarded; if they get it wrong, they receive nothing and have wasted a lot of time and energy. The energy lost is comparatively very high and affects global electricity consumption. The Ethereum blockchain consumes as much energy as the entire country of Finland, consuming so much energy and being responsible for one of the blockchain sectors that greatly exploits the environment. This led to the new concept of "Proof Of Stake."
 

Proof Of Stake (POS)

In this Proof Of Stake method, you don’t need validators to run massive supercomputers. These validators are skinned in the game by "staking" some of their own coins. The investment is made by a user who has a significant amount of existing crypto in the network, such as the Ethereum blockchain blocking down 32 ETH for transaction validation and sending them to an address where they cannot be bought or sold.These stacked ETH tokens act like lottery tokens. The more ETH a validator stacks, the higher the probability of them being selected.

Stakeholders who breach the rule by spending their staked wager or are caught recording inaccurate data risk losing their entire wages. Here, the stakeholders are willing to bear the risk of staking a huge amount in return for a chance to make massive profits. The energy consumption in Proof Of Stake is not even a rounding error in terms of environmental impact. The Ethereum blockchain has fundamentally shifted to this mechanism, which consumes 99.90% less energy.With this new mechanism adopted in place, shifting the entire algorithm proving that a decentralized and permission less network can operate energy efficiently.

Proof Of Stake is like running an application on your MacBook, such as Slack, Google Chrome, or Netflix, even while being plugged in for electricity. It will not have an environmental impact.
 

The Merge - It's Incentives & Trades


The Ethereum network is better understood as a kind of living organism that works together, a bunch of computers interacting with each other in the same language, following an identical set of rules. A new set of incentives is introduced for the parties operating these computers to follow the rules as written to secure the blockchain from unwanted tampering. With energy consumption dropping to the base and the applications already running on the Ethereum blockchain gaining benefits, investors will be much more interested and concerned. Unlike the Proof of Work mechanism, which converts physical resources into network security, the Proof of Stake merger connects financial resources to security.

The Ethereum blockchain will no longer be concentrated in the hands of a few publicly traded mining syndicates; instead, the old power players will be replaced by new genuine stake holders, breaking down the monumental dream of those syndicates. The Merge has become an object of speculation in the crypto market since mid-July, with traders pricing in post-merge gains, easing the clash in the digital asset market earlier this year. In a recent note, Bank Of America used the example of an insurance company, "Nexus Mutual," to describe the merger benefit in detail. Nexus Mutual has been doling out insurance policies for those dealing with crypto hacks using Ethereum's blockchain. The network allows you to collect premiums, pool all of your money, invest it in Ether stakes, verify transactions, and earn huge profit rewards in exchange for replacing government bonds, which only provide mediocre returns.

Conclusion:

ETH fanatics are already looking forward to "the surge, the verge, the purge, and the splurge" in the blockchain network. Though the partial adoption of sharding in the ETH ecosystem has already boosted the speed, a complete adoption will supercharge the blockchain to process high volumes of transactions in mere seconds. Sharding will increase the speed of the system from its current capacity of 15-20 transactions per second to 100,000 transactions per second.

Ethereum has officially bid adieu to its miners, who undertook block validation in its previous POW avatar. These miners, who racked in about $19 billion last year through mining coins, are completely rattled. Hence, Ethereum Merge will undoubtedly provide numerous benefits to developers, end users, and the environment.

#ethereum #eth #merge #crypto 

Ethereum Merge - A Simplified Guide
Ben Taylor

Ben Taylor

1663139040

Marketplace projects on Ethereum Network

An NFT marketplace is a digital platform for buying and selling NFTs. These platforms allow people to store and display their NFTs plus sell them to others for cryptocurrency or money. Some NFT marketplaces also allow users to mint their NFTs on the platform itself.

In exchange for a fee, the NFT marketplace will typically handle the transfer of an NFT from one party to the other.

Each NFT marketplace has its own system for how it operates. The types of NFTs available, fees, payment options, permitted blockchains and other rules will depend on which one you use.

In this article, you will see top 10 Marketplace projects on Ethereum Network

1. OpenSea

NameDescribeWebsite
OpenSea

OpenSea is an NFT marketplace built for Ethereum. Founded in 2017, it works as a platform for listing and trading non-fungible tokens created on the blockchain. Did you know that OpenSea is also considered one of the best NFT apps available in 2022?

Although the first version of OpenSea was designed with CryptoKitties in mind, it quickly became apparent that there was potential to create a more general platform. The company soon adopted the name “OpenSea”, and began designing an Ethereum NFT marketplace that would support many different types of blockchain games and applications.

OpenSea was founded by Devin Finzer and Alex Atallah who are known as the first NFT billionaires. However, the company is no longer a CryptoKitty-focused entity. It’s grown into a marketplace for various digital assets such as: Art, Domain games, Game items, Music

https://opensea.io/

2. LooksRare

NameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
LooksRare

LooksRare is a community-first NFT marketplace that vows to focus on rewarding traders, collectors and creators. It prides itself on being founded “by NFT people for NFT people.” The platform launched with an airdrop to wallets that had generated a minimum of 3 ETH transaction volume on OpenSea. Over 110,000 wallets were able to claim LOOKS, amounting to 60% of all eligible wallets.

Its community-first approach is defined by three key pillars:

Rewarding users: users buying or selling NFTs on the platform receive rewards in LOOKS.

Redistributing platform fees: 100% of generated fees go to stakers.
Instant creator payout: creators receive royalty payments at the moment of sale.

LooksRare is built with modular smart contracts, allowing the platform to roll out new features over time.

 

LOOKSBybithttps://looksrare.org/


3. Gitcoin

NameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
Gitcoin

Gitcoin is a marketplace of freelance gigs and bounties for open source projects.

Gitcoin describes itself as a community of builders, creators and protocols that have come together in order to develop the future of the open internet.

Gitcoin creates a community that supports new infrastructure for Web3 — includingn tools, technologies and networks — to foster development in the open-source sphere.

GTC is Gitcoin’s governance token, launched in late May 2021. The token is needed for the creation and funding of the DAO that will govern Gitcoin.

GTCBinancehttps://gitcoin.co/

4. Superrare

NameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
Superrare

SuperRare is a marketplace to collect and trade unique, single-edition digital artworks.

SuperRare emerged from its 1.0 version, where the core team hand-picked and approved artists to mint their works on a shared smart contract as SuperRare NFTs.

SuperRare 2.0 changed that by introducing web-scale curation, independently running storefronts on the platform, and sovereign minting contracts for the artists to mint, promote, and sell their works directly to collectors.

By embarking on this path of progressive decentralization, SuperRare shifted ownership and governance of the network to the community. SuperRare 2.0 is a DAO, a decentralized organization that oversees key platform parameters, allocates funds from the Community Treasury, and votes on proposed improvements to the network and protocol.

RAREBinancehttps://superrare.com/

5. Gem

NameDescribeWebsite
GemGem.xyz is an NFT Aggregator. You can buy multiple NFTs(aka sweep floor) using Gem Web 3 shopping cart, pay with any token and save up to 39% on gas fees.https://www.gem.xyz/

6. Foundation

NameDescribeWebsite
Foundation

Foundation is a web3 destination. Foundation is a marketplace platform for buying, selling, and trading limited-edition goods.

In web3, your creativity is valued and your digital objects belong to you.

https://foundation.app/

7. LocalCryptos

NameDescribeWebsite
LocalCryptos

Hackers are stealing billions from centralized exchanges every year. There's a new million-dollar heist nearly every week.

Non-custodial platforms are immune from these threats because they don't hold users' private keys. On LocalCryptos, users trade with each other — not with us.

LocalCryptos enables you to buy and sell crypto using non-custodial wallets and a non-custodial escrow system — powered by smart contracts.

Although LocalCryptos is much more secure, we built it in such a way that it looks and feels similar to an ordinary custodial platform — so that you don't need to be an expert to make an exchange.

Using a non-custodial peer-to-peer marketplace means we don't hold the keys to your crypto — even during escrow.

LocalCryptos (LocalEthereum) is a self-custodial peer-to-peer local ETH marketplace.

https://localcryptos.com/

8. Knownorigin

NameDescribeWebsite
KnownoriginKnownOrigin lets you discover, showcase & buy digital artwork + NFT collectibles.https://knownorigin.io/

9. NFTKEY

NameDescribeWebsite
NFTKEY

NFTKEY Marketplace lets you unlock quick and easy access to digital collectibles and explore, buy and sell NFTs from different blockchains and artists.

Our marketplace supports multiple EVM based blockchains including Fantom, Harmony One, BNB Smart Chain, Avalanche, Polygon and Ethereum.

NFTs from collections supported can be listed for sale, bid on, bought and sold without any centralised servers. All of these events and actions are written on-chain for full transparency and accessibility.

The NFTKEY interface directly interacts with the NFTKEY Marketplace Smart Contract on the blockchain. All listing, buying and bidding actions are P2P transactions without involvement of any centralised services.

Our philosophy at NFTKEY is to provide a great user experience and embrace the blockchain decentralisation ethos. NFTKEY is a non-custodial marketplace, so your NFTs are never locked in a smart contract and never leave your wallet unless a buyer buys directly from you.

This means you can list on multiple 'non-custodial decentralised marketplaces' at once. We believe people should always retain full control of their own digital assets and they should remain in their own wallets.

Locking NFTs in another smart contract to be listed onto a marketplace is counter to what decentralisation is about.

https://nftkey.app/

10. Rarible

NameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
Rarible

Rarible is a creator-centric NFT marketplace and issuance platform that utilizes the RARI token to empower users who actively interact with the protocol.

Users on the Rarible platform can easily create non-fungible tokens (NFTs) for unique digital items like artworks, game items and more. The platform offers users a fully-featured marketplace that is filtered and sorted using different categories to create a smooth and easy user experience.

Anyone can create and post NFTs on the Rarible marketplace. The RARI token is a fundamental pillar of the platform as it is used to reward active users and for participating in the governance of the protocol.

RARIGate.iohttps://rarible.com/

11. X

NameDescribeWebsite
XX is a community-owned, cross-chain NFT marketplace. X enables users to collect, create and sell NFTs across multiple blockchains on the decentralized marketplace.https://x.xyz/

Top exchanges for NFT token trading: ☞ BinancePoloniexBitfinexHuobiMXCProBITGate.io

Read more: Stablecoins projects on Ethereum Network

I hope this article will help you. Thank you for reading !

#blockchain #bitcoin #cryptocurrency #eth #ethereum #nft 

Marketplace projects on Ethereum Network
Ben Taylor

Ben Taylor

1662860460

Payments Solutions and Service Providers projects on Ethereum Network

In this article, you will see top 20 Payments Solutions and Service Providers projects on Ethereum Network

1. Matic

NameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
Matic

Polygon (previously Matic Network) is the first well-structured, easy-to-use platform for Ethereum scaling and infrastructure development. Its core component is Polygon SDK, a modular, flexible framework that supports building multiple types of applications.

Using Polygon, one can create optimistic rollup chains, ZK rollup chains, stand alone chains or any other kind of infra required by the developer.

Polygon effectively transforms Ethereum into a full-fledged multi-chain system (aka Internet of Blockchains). This multi-chain system is akin to other ones such as Polkadot, Cosmos, Avalanche etc. with the advantages of Ethereum’s security, vibrant ecosystem and openness.

MATICBinancehttps://polygon.technology/

2. OMG Network

NameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
OMG Network

OMG Network, formerly known as OmiseGo, is a non-custodial, layer-2 scaling solution built for the Ethereum blockchain. As an Ethereum scaling solution, OMG Network is designed to allow users to transfer ETH and ERC20 tokens significantly faster and cheaper than when transacting directly on the Ethereum network.

The network is based on a novel scaling solution called MoreViable Plasma, which uses a sidechain architecture to group several transactions off-chain into a batch, which can then be verified as a single transaction on the Ethereum root chain. According to OMG Network, this technology has the potential to scale Ethereum to thousands of transactions per second (TPS) — instead of the 10 to 14 tps Ethereum 1.0 is currently capable of.

The network is powered by the OMG utility token, which can be used as one of the payment methods for fees on the OMG Network, and will eventually be stakable — helping to secure the network in return for rewards.

OMGBinancehttps://omg.network/

3. Celer Network

NameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
Celer Network

Celer Network is a layer-2 scaling platform that enables fast and secure off-chain transactions for not only payment transactions, but also generalized off-chain smart contract.

Developers can build inter-chain-native Dapps using the Celer Inter-chain Messaging Framework to gain access to efficient liquidity utilization, coherent application logic, and shared states.

Users of Celer-enabled dApps will enjoy the benefits of a diverse multi-blockchain ecosystem with the simplicity of a single-transaction UX, all from a single chain.

CELRBinancehttps://www.celer.network/#

4. Persistence

NameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
Persistence

Persistence is a Tendermint based specialized Layer-1 powering an ecosystemof DeFi dApps focused on unlocking the liquidity of staked assets.

Persistence is enabling exposure to multiple asset classes such as Liquid Staking (pSTAKE), NFTs (Asset Mantle) and Synthetics (Comdex). Persistence’s mission is to create an ecosystem of multi-chain Web3 products designed to stimulate global liquidity and enable seamless value exchange.

Persistence’s Core mainnet is a Proof-of-Stake chain powered by Tendermint BFT consensus engine. Persistence’s multi-chain tech stack (currently supporting Cosmos, Ethereum and other Tendermint-based chains) abstracts away the complexities for developers and enables them to create DEXs, marketplaces, lending/borrowing platforms etc.

Persistence is also working on developing inter-chain NFT and Metadata standards along with leading Proof-of-Stake networks/foundations. Being one of the pioneers in Proof-of-Stake industry, Persistence also supports upcoming PoS networks through it’s validator arm AUDIT.one.

XPRTHuobihttps://persistence.one/

5. Shapeshift

NameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
ShapeshiftShapeShift is a 100% self-custody platform, meaning the user always controls their keys. ShapeShift does not collect personal information and adds no trading fees. The project’s governance and utility token, FOX, granted on all trades, makes trading more competitively priced than going directly to DEXs.FOXMEXChttps://shapeshift.com/

6. Xion Finance

NameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
Xion FinanceXion Finance is a multi-chain crypto payment processor most commonly used for metaverses, NFT marketplaces, gaming and e-commerce storesXGTLbankhttps://www.xion.global/

Xion Global is a multi-chain crypto payment processor most commonly used for metaverses, NFT marketplaces, gaming and e-commerce stores.

Using Xion Global, merchants can easily integrate Web3 checkout buttons into any commerce store, create payment links to send and share with clients, install Xion’s e-commerce plugins or integrate Xion’s API/SDK solution for a full custom crypto payment solution.

7. Sablier

NameDescribeWebsite
SablierSablier is the protocol for real-time finance on Ethereum, that enables continuous, autonomous and trustless payroll.https://sablier.finance/

8. zkSync

NameDescribeWebsite
zkSynczkSync is a trustless protocol for scalable low-cost payments on Ethereum, powered by zkRollup technology.https://zksync.io/

9. Superfluid

NameDescribeWebsite
SuperfluidSuperfluid is a novel crypto asset streaming protocol that enables transformative web3 money experiences like salary and subscription streaming, real-time investing, and more – all on-chainhttps://www.superfluid.finance/home

10. StablePay

NameDescribeWebsite
StablePayStablePay enables ERC20 tokens payments converted to DAI and cDAI. https://stablepay.vercel.app/

11. Connext

NameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
ConnextConnext enables users to batch many Ethereum transactions into one netted transfer by using signed off-blockchain commitments rather than direct on-blockchain transactions.  https://www.connext.network/

12. Mobilecoin

NameDescribeWebsite
MobilecoinMobile cryptocurrency payment platformhttps://mobilecoin.com/

 

13. Swapin

NameDescribeWebsite
SwapinUltra-fast payments between crypto and bankshttps://www.swapin.com/

Read more: DEX projects on Ethereum Network

I hope this article will help you. Thank you for reading !

#blockchain #bitcoin #cryptocurrency #eth #ethereum #payments  

Payments Solutions and Service Providers projects on Ethereum Network
Ben Taylor

Ben Taylor

1662795600

Decentralized Lending projects on Ethereum Network

In this article, you will see top 20 Decentralized Lending projects on Ethereum Network

1. Aave

NameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
Aave

Aave is an Open Source and Non-Custodial protocol to earn interest on deposits & borrow assets.

AAVE provides holders with discounted fees on the platform, and it also serves as a governance token — giving owners a say in the future development of the protocol.

AAVEBinancehttps://aave.com/

2. Compound

NameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
Compound

Compound is an open-source, autonomous protocol built for developers, enable algorithmic, efficient money markets on the Ethereum.

Compound is a DeFi lending protocol that allows users to earn interest on their cryptocurrencies by depositing them into one of several pools supported by the platform.

When a user deposits tokens to a Compound pool, they receive cTokens in return. These cTokens represent the individual’s stake in the pool and can be used to redeem the underlying cryptocurrency initially deposited into the pool at any time. For example, by depositing ETH into a pool, you will receive cETH in return. Over time, the exchange rate of these cTokens to the underlying asset increases, which means you can redeem them for more of the underlying asset than you initially put in — this is how the interest is distributed.

On the flip side, borrowers can take a secured loan from any Compound pool by depositing collateral. The maximum loan-to-value (LTV) ratio varies based on the collateral asset, but currently ranges from 50 to 75%. The interest rate paid varies by borrowed asset and borrowers can face automatic liquidation if their collateral falls below a specific maintenance threshold.

COMPBinancehttps://compound.finance/

3. Kava

Kava

Kava is a Layer-1 blockchain that combines the speed and interoperability of Cosmos with the developer power of Ethereum.

The Kava Network uses a developer-optimized co-chain architecture. The Ethereum Co-Chain enables support for EVM smart contracts while the Cosmos Co-Chain enables the lightning-fast Tendermint consensus engine and the Inter Blockchain Communication Protocol (IBC).

The two co-chains are connected by a translator module that enables them to interoperate seamlessly, bringing the two most used blockchain development environments together in a single, scalable network.

The Kava Network features a native governance and utility token, KAVA, that can be staked by validators or delegated to validator nodes. Stakers and delegators earn 37.5% of all KAVA emissions as a reward for securing the network. Kava stakers also have voting rights in network governance proposals.
 

KAVABinancehttps://www.kava.io/

4. Cream Finance

NameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
Cream Finance

CREAM Finance is a decentralized DeFi lending protocol for individuals, institutions and protocols to access financial services. Part of the yearn.finance ecosystem,

CREAM Finance is a permissionless, open source and blockchain agnostic protocol serving users on Ethereum, Binance Smart Chain Polygon and Fantom.

Users who are passively holding Ether or wBTC can deposit their assets on CREAM. to earn yield, similar to a traditional savings account. 

CREAMBinancehttps://cream.finance/

5. Maple

NameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
Maple

Maple is a decentralized corporate credit market. Maple offers borrowers transparent and efficient financing completed entirely on-chain.

For liquidity providers, Maple offers a sustainable yield source through lending to diversified pools of crypto’s premium institutions. The Pool Delegates that manage these pools perform diligence and set terms with Borrowers.

MPLGate.iohttps://maple.finance/ 

6. TrueFi

NameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
TrueFi

TrueFi is a protocol for creating interest-bearing pools with a high APR for liquidity providers. TrueFi includes utility and rewards mechanisms using TrustTokens (TRU) and rewards participants for maintaining stable, high APRs.

TRU is the native token of the TrueFi protocol and is used for: TrustToken holders ultimately have a say over who is a credible borrower in the prediction market.

TRUBinancehttps://truefi.io/

7. Wing Finance

NameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
Wing

Wing is a credit-based, decentralized platform designed for crypto-asset lending and cross-chain communication between decentralized finance (DeFi) projects. The project aims to make crypto lending services more inclusive through a credit evaluation module that removes the need for large collaterals. Wing is a decentralized autonomous organization (DAO) that allows users to take part in decision-making, product design and operations.

Wing uses decentralized governance coupled with a risk control mechanism to improve the relationships between creditors, borrowers and guarantors. This has led to an improvement in the number of and accessibility to DeFi projects utilizing the platform. One of the goals of Wing DAO is to solve the issue of over-collateralization that plagues the DeFi industry.

WING

 

Binancehttps://wing.finance/ 

8. Alchemix

NameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
AlchemixAlchemix is a future-yield-backed synthetic asset platform with flexible instant loans that repay themselves over time and community DAO. The platform advances your yield farming via a synthetic token representing a fungible claim on any underlying collateral in the Alchemix protocolALCXBinancehttps://alchemix.fi/

9. Liquity

NameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
Liquity

Liquity is a decentralized borrowing protocol that allows you to draw interest-free loans against Ether used as collateral.

Ether holders can draw loans in the form of LQTY with algorithmically adjusted redemption and loan issuance fees.

LQTYHuobihttps://www.liquity.org/

10. Goldfinch

NameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
Goldfinch

Goldfinch is a global credit protocol that offers sustainable, high-quality stablecoin yields that are generated by real-world economic activity and sheltered from DeFi's volatility.

GFI is an Ethereum token that governs Goldfinch, which ultimately aims to make DeFi lending more accessible by enabling loans that can use both on and off chain collateral.

GFIGate.iohttps://goldfinch.finance/

10. Unit protocol

NameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
Unit protocolUnit Protocol is a decentralized protocol that allows you to mint stablecoin $USDP using a variety of tokens as collateralDUCKGate.iohttps://unit.xyz/

12. Yield Protocol

NameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
Yield Protocol

Yield Protocol is an open source platform allowing anybody to create and execute yield farming & trading strategies on the Ethereum Defi ecosystem. Yield Protocol is designed to minimize smart contract risk by simplifying the abilities of each contract.

Yields Protocol's design allows anybody to design financial strategies that others can leverage without giving them access to their funds. Yield Protocols modular design allows for multitude of purposes.

Design and deploy yield farming strategies, algo trading, lending and everything in between. These aspects with ever growing arsenals of supporter protocols and pools, makes YieldProtocol the perfect solution.

YIELDGate.iohttps://yieldprotocol.org/

13. 88mph

NameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
88mph

88mph lets you lend your crypto assets at a fixed interest rate. 

Earn fixed-rate interest on your crypto. Earn MPH rewards. Get started by adding your crypto assets to the pools below.

MPHMEXChttps://88mph.app/

14. Notional

NameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
Notional

Notional is a fixed rate lending and borrowing platform on Ethereum.

Notional is the first decentralized, Ethereum-based protocol for borrowing and lending at fixed rates and fixed terms. With variable rate lending, DeFi can only serve a small segment of the crypto lending market because variable interest rates don’t provide the certainty that lenders and borrowers require.

Notional fixes this by creating a true market for lenders and borrowers that democratizes and empowers individual investors, business owners and institutional investors.

NOTECoinExhttps://notional.finance/

15. Oasis Borrow

NameDescribeWebsite
Oasis BorrowOasis Borrow allows you to lock your tokens as collateral to generate DAI, a decentralized stablecoin soft-pegged to 1 USD.https://oasis.app/#multiply

16. Fulcrum

NameDescribeWebsite
FulcrumFulcrum is the platform for tokenized margin trading and lending, enables users to lend assets for interest or enter into short/leveraged positions.https://fulcrum.trade/

17. Torque

NameDescribeWebsite
TorqueTorque is a powerful DeFi platform for borrowing assets with indefinite-term loans and fixed interest rates.https://torque.loans/

Top exchanges for token-coin trading on ETH ecosystem: ☞ BinancePoloniexBitfinexHuobiMXCProBITGate.io


Read more: DeFi Infrastructure & Dev Tooling projects on Ethereum Network

I hope this article will help you. Thank you for reading !

#blockchain #bitcoin #cryptocurrency #eth #ethereum #dex 

Decentralized Lending projects on Ethereum Network
Ben Taylor

Ben Taylor

1662698640

DEX projects on Ethereum Network

In this article, you will see top 20 (Decentralized exchanges) DEX projects on Ethereum Network
 

1. Curve

NameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
Curve

Curve is a decentralized exchange for stablecoins that uses an automated market maker (AMM) to manage liquidity on Ethereum

Curve launched a decentralized autonomous organization (DAO), with CRV as its in-house token. The DAO uses Ethereum-based creation tool Aragon to connect multiple smart contracts used for users’ deposited liquidity.

CRVBinancehttps://curve.fi/

2. Uniswap

NameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
Uniswap

Uniswap is an automated fully decentralized token exchange on Ethereum

Uniswap aims to keep token trading automated and completely open to anyone who holds tokens, while improving the efficiency of trading versus that on traditional exchanges.

Uniswap creates more efficiency by solving liquidity issues with automated solutions, avoiding the problems which plagued the first decentralized exchanges.

UNIBinancehttps://uniswap.org/

3. dYdX

NameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
dYdX

DYDX (dYdX) is the governance token for the layer 2 protocol of the eponymous non-custodial decentralized cryptocurrency exchange. It serves to facilitate the operation of layer 2 and allows traders, liquidity providers and partners to contribute to the definition of the protocol's future as a community.

Token holders are granted the right to propose changes on the dYdX’s layer 2, and are presented with an opportunity to profit through token staking and trading fee discounts.

Built on Starkwire’s StarkEx scalability engine, layer 2 is used for trading of cross-margined perpetuals on the platform. The scaling solution allows dYdX to increase transaction speed, eliminate gas costs, reduce trading fees and lower​​ minimum trade sizes on the protocol.

An open-source platform with smart contract functionality, dYdX is designed for users to lend, borrow and trade crypto assets. Although dYdX supports spot trading, the main focus of the platform is on derivatives and margin trading.

DYDXBinancehttps://dydx.community/dashboard

 

4. SushiSwap

NameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
SushiSwap

The SushiSwap exchange allows users to swap any ERC20 token into any other ERC20 token through automated liquidity pools.

SushiSwap (SUSHI) is an example of an automated market maker (AMM). An increasingly popular tool among cryptocurrency users, AMMs are decentralized exchanges which use smart contracts to create markets for any given pair of tokens.

SUSHIBinancehttps://sushi.com/

5. 1inch.exchange

NameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
1inch.exchange

The 1inch Network unites decentralized protocols whose synergy enables the most lucrative, fastest, and protected operations in the DeFi space.

The 1inch Network's first protocol is a decentralized exchange (DEX) aggregator solution that searches deals across multiple liquidity sources, offering users better rates than any individual exchange.

The 1inch Limit Order Protocol facilitates the most innovative and flexible limit order swap opportunities in DeFi. The protocol’s features, such as dynamic pricing, conditional orders, and extra RFQ support, power various implementations, including stop-loss and trailing stop orders, as well as auctions.

1INCHBinancehttps://1inch.io/

6. Balancer

NameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
BalancerBalancer is an automated market maker (AMM) that was developed on the Ethereum blockchain. Balancer protocol functions as a self-balancing weighted portfolio, price sensor and liquidity provider. It allows users to earn profits through its recently introduced token ($BAL) by contributing to customizable liquidity pools.BALBinancehttps://balancer.fi/

7. Dodo

NameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
Dodo

DODO is a DeFi protocoldecentralized finance (DeFi) protocol and on-chain liquidity provider whose unique proactive market maker (PMM) algorithm aims to offer better liquidity and price stability than automated market makers (AMM).

The PMM pricing mechanism, which mimics human trading, utilizes oracles to gather highly accurate market prices for assets. It then provides enough liquidity close to these prices in order to stabilize the portfolios of liquidity providers (LP), lower price slippage and negate impermanent loss by allowing arbitrage trading as reward.

DODO’s smart contract operates as an ERC20 token on the Ethereum network.

 Binancehttps://dodoex.io/

 

8. Bancor

NameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
BancorBancor is an on-chain liquidity protocol that enables automated, decentralized token exchange on Ethereum and across blockchains.BNTBinancehttps://home.bancor.network/

9. IDEX

NameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
IDEXIDEX is a non-custodial exchange that integrates with any custody solution and allows users to trade with one another without giving up control to a third-party custodianIDEXBinancehttps://idex.io/

10. Multichain

NameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
Multichain

Multichain (previously Anyswap) is a cross-chain router protocol (CRP), Multichain is an infrastructure for on-chain asset interoperability, envisioned to be the ultimate router for Web3.

The solutions developed by Multichain allow almost all blockchains to inter-operate. There is no restriction to Ethereum like chains (e.g. Binance Smart Chain), or different Layer 2 chains requiring finality to Ethereum (e.g. Polygon), or a network of Parachains (e.g. Moonbeam in the PolkaDot system), or Bitcoin types of chain (e.g. Litecoin), or COSMOS chains (e.g. Terra). 

MULTIBinancehttps://multichain.org/

More than …

RatingNameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
11AirSwapAirSwap describes itself as a decentralized, peer-to-peer token trading network powered by Ethereum. AirSwap aims to make the buying and selling of tokens secure, simple, and without fees. Its mission is to empower people with global, frictionless trade. AirSwap implements the Swap protocol and currently has three products: Instant, Spaces, and DexIndex.ASTBinancehttps://www.airswap.io/#/
12RhinoFiRhinoFi(previously DeversiFi) is a hybrid Ethereum exchange platform providing access to spot trading, margin trading, P2P funding & decentralized trading. Buy, trade and invest across all of your favourite blockchains from a single layer 2 wallet. Access hundreds of tokens effortlessly, and save gas on every single transaction.DVFBitfinexhttps://rhino.fi/
13KyberSwapKyberSwap allows anyone to convert tokens directly from their wallet in an instant, convenient and secure way.KNCBinancehttps://kyberswap.com/swap
14ParaSwapParaSwap aggregates decentralized exchanges and other DeFi services in one comprehensive interface to streamline and facilitate users' interactions with decentralized finance on Ethereum and EVM-compatible chainsPSPBybithttps://www.paraswap.io/
15CowSwapCowSwap is a trading interface built on top of Gnosis Protocol v2. It allows you to buy and sell tokens using gas-less orders that are settled peer-to-peer among its users or into any on-chain liquidity source while providing MEV protection.  https://cowswap.exchange
16DDEXDDEX is the decentralized exchange built on Hydro Protocol technology, offering real-time order matching with secure on-chain settlement.  https://ddex.io/
17DexGuruDexGuru is a trading platform for modern traders where on-chain analytics combined with trading capabilities.  https://dex.guru/
18MatchaMatcha is a crypto trading platform with smart order routing powered by 0x. Matcha aggregates liquidity from multiple sources, including 0x, Kyber, Uniswap, Oasis, Curve, and others  https://matcha.xyz/
19MesaMesa is an open source interface for Gnosis Protocol, a fully permissionless DEX that enables ring trades to maximize liquidity.  https://mesa.eth.link/
20OasisOasis is a decentralized, non-custodial exchange built on the OasisDEX Protocol enabling the trade of the tokens used in Multi-Collateral Dai (MCD).  https://oasis.app/#multiply

Read more: DeFi Infrastructure & Dev Tooling projects on Ethereum Network

I hope this article will help you. Thank you for reading !

#blockchain #bitcoin #cryptocurrency #eth #ethereum #dex 

DEX projects on Ethereum Network
Ben Taylor

Ben Taylor

1662628440

DeFi Infrastructure & Dev Tooling projects on Ethereum Network

In this article, you will see top 30 DeFi Infrastructure & Dev Tooling projects on Ethereum Network

1. Chainlink

NameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
ChainlinkChainlink is a decentralized oracle that can provide external data to smart contracts.LINKBinancehttps://chain.link/

2. Loopring

DescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
A protocol for decentralized token exchange, where traders have complete and total control of their crypto-assets.LRCBinancehttps://loopring.org/#/

3. Kyber Network

DescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
On-chain liquidity protocol allows decentralized token swaps to be integrated into any applicationKNCBinancehttps://kyber.network/

4. 0x Protocol

DescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
0x Protocol is free, open-source infrastructure that developers and businesses utilize to build products that enable the purchasing and trading of crypto tokensZRXBinancehttps://www.0x.org/

5. The Graph

DescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
The Graph is a decentralized protocol for indexing and querying data from blockchains.GRTBinancehttps://thegraph.com/en/

6. Uma

DescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
UMA is a decentralized financial contracts platform built to enable Universal Market AccessUMABinancehttps://umaproject.org/

7. Ren

DescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
Ren is an open protocol that provides access to inter-blockchain liquidity for all decentralized applications.RENBinancehttps://renproject.io/

8. Bancor

DescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
The Bancor Protocol ensures continuous liquidity and real-time price discovery between blockchain-based assets, without matching buyers and sellers.BNTBinancehttps://home.bancor.network/

9. RAMP

DescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
The protocol powering fiat to crypto exchangesRAMPBinancehttps://ramp.network/

10. Alchemy

DescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
Alchemy is an infrastructure provider for web3 developers interacting with Ethereum blockchain.ACOINKucoinhttps://www.alchemy.com/

11. Centrifuge

NameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
CentrifugeOpen, decentralized platform to connect the global financial supply chainCFGGate.iohttps://centrifuge.io/

12. Zap

DescribeTokenWebsite
Zap platform allows users to create, publish and subscribe to smart contract and Decentralized Application compatible data feedsZAPhttps://www.zap.org/

13. Blocknative

DescribeWebsite
Blocknative’s infrastructure and APIs provide real-time mempool monitoring to keep your transactions flowing reliably, resiliently, and predictably.https://www.blocknative.com/

14. Fortmatic

DescribeWebsite
Fortmatic SDK let users to interact with dApp through any browser or devicehttps://fortmatic.com/

15. Hummingbot

DescribeWebsite
Hummingbot is an open source software client that helps you build and run high-frequency trading bots that run on any crypto exchange.https://hummingbot.io/en/

16. Hydro Protocol

DescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
Hydro is an open source framework for building Decentralized Exchanges. HOTHuobihttps://hydroprotocol.io/

17. MoonPay

DescribeWebsite
MoonPay is a fiat on-ramp that enables web and mobile developers to let their users purchase virtual currencies using credit card.https://www.moonpay.com/

18. Provable

DescribeWebsite
Provable is a blockchain oracle service, enabling data-rich smart contracts.https://provable.xyz/

19. QuikNode

DescribeWebsite
QuikNode is a RPC node service provider with APIs & dedicated nodes available.https://www.quicknode.com/

20. Torus

DescribeTokenWebsite
Torus allows users to login to your dApp with their OAuth accounts, Google and Facebook, to derive their private keys in a trustless manner.TBAhttps://tor.us/

21. Transak

DescribeWebsite
Transak is a simple and compliant way for customers to buy and sell crypto assets with a bank transfer.https://transak.com/

22. WalletConnect

DescribeWebsite
WalletConnect is an open protocol for connecting desktop Dapps to mobile Wallets using end-to-end encryption by scanning a QR code.https://walletconnect.com/

23. Wyre

DescribeWebsite
Wyre is a secure and compliant bridge between fiat currencies and cryptocurrency.https://www.sendwyre.com/

24. Carbon Fiber

DescribeWebsite
Carbon is an all-in-one fiat-to-crypto on-ramp API to help you retain new customers effortlessly, so you can focus on building.https://www.carbon.money/

I hope this article will help you

Read more: Stablecoins projects on Ethereum Network

Thank you for reading !

#blockchain #bitcoin #cryptocurrency #eth #ethereum 

DeFi Infrastructure & Dev Tooling projects on Ethereum Network
Ben Taylor

Ben Taylor

1662622850

Stablecoins projects on Ethereum Network

In this article, you will see top 20 Stablecoins projects on Ethereum Network

Stablecoins are Ethereum tokens designed to stay at a fixed value, even when the price of ETH changes.

Why stablecoins?

Stablecoins are cryptocurrencies without the volatility. They share a lot of the same powers as ETH but their value is steady, more like a traditional currency. So you have access to stable money that you can use on Ethereum. 

Stablecoins are global, and can be sent over the internet. They're easy to receive or send once you have an Ethereum account.

Demand for stablecoins is high, so you can earn interest for lending yours. Make sure you're aware of the risks before lending.

Stablecoins are exchangeable for ETH and other Ethereum tokens. Lots of dapps rely on stablecoins.

Stablecoins are secured by cryptography. No one can forge transactions on your behalf.

Pros

  • Safe against crypto volatility.
  • Changes in price are minimal.

Cons

  • Centralized – someone must issue the tokens.
  • Requires auditing to ensure company has sufficient reserves.

Top 20 Stablecoins projects on Ethereum Network

1. Tehter

A stablecoin backed 1:1 by U.S. dollars.USDTBinanceWebsite

2. USD Coin

USDC is a USD-backed stablecoin as an ERC20 token.USSDCBinanceWebsite

3. TrueUSD

A stablecoin backed 1:1 by U.S. dollars.TUSDBinanceWebsite

4. DAI

DAI is a crypto-backed stablecoin soft-pegged to USD, built on the Ethereum and governed by the MakerDAO system.DAIFTXWebsite

5. WBTC

Wrapped Bitcoin (WBTC) is the ERC20 token backed 1:1 with BitcoinWBTCFTXWebsite

6. Frax

Frax is the first fractional-algorithmic stablecoin protocol.FRAXGate.ioWebsite

7. Pax Dollar

USDP is a stablecoin backed 1:1 by USD, and gives customers the ability to store and send US Dollars with freedom, unrestricted by the limits of traditional banking system.USDPBinanceWebsite

8. Gemini Dollar

A stable value coin backed 1:1 by USD.GUSDBitMartWebsite

9. HUSD

HUSD is a stablecoin backed 1:1 by U.S. dollars held in a U.S. trust company.HUSDGate.ioWebsite

 

10. Ampleforth

AMPL is a USD soft-pegged digital currency, that adjusts supply daily based on market conditions.AMPLBitfinexWebsite

11. mStable

mStable combine stablecoins and tokenized assets into higher-yielding instruments.MUSDCoinbaseWebsite

12. Empty Set Dollar

Empty Set Dollar (ESD) is an algorithmic stablecoin built to be the reserve currency of Decentralized Finance.ESDGate.ioWebsite

13. Augmint

Augmint offers digital tokens targeted to a fiat currency. Stablecoin backed 1:1 by Euros.Website

I hope this article will help you

Read more: How to Earn with Crypto Exchange Affiliate Programs

Thank you for reading !

#blockchain #bitcoin #cryptocurrency #eth #ethereum 

Stablecoins projects on Ethereum Network
Blockchain Dev

Blockchain Dev

1661217746

Ethereum Merge: Everything You Need to Know

In this tutorial, you'll see everything you must know about the Ethereum Merge: What is the merge? When merge? Will it fix Eth's Gas Fees? Will it Make Ethereum Faster? Why does the Merge matter? What is the Tripple Halving? Will I Get Free Coins? How do I stake Ether?
 

00:00 Intro
01:18 What is the merge?
04:07 When merge?
05:28 Will it fix Eth's Gas Fees?
06:44 Will it Make Ethereum Faster?
07:55 Why does the Merge matter?
08:51 Price Impact
11:36 What is the Tripple Halving?
13:52 Price Impact (Pt II)
15:08 Will I Get Free Coins?
18:39 How do I stake Ether?


Ethereum ‘merge’ will change crypto forever: Everything you need to know

The Ethereum community is more giddy than usual. On weekly Zoom calls dedicated to technical matters, Ethereum developers have been celebrating—even singing—as they advance toward the “merge”—an event hailed as the most important technological upgrade in the history of crypto. 

But what exactly is the “merge”? Those who follow crypto news have likely heard about it, and are aware it represents a shift to something called “proof of stake.” But there are few detailed accounts of the technical process, and the merge’s implications for the larger crypto ecosystem.

What exactly do people mean by the merge?

Eth2, Ethereum 2.0, ETH 2.0…The project has been called many things in the past, but earlier this year the Ethereum community settled on the “merge.”

Most simply, the merge is a long-planned Ethereum upgrade aimed at improving the network. Such upgrades are commonplace, but this is the most important one to date, and its success will pave the way for developers to introduce a host of new features to the network.

The merge will, well, merge the current Ethereum mainnet—or the main public Ethereum blockchain used by everyone—with something called the Beacon Chain. Currently, both chains exist in parallel. But only the Ethereum mainnet, which currently uses a mechanism called proof of work, is processing transactions. 

Once the merge is complete, the Ethereum mainnet will shift away from proof of work and instead adopt the Beacon Chain’s proof-of-stake mechanism.

What’s proof of stake?

Proof of stake (PoS) is a type of consensus mechanism that differs from the traditional proof-of-work (PoW) one.

A consensus, what?

A consensus mechanism describes the way Ethereum—or other blockchains—determine the legitimacy of transactions posted to its network. It is how a blockchain governs itself.

Ethereum can be seen as a distributed database of nodes—or computers that run software to verify blocks and the transaction data within them. To reach consensus on the network and make a decision, the majority of nodes must be in agreement, and the choice of consensus mechanism determines how they do that.

So, how does proof of stake work? 

Once Ethereum shifts to a proof-of-stake consensus mechanism post-merge, the network will rely on trusted entities known as validators to verify transactions and add new blocks to the blockchain. A validator will be chosen at random each time a new block is to be added, which will occur every 12 seconds or so post-merge.

Anyone can apply to be a validator by depositing 32 Ethereum (about $61,000 at mid-August prices)—a sum intended to ensure that participants have a stake in the success of the network—and run up-to-date software.

As the Ethereum Foundation explains, prospective validators will then be added to an “activation queue that limits the rate of new validators joining the network.” Once a validator is “activated,” it will be eligible to review and approve new blocks the Ethereum network proposes to add to its blockchain. 

In return for securing the network, validators will earn Ether as reward.

While the 32 Ether staked as collateral serves as a major incentive to behave appropriately, there are also punishments for validators that are incompetent or malicious. Namely, they can be penalized with the loss of some or all of their deposit.

The merge hasn’t happened yet, but the Beacon Chain already has over 415,000 validators.

And what’s proof of work?

Proof of work is another consensus mechanism that has been used by the Ethereum mainnet since its genesis. Other older blockchains, most notably Bitcoin, continue to employ it. 

The “work” in proof of work comes in the form of mining, where miners expend energy in the form of computing power. Though its supporters (mostly Bitcoiners) love proof of work, saying it’s the most secure mechanism, the process is notably bad for the environment—which has been a key factor in prompting Ethereum’s shift to proof of stake.

Why is the merge such a big deal?

For one, Ethereum is the most-used blockchain and powers Ether, the second-largest cryptocurrency, with a $202 billion market cap. Ethereum also hosts numerous decentralized applications (dApps) and decentralized finance (DeFi) protocols and establishes the authenticity of millions of non-fungible tokens (NFTs). 

This means the outcome of the merge will affect not just the Ethereum blockchain, but a wide constellation of products and services that rely upon it. And given Ethereum’s size and influence, the fate of the merge is likely to have a ripple effect on the broader crypto industry.

Meanwhile, the switch to proof of stake will affect thousands of people who mine Ether, many of whom have expended significant capital in the endeavor. Most will probably turn to mining other proof-of-work coins, but the merge is still likely to hurt their bottom line.

But while the merge is bad news for miners, the vast majority of the Ethereum community and beyond see the end of mining as a good thing—helping both the planet and Ethereum’s reputation. “The switch from proof of work to proof of stake [will] reduce overall energy consumption of Ethereum by 99.9% or more,” Ethereum core developer Preston Van Loon told Fortune. That’s no joke. 

Another important consequence of a successful merge will be a reduction in the issuance of new Ether. After the merge, Ether is likely to become “the largest deflationary currency,” according to Lucas Outumuro, head of research at blockchain intelligence firm IntoTheBlock. 

In his latest newsletter, Outumuro predicts that because the cryptocurrency will no longer be awarded to miners, the amount of new Ether issued will drop by approximately 87%. “ETH’s net issuance is now projected to range between –1.5% to 0.5% based on the last three months of data, compared to –4.5% to –0.5% using Q1 to Q2 numbers,” he wrote on Aug. 19.

This decline in issuance, in turn, means Ethereum could eclipse Bitcoin in market cap over the next 12 months, according to an Aug. 12 report by research firm FSInsight.

Finally, the merge is viewed as a critical step for Ethereum’s overall development. According to Ethereum creator Vitalik Buterin, the network is now about 40% complete, and after the merge, “Ethereum can go up to being 55% complete,” he said.

Also on Ethereum’s road map are four other phases happening in parallel that developers are calling the “surge, verge, purge, and splurge”—all of which aim to make Ethereum much faster, safer, and more decentralized. “At the end of this road map, Ethereum will be a much more scalable system…By the end, Ethereum will be able to process 100,000 transactions per second,” Buterin said. 

Why is the merge controversial?

While most of the Ethereum community strongly supports the merge, a vocal minority is denouncing it as a colossal mistake. While some of this criticism is rooted in self-interest—namely, miners concerned about lost income—there are also ideological concerns.

Namely, critics say proof of stake will make Ethereum more centralized and less secure, and point to the dominance of a few entities holding staked Ether (Ether deposited on the Beacon Chain). As data firm Messari has pointed out, Lido Finance controls a whopping 31.2% of all staked Ether on the Beacon Chain, while Coinbase controls 14.7% and Kraken 8.5%. 

The large positions of Lido and others reflect the fact they are custodians for thousands of smaller Ether holders—and don’t actually own most of what they hold—but the centralization fears persist nonetheless.

These concerns include fear that law enforcement may treat validators as a target for censorship or surveillance. Buterin himself addressed this on Twitter. He signaled his support in burning the stake of any validators that censor the Ethereum protocol if asked by U.S. regulators. 

“I believe the Ethereum community is strong enough to fight off base-layer censorship,” EthHub cofounder Anthony Sassano tweeted on Aug. 16. “Bitcoin is prone to the same censorship risks as Ethereum is—it doesn’t matter if it’s PoS or PoW.”

Even Coinbase CEO Brian Armstrong suggested on Aug. 17 he’d rather stop the cryptocurrency exchange’s staking business than comply with any potential censorship sanctions.

Another concern surrounds “MEV”—Maximal Extractable Value (formerly Miner Extractable Value)—and potential MEV-Boost issues post-merge. 

MEV is the profit a miner or validator can make by picking, excluding, or reordering transactions within blocks. MEV-Boost is an optional software built for proof-of-stake Ethereum. It allows validators to sell blockspace to so-called block builders and outsource block production to maximize their reward—effectively subcontracting some of their validating duties.

Though there are upsides to MEV and MEV-Boost, both can also be used by bad actors in a malicious way. Specifically, some within the Ethereum community are worried about censorship of MEV-Boost “relay operators,” or entities that connect validators to block builders, among other things. 

Questions surrounding MEV and MEV-Boost post-merge have increasingly consumed the attention of countless users on crypto Twitter, to the point where it was even addressed during the most recent Ethereum Core Developers meeting. Though developers understand the concern, they’re hopeful that MEV-related issues, especially involving censorship, will not be prevalent threats, and remain focused on building Ethereum as a censorship-free protocol. 

Finally, there are other fears over proof of stake, notably the risk of a 51% attack—where bad actors conspire to take over more than half the computing power of the network, and tamper with the blockchain record to steal tokens. But with proof of stake, an attacker would need majority ownership of staked Ether to pull this off—and that would be incredibly expensive to obtain. 

Buterin himself doesn’t see a 51% attack as “fatal,” and the Ethereum community has likewise downplayed the concern, reminding others of the ability to slash a validator’s stake, among other things

Will the merge lower the gas fees everyone complains about?

No. 

Gas fees refer to the cost of carrying out a transaction on the Ethereum blockchain. Gas fees are paid in Ether (denominated in the smallest unit of Ether called gwei), and have frequently spiked during busy periods because of higher demand for transactions to be processed.

Gas fees are considered a big pain point for Ethereum users. This is unsurprising since, during the busiest periods on Ethereum, gas fees can reach hundreds of dollars, making the network unviable for many. 

The merge will shift Ethereum to proof of stake, but it will not expand network capacity. Therefore, it will not impact the price of gas fees.   

Buterin predicts gas fees will drop in the future, though. He estimates that in time, after the merge, gas fees could be as low as $0.002 to $0.05 owing to roll-ups—a so-called Layer 2 technology that “rolls-up” a multitude of transactions off-chain, processes it, and then records a compressed version on the main Ethereum blockchain. And as the Ethereum Foundation says, “The transition to proof of stake is a critical precursor to realizing this.”

Any other big misconceptions about the merge?

Yes, there are many.

For one, the merge won’t speed up the time it takes for Ethereum to process transactions. Though timing for new block creation and settlement (or finality) will change slightly post-merge, it won’t be substantial enough for Ethereum users to notice, the Ethereum Foundation says. 

Another misunderstanding about the merge involves the time frame during which investors can cash out their staked Ether after the upgrade. 

Investors won’t be able to withdraw their staked Ether immediately after the merge occurs, and will have to wait until the Shanghai upgrade, which is “the next major upgrade following the merge,” the Ethereum Foundation says. “This means that newly issued ETH, though accumulating on the Beacon Chain, will remain locked and illiquid for at least six to 12 months following the merge.”

To Ethereum core developer Tim Beiko, the biggest misconception about the merge is that you need 32 Ether to run a node, he told Fortune. “You don’t. Running a node is free,” he said. “Thirty-two Ether is only needed to run a validator,” as mentioned earlier.

Validators also can’t change protocol rules, Beiko said. “All the nodes validate protocol rules, hence validators can’t single-handedly change them.”

Okay, so what technically happens to pull this off? 

A lot. 

To prepare for the merge—and any other Ethereum upgrade for that matter—developers rely on Ethereum test networks (testnets) to practice running code before they deploy it on a mainnet. Testnets are similar enough to the Ethereum mainnet that developers can run tests and check for bugs or security holes to prevent such shortcomings from impacting the main blockchain.

Prior to the upcoming merge, testnets Kiln, Ropsten, Sepolia, and, most recently, Goerli all underwent the transition to proof of stake as dress rehearsals for the real event.   

Image

Additionally, Ethereum developers introduced a handful of changes to the blockchain known as hard forks to pave the way for the merge, including the so-called London hard fork in 2021. London had a few purposes: It aimed to stabilize transaction fees by permanently destroying (“burning”) a portion of such fees, removing that Ether from circulation. The London hard fork also delayed the so-called difficulty bomb, a mechanism intended to incentivize the network to move away from proof of work by exponentially increasing the difficulty level of puzzles required for mining—making continued mining unviable. 

Following London, other forks like Arrow Glacier and Gray Glacier pushed the difficulty bomb off further and changed its parameters. There was also Altair, which upgraded the Beacon Chain.

Developers have conducted as well 10 mainnet “shadow forks” where they ran through the merge using a small number of nodes. This proved helpful since the shadow fork process is minimal enough to not disrupt the mainnet, but useful enough to assess any potential issues prior to the big mainnet merge. As developers continue to prepare for the merge, they’re planning still more shadow forks.

The process of the mainnet merge activation itself is intricate and involves three big steps, as Christine Kim, research associate at Galaxy Digital, explains

To start it all, an upgrade called Bellatrix—named after a star and not the villain from Harry Potter—will happen first and set things into motion. It will prepare the Beacon Chain for the merge. Next, the network will need to reach a final Terminal Total Difficulty (TTD) value, which represents the potential difficulty level for mining, once the Bellatrix upgrade is complete. Nodes will watch for it, and once reached, it will prompt the final step, called the Paris upgrade. Paris will remove dependence on proof of work mining and mining difficulty, among other things, readying the network for the Beacon Chain and proof of stake. 

Given the complexity of all this, the process will definitely not happen overnight. Ethereum developers predict that there will be a 14-day period between Bellatrix and the mainnet merge.

How could things go wrong? 

Many things can go wrong, and it’s difficult to predict—despite years of tests and preparation. 

Ultimately, the merge is far from a slam dunk, and various issues may arise—like hiccups with clients or software verifying transactions, and application breakdown, among others—that are so complex they can be difficult to plan for. Bad actors might also try to sabotage the process as well. 

But Ethereum developers and engineers are working to be ready for any potential problems, and contend that they’re prepared.

Do I need to do anything with my Ether?

No. Be very wary of anyone telling you otherwise.

As the Ethereum Foundation says:

“As a user or holder of ETH or any other digital asset on Ethereum, as well as non–node-operating stakers, you do not need to do anything with your funds or wallet before the merge.

“Any funds held in your wallet before the merge will still be accessible after the merge. No action is required to upgrade on your part.

“As we approach the merge of Ethereum mainnet, you should be on high alert for scams trying to take advantage of users during this transition.”

Some people unhappy with the merge may try to branch off and create their own projects and variations of Ethereum—but anything of the sort will never be Ethereum. 

For example, a cohort of miners are planning an Ethereum hard fork post-merge to create what they call “ETHPoW,” in an attempt to continue a proof-of-work chain and retain their income. But even though this project sounds like ETH, and somewhat includes Ethereum in its name, it is not correlated with Ethereum, and will have its own token and applications if it succeeds. 

Wen merge? 

Ethereum developers are targeting the week of Sept. 15 for the merge, with TTD set to 58750000000000000000000. 

Nonetheless, many factors may change that time frame. The Ethereum developers made clear that the timing is an estimate and nothing is finalized yet.

But, it’s safe to say that Ethereum is closer than ever before to proof of stake. As artist Jonathan Mann sings after every successful merge test on each developer call, Ethereum won’t be resisting the “urge, the urge to merge.”

#ethereum #blockchain #eth

Ethereum Merge: Everything You Need to Know

Crypto Venture Capital: Top 100 VCs Funds You need to Know

In this article, you'll learn What is Crypto Venture Capital, How to Investment and Top 100 Crypto Venture Capital You need to Know

What are Venture Capital Funds?

Venture capital (VC) firms are investment management companies dedicated to funding promising business opportunities for a specified amount of equity. With expertise in discovering talented entrepreneurs and developing business infrastructure, VCs raise exorbitant money, most often through private investors.

Venture capital firms play an essential role as engines for connecting ideas and business models with the funding necessary to develop new products and services and reach new audiences or communities.

Types Of VC Funding

Though there is some variation in terminology, most entrepreneurs and VCs recognize the following breakdown in funding types and purposes.

  • Pre-Seed: Initial funding from non-institutional investors.
  • Seed: First funding stage where a VC receives an equity stake.
  • Series A: Extended development funding to bolster the company’s business model.
  • Series B: Additional financing to scale business infrastructure and market reach.
  • Series C: Proven track record justifies additional funding for continued growth.
  • Series D and E: Less frequent and strategic in addressing business growth trajectory.

Venture Capital Vs Private Equity

Whereas most citizens, workers, and retirees hold some portion of the public stock market, private equity refers to equity investments made by private individuals and private equity firms. Private equity manages the entire lifecycle of private assets, from venture capital and growth equity to managed and leveraged buyouts.

Venture capital is a form of private equity focusing on early investing opportunities; meanwhile, notable private equity firms like Blackstone, KKR, and Thoma Bravo are known for post-IPO acquisitions.

How Do VC Firms Work?

VC firms are often limited partnerships (LP) led by General Partners (GPs) and made up of a staff managing the VC fund. Through an existing or new network of investors known as Limited Partners (LP), VC funds can raise capital for investing in a general or domain-specific portfolio of companies.

  • Opening The Door To Outside Influence

Though funding sounds nice, many startup nightmares come to mind. When accepting VC funding, entrepreneurs are giving up some level of control over the present or future of their company. Equity is the most evident cost to bear. Still, the fine print of VC agreements could also mean additional control over a prospective Board of Directors, management, business model, and more.

VCs are ultimately accountable to the wishes of their GPs and LPs and not afraid to make decisions to their benefit. 

There’s a broad spectrum of just how active partners are in guiding or managing their investments. As VCs want their investments to succeed, hands-on partners may ask a lot of their invested companies. Founders and startup leaders can often feel the temperature and pressure rise.

How to Land a Round of Funding

Landing a funding round is no easy task and can take months, if not years, to achieve.

Business Model:

Business models have long been the cornerstone for profiling a company commercially. By enumerating foundational business components like core operations, products and services, financing, and revenue sources, startup leaders can communicate their strategic plan for launching and growing a business in a single document or presentation.

Business Data:

Data is king, and VCs only have an entrepreneur’s word to trust without it. With data offering insight into sales, KPIs, and growth rates, startup leaders can justify their funding with reliable data points. With a high failure rate, startups with existing business metrics to cite are in a superior position to earn funding.

Networking:

Though an exceptional business model and data can’t hurt, they mean little without access to potential funding. Local funding opportunities and accelerator programs are convenient methods of initial financing for startups. At the same time, reaching firms like the above will mean existing connections or perseverance on top of an ironclad business plan.

With an extensive VC presence split between Silicon Valley and New York, it’s no surprise entrepreneurs lean toward starting their businesses in these locations. With proximity to multiple funding partners, opportunities to reach and earn funding are more accessible.

Timing:

Timing is critical to market success in the competitive landscape, especially within the ever-evolving IT ecosystem. Go-to-market strategies are an essential indicator of investment potential, and the timing of a business’s funding proposal or launch can and does make the difference. VCs seek the most innovative and new opportunities with the rare allowance for a unique spin on traditional solutions.

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The Top 100 Crypto Venture Capital Funds

Now, let’s check out some of the notable VC funds in the cryptocurrency industry that are investing in the future: 

 NameDescriptionLink
1Coinbase VenturesCoinbase Ventures is an American VC firm that was founded in 2018 and is currently based in San Francisco, California, USA. As the investment arm of the digital asset exchange Coinbase, it should come as no surprise that the company is very active as a crypto startup VC. 

Coinbase Ventures has made a total of 130 investments into new blockchain and cryptocurrency startups.
Website
2Binance Labs
Binance Labs belongs to Binance, yet another famous centralized exchange. 

Binance Labs leverages the Binance DEX to invest in new crypto projects, and its portfolio includes stakes in Terra, Moonbeam and Coin98, among others.
Website
3Huobi CapitalHuobi Capital is the investment arm of Huobi Group, focusing exclusively on ventures and projects related to blockchain technology, digital currency, and crypto assets. Blockchain is not only an innovative technology but also a disruptive tool for social transformation.Website
4Jump CryptoJump Crypto is the investment arm of Jump Trading, another crypto trading fund with offices in Europe, Asia and North America. Jump Crypto has stakes in Solana, Terra, Wormhole, Fantom and many other projects.Website
5a16ZAndreessen Horowitz (a16z) is a US-based venture capital founded in 2009 by two co-founders, Marc Andreessen and Ben Horowitz, who took the fund after their name. In the early days, a16z determinedly invested in early-stage startups with bold technology ideas.

Apart from investing in crypto in the last few years, a16z’s investments include gaming, social media, education, IT, etc. In August 2021, a16z was reported to manage $18.8B in assets (not just crypto assets).
 
Website
6Alameda ResearchAlameda Research is a crypto hedge fund founded by FTX founder Sam Bankman-Fried and now headed by Sam Trabucco. It also has stakes in most important blockchains and blockchain-based companies. Website
7Genblock CapitalGenblock Capital has been involved in the blockchain space since early 2017 and is a VC fund with a focus on decentralized finance and the metaverse. Some of its main gaming-oriented investments include Aurory, Efinity and Bloktopia.
 
Website
8Animoca BrandsAnimoca Brands is one of the leaders in the metaverse VC firm space and was ranked in the Financial Times list of high growth companies in the Asia-Pacific region in 2021. 

It has investments in several significant metaverse and NFT-related projects like The Sandbox, Axie Infinity, OpenSea, Dapper Labs and several others.
Website
93AC - Three Arrows CapitalFounded in 2012 by Su Zhu and Kyle Davies, Three Arrows Capital is considered one of the top hedge funds and market makers in the space. 3AC holds stakes in several big blockchains like Ethereum, Avalanche, Bitcoin, Polkadot, Terra, Solana and many others.

It also has investments across several DeFi and GameFi projects like Axie Infinity, Aave and countless others. 3AC invests in equity-based blockchain projects, too. For instance, the fund has stakes in BlockFi, Deribit and Starkware.
Website
10Galaxy Capital FundGalaxy Digital is a diversified financial services and investment management innovator in the digital asset, cryptocurrency, and blockchain technology sectorWebsite
11MetapurseMetapurse is an NFT investment fund and production studio that specializes in identifying early-stage projects across blockchain infrastructure, finance, art, unique collectibles, and virtual estate. It has investments in Decentraland and Nifty Gateway.
 
Website
12ConsenSys VenturesStarting at number ten, we have ConsenSys Ventures based in San Francisco, California. Founded in 2016, ConsenSys Ventures is the investment arm of the blockchain software technology company, ConsenSys, the same company that developed the popular Ethereum-based MetaMask wallet.

ConsenSys make 32 investments in blockchain startups. 
Website
13MulticoinMulticoin is a "thesis-driven investment firm that invests in cryptocurrencies, tokens, and blockchain companies." It is a crypto-native fund that participates in staking, liquidations, and other crypto operations. Its portfolio includes stakes in Audius, Arweave and Near Protocol.Website
14Solidity VenturesSolidity Ventures is an investment firm that invests in an open and decentralized technology platform.Website
15Coingecko VenturesCoinGecko Ventures is the venture arm of CoinGecko where we invest in groundbreaking blockchain companies with big ambitions in architecting the future of finance.Website
16Polychain CapitalPolychain invests in protocols and companies in the blockchain space, advancing the global adoption of cryptocurrencies.
 
Website
17Winklevoss CapitalPerhaps one of the oldest in the game, Winklevoss Capital is an American VC firm birthed by the Winklevoss brothers in 2012. While the firm mainly operates from its New York office in the US, it provides seed funding and infrastructure to early-stage startups.

Winklevoss has made a total of 123 investments in new enterprises. In the company’s trading history, it has withdrawn from 23 of these positions. '
Website
18Dragonfly CapitalA cross-border cryptoasset investment firm. Dragonfly Capital Partners is investing in and supporting the promising opportunities in the cryptoasset class.Website
19122 West122WEST is a venture capital firm focused on early-stage internet and software investments in the San Francisco Bay Area.
 
Website
20Pantera CapitalPantera Capital was originally founded in 2003 as an asset management company based in Menlo Park, California. However, it subsequently launched what it claimed to be the first investment fund focused on Bitcoin in 2013. 

Pantera Capital has managed at least five investment funds, investment 145  startups, 15 of which it has pulled out from.
Website
21Pluto Digital VenturesPluto Digital PLC (Pluto) is a crypto technology and operations company that makes Web 3.0 Decentralised Finance (DeFi) more accessible to all.

Pluto is making DeFi available to everyone through products and services created by Pluto’s software development Labs division, new yield farming strategies through Pluto’s Yield division and collaboratingwith emerging DeFi projects and the NFT metaverse through Pluto’s Ventures division.
Website
22RRE VenturesFounded by Jim Robinson and Stuart Ellman in 1994, long before the launch of Bitcoin (the first mainstream cryptocurrency), RRE Ventures is an American VC firm headquartered in New York. 

Prior to its foray into crypto asset classes and startup funding, the American VC firm was known for investing in a wide array of companies operating across various emerging sectors including software, internet, communications, aerospace, robotics, 3D printing, and financial services among others.

Also, bBeing a top dog in the VC business, RRE invests at the early seed stage, Series A, and Series B rounds. More recently, the firm has made a significant investment in the crypto space that classifies it as a crypto startup venture capital.

Since inception, RRE Ventures has managed a total of nine investment funds and has backed a total of 567 projects across different phases. Currently, the almost three-decades old VC firm has successfully exited a total of 111 projects.
Website
23Boost VCBoost VC is an American Venture Capital Firm with experience in crypto startup VC. The company was founded in 2012 and is currently headquartered in San Mateo, California, USA. The company invests in new startups twice per year and provides other assistance such as mentoring and office space to help these businesses grow.

Since the VC firm was founded 10 years ago, it has managed a number of investment funds, which has allowed it to make 253 investments in that time. Of these investments, the company has currently exited from 25 of these investments.
Website
24Republic Labs CapitalRepublic Capital was established in January 2019. Is a growth-stage investment advisory focused on profitability and resiliency. Republic Labs works with high net-worth individuals and family offices to syndicate investment opportunities.Website
251 ConfirmationFounded by Nick Tomaino and backed by individuals like Peter Thiel, Marc Andreessen, and Mark Cuban and institutions like Horsley Bridge and Runa Capital, 1confirmation is a venture fund that supports exceptional founders fueling the decentralization of the web and society.Website
26MetaStable CapitalMetaStable Capital is an American investment firm that was founded in 2014 and is currently based in San Francisco, California, USA. The company manages crypto asset funds and seeks to further develop the value and the reputation of blockchain as a concept across the world.

Since the business was founded seven years ago, it has managed a single investment fund and it has used the money from this fund to make 21 investments into blockchain and cryptocurrency startups. At this time, the company has not made an exit from any of its investments.
 
Website
27Longhash VenturesLongHash Ventures is a global blockchain accelerator and venture capital fund. We seek financial returns through venture building and investing in early stage blockchain start ups, with a mission to enable the Web 3.0 blockchain native economy.Website
28KR1KR1 is a VC firm that was founded in 2016 and is currently based in Douglas in the Isle of Man. The company has a notable presence in Europe when it comes to providing investment into digital assets and blockchain networks. The company has been known for its tendencies to invest into crypto startups.

Since the business was established in 2016, it has made a total of 29 investments into new startups. At the present time, the company has not made an exit from any of these investments.
Website
29Craft VenturesCraft Ventures is an American VC firm that was founded four years ago and is currently based in San Francisco, California, USA. The company provides early-stage VC funding to a variety of different technology startups, including providing crypto startup VC. These funds have allowed the company to make 158 investments into growing startups. Website
30Amentum CapitalThe Amentum fund is a hybrid hedge/vc enterprise of blockchain-based, digital assets, and associated companies in the ecosystem. in addition to standard investments, the amentum team is available for project advisory opportunites for certain teams, following an excellent track record of successful advisory via general partners.Website
31Arrington CapitalArrington XRP Capital is a multi-strategy hedge fund specializing in early-stage venture and the public markets. Arrington Algorand Growth Fund is an ecosystem fund investing and incubating projects in the Algorand ecosystem. Arrington Moonbeam Growth Fund is an ecosystem fund investing and incubating projects in the Moonbeam ecosystem.Website
32Digital Currency GroupDigital Currency Group is an American VC firm that was founded in 2011 and is currently based in New York, USA. There is no doubt about the company's status as a crypto startup VC as it invests and provides support to companies in the cryptocurrency and blockchain spaces. Companies can benefit from its extensive network and access to industry-specific support. Total of 235 investments and has also acquired a further two businesses. Website
33AstratumAstratum is an interdisciplinary one-stop-shop, specialized in blockchain-based business models and registered as GmbH (equivalent to an LLC) in Baar, Switzerland (Cryptovalley).

Since 2014 its own research in blockchain and cryptoeconomics, which helped gathering deep insights into blockchain projects worldwide. 
Website
34Fenbushi CapitalFenbushi Capital is the first and most active blockchain-focused venture capital firm in Asia. Founded in Shanghai in 2015 by veterans across both blockchain and traditional financial industries, it has to date supported over 60 leading projects across 4 continents leveraging blockchain technology to reshape myriad industries such as finance, healthcare, supply chain, and consumer goods. Website
358 Decimal Capital8 Decimal Capital is an American VC firm that was founded four years ago and is currently based in San Francisco, California, USA. The company provides crypto startup VC across a variety of different funding stages and methods, including ICOs and their expert support ensures their startups have the best possible chance to succeed.

Since the company was founded four years ago, it has managed a sole investment fund. The use of this fund has allowed the company to make a total of 43 investments. 
Website
36Dekrypt CapitalDekrypt Capital is an American VC firm that was founded in 2017 and is currently based in Berkeley, California, USA. The company focuses its investment efforts on cryptocurrency startups and provides early-stage funding to help these companies to grow and reach their full potential.

This fund has given the company the ability to make a series of 12 investments into blockchain startups. 
Website
37Polychain CapitalPolychain is a VC focusing on blockchain-based digital assets. 

Its most notable investments are in Acala, Celo and dYdX.
Website
38AU21 CapitalFounded in 2017, AU21 Capital is a venture capital firm based in San Francisco, California. The firm seeks to invest in companies operating in the blockchain and artificial intelligence sectors.
 
Website
39Ascensive AssetsAscensive Assets is a seed-stage venture firm that invests in blockchain-enabled companies across the full spectrum of web3.Website
40A195 CaptialA195 is a vision driven firm providing capital globally to early stage blockchain, cryptocurrency, and tokenized digital assets.Website
41Alphabit FundAlphabit Fund is an actively managed cryptocurrency and digital asset investment fund. Its aim is to beat the performance of Bitcoin on a risk adjusted basis.
 
Website
42Blockchain CapitalBlockchain Capital is a leading venture firm in the blockchain industry.  Have made over 125 investments in companies and protocols in the sector, across different stages, geographies and asset types.Website
43Blockwall CapitalBlockwall Capital is a thesis-driven, sector focused, and independent blockchain investment firm that funds the development of Web 3.0 and decentralized technologies.Website
44X21 DigitalX21 Digital is a Blockchain Advisory and Investment firm dedicated to helping mainly blockchain startups accelerate their growth and exposure in the industry. Website
45BonFire VCBonfire Ventures leads Seed rounds for talented founders building the next generation of software giants.Website
46White Star CapitalWhite Star Capital is a global multi-stage investment platform built by a team of founders, investors and operators with a track record of entering Crypto markets.Website
47BlocktowerBlockTower is an institutional investment firm, applying professional trading, venture investing, credit underwriting, and portfolio management to digital and traditional assets.
 
Website
48Vandetta CapitalVendetta Capital has brought together a multi-disciplinary team that has immense experience spanning from investing, portfolio management, and capital markets to marketing and blockchain technology. 

Vendetta invests in, leads, and helps projects to accelerate developing novel solutions to address the core issues of scalability, privacy, and interoperability for decentralized protocols and applications.
Website
49Variant VCVariant is an early-stage fund investing in web3.Website
50Bitscale CapitalFounded in 2018, Bitscale Capital is a venture capital firm based in Switzerland. The firm seeks to invest in seed-stage, early-stage, and later-stage companies. The firm prefers to invest in big data, cryptocurrency, cybersecurity, the internet of things, fintech, and the technology sectors.
 
Website
51CoinfundFounded in 2015 and headquartered in New York City and Miami, CoinFund has evolved a combined venture, liquid, and cryptonative strategy to grow with an ever changing ecosystem. 

This multi-strategy approach means CoinFund invests in trends early and at key junctions as blockchain technology converges with the mainstream world.
Website
52Union Square VenturesUnion Square Ventures is a thesis-driven venture capital firm. Since 2003, have invested in over 100 companies that use the power of the internet to re-shape markets.Website
53Bixin VenturesBixin Ventures invests in early-stage infrastructure projects that cultivate and facilitate mass adoption of open finance through permissionless and decentralized networks.Website
54CoinixCoinIX manages a portfolio of cryptocurrencies and assets. The investment focus for venture investments is Europe and with a strong focus on companies using distributed ledger technologies.Website
55TRGCTRGC is a digital asset fund focused on investment Digital Assets, Web 3.0 and Blockchain Infrastructure. The ability to place value on an emerging ecosystem of blockchain protocols and application layers presents an exponential investment opportunity that doesn't come very often. Website
56Continue CapitalContinue Capital excels in investments on digital currency Startups , Private Equity and HFT Funds, focus on strategic sectors including Blockchain industry, innovative science and technologies. We continue to invest in breakthrough technologies. Website
57Collider VCCollider Ventures is an early-stage venture capital blockchain & cryptocurrency fundWebsite
58TVP FundVenture capital firm from Austin, Texas founded in 2016. Is an Austin-based venture capital firm focused on investing in highly technical seed- and early-stage startups in three core technology domains: Bitcoin-Native Technologies, Applied Artificial Intelligence, and Security and Privacy technologies.Website
59Coinstone CapitalCoinstone Capital is a boutique digital asset investment advisory firm.Website
60Signum CapitalSignum Capital is a Singapore-based firm that exclusively consults in Blockchain-enabled companies.Website
61Tally CapitalInvesting in the bridges, roads and tunnels of the blockchain ecosystem.Website
62Chainfund CapitalChainfund Capital is a Global FinTech Fund that invests in the next generation of financial technology. It has made 30 investments in researchers that are tackling problems across scalability, privacy, and formal verification. Chainfund supports its portfolio companies with an accelerator program to scale their technology to millions of users.

Based in San Francisco, California.
Website
63SequoiaSequoia Capital is an American venture capital firm. The firm is headquartered in Menlo Park, California and specializes in seed stage, early stage, and growth stage investments in private companies across technology sectors.Website
64Castle Island VCThey are a venture capital firm focused exclusively on public blockchains. They invest in infrastructure and application companies that will enable these transformative protocols to power services for the next billion users.Website
65Dalma CapitalDalma Capital is an award-winning global alternative investment platform, fund manager and accelerator for alpha generation with an inherent edge in emerging investment strategies and markets.Website
66LD CapitalLD Capital is one of Asia's earliest organizations focusing on value investing in blockchain field. Owing to industrial resource advantages and professional investment research teams, LD Capital has successively discovered and invested in projects such as Qtum, Vechain and Eos which all achieved over 100 times return.Website
67Sino Global CapitalSino Global Capital is an international crypto-native venture firm founded in 2015. Sino provide strategic investment to best-in-class companies that are moving the blockchain and digital assets ecosystems forward and then help them to thrive in the Asia market.Website
68DHVCDHVC is a venture capital firm based in Palo Alto, California. DHVC invest in AI, Bio, Crypto, and Consumer sectors. Website
69Slow VenturesSlow Ventures is an early-stage focused Venture Capital firm from Social Networking to Consumer Brands to SaaS, and Crypto. Based out of San Francisco and Boston.Website
70DTC CapitalDTC Capital is a Fundamentals Crypto Investment Fund.Website
71DeFi CapitalDeFi Capital is a Decentralized Finance investment fund.Website
72SW CapitalSW Capital Pvt. Ltd is a Financial Services Company, established in 1995.Website
73Signia VenturesSignia Venture Partners is an early stage fund dedicated to helping passionate entrepreneurs realize their vision and build impactful, high-growth ventures. 

Invest between $500k and $3m for an initial investment across a wide range of technology businesses, including within marketplaces, ecommerce, gaming, consumer mobile, virtual reality,enterprise technology, big data, and security.
Website
74Delphi DigitalA research-driven firm dedicated to advancing the understanding and development of the growing digital asset market.Website
75Divergence VCDivergence VC – The Crypto Operator Fund.Website
76Electric CapitalElectric Capital is a crypto asset management firm. The company invests in tokens that are Programmable Money and invest in both liquid and illiquid tokens that are emerging stores of value and rooted in novel technology. Electric Capital is started by technology entrepreneurs, engineers, and successful investors. 

They have been investing personally in cryptocurrencies since 2013 and were early believers in Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Monero. Prior to Electric
Website
77EdenblockEden Block is a private, independent, research-centric investment vehicle dedicated towards enriching the environments that make up the new iteration of the internet: web3.0. Focused on Blockchain, Artificial Intelligence and Cybersecurity

Eden Block continues to support the world’s most formidable teams, spearheading concrete development andfoundational business application.
Website
78eFounderseFounders is a startup studio. Since 2011, launched 28 companies, and have inspired new ways of working. 

Together with entrepreneurs, we turn unique ideas into successful companies. Our motto? We build the future of work!
Website
79Signature VenturesFounded in 2019, Signature Ventures is a venture capital fund based in Berlin and Munich, Germany. The firm focuses on equity investments in early-stage startups. The firm follows a research-driven approach and has access to an extensive ecosystem linking key Blockchain industry players, VCs, corporates and academics.
 
Website
80Scalar CapitalScalar Capital is a hedge fund company specializing in cryptoassets. Founded in 2017, the company is headquartered in San Francisco, California, United States.Website
81Fabric VenturesFabric is a venture contributor building and backing the boldest ideas in Web 3, to create a more fair, productive and sustainable economy—an Open Economy.Website
82Framework VenturesThey are a team of technologists, researchers and investors who buy assets of, who build for, and who participate in open crypto networks. 

At its core, Framework is a technology company, building products and services to support the open blockchain networks that they invest in. Framework was started in 2019.
Website
83Greenfield OneGreenfield One is an early-stage crypto and blockchain venture capital firm. Long-term bets on early developer teams building towards an open, decentralized and more robust architecture of tomorrow’s web.Website
84Robot VenturesRobot Ventures is a (pre-)seed investor in exceptional fintech and blockchain companies led by founders with big ambitionsWebsite
85GBICGBIC (Global Blockchain Innovative Capital) is a multi-strategy crypto fund. A global fund that furthers the development, acceleration and launch of blockchain projects.Website
86Hack VCHack VC is an early-stage venture capital firm that invests in the cryptocurrency, fintech, and marketplaces sectors. The company was founded in 2017 and is headquartered in San Francisco, California, United States.Website
87Hashkey CapitalHashkey they offers investment opportunities and solutions to institutions, family offices, funds, and professional accredited investors across the digital asset and blockchain ecosystem.Website
88Petrock CapitalPetrock Capital is a venture firm that invests in breakthrough blockchain technologies, ranging from ground-breaking Web 3.0 infrastructure to degenerately unorthodox concepts.Website
89Ideo CoLabIDEO CoLab Ventures is invest in early-stage distributed web startups and co-create with them to ship new products and protocols.Website
90Interchain VenturesInterchain Ventures works in the business and investment industry. They are made of entrepreneurs, investors, and influencers who invest in up-and-coming blockchain technologies. ​They are constantly looking for ambitious and visionary partners with the drive and flexibility to take their company to the next level. Investing in projects where the token has functional utilities within its network.Website
91Jump TradingJump Crypto is building toward the next frontier in crypto infrastructure.Website
92LemniscapLemniscap is an early stage investment firm specializing in investments in emerging crypto assets.Website
93Prota VenturesWe are Venture builders & investors. Forged from decades of business ideation, validation, and execution, our teams of experienced operators invest both time and capital into new ventures.Website
94M31 CapitalM31 Capital is a private equity investment firm that invests in public and private sector real estate markets.Website
95Monday CapitalMonday Capital – A fund built by engineers. For ambitious founders who love Mondays because they love what they do. Venture Capital with a focus on Blockchain, AI and VRWebsite
96Mosaic VenturesMosaic Ventures is a Silicon Valley-style venture capital firm based in London, focused on Series A. They are investing a $150 million fund in founding teams that are fundamentally reshaping big markets.Website
97Placeholder VCPlaceholder is a venture capital firm that invests in open blockchain networks and Web3 services.Website
98Mythos CapitalMythos Capital is an investment company that holds cryptoassets and services cryptonetworks.Website
99Metacartel VentureMetaCartel is a ecosystem of creators and operators building decentralized applications (DApps)Website
100Moonrock CapitalMoonrock Capital is a Blockchain Advisory and Investment Partnership based in London and Hamburg. Website
101Outlier VenturesAccelerating the Open Metaverse since 2014. We invest in creators building “The Open Metaverse,” a thesis and playbook outlining the future of freedom and equitable economics within digital environments.Website
102Master VenturesMaster Ventures is a blockchain-focused Venture Studio building the next generation of infrastructure companies to drive blockchain adoption.Website
103Nil FoundationNEO Global Capital is the strategic investment vehicle NEO foundation and one of the largest institutional owners of cryptocurrencies. It was founded 2017 and is based in Singapore.Website
104Oyster VCOyster Ventures is a venture capital firm investing in exceptional new-frontier technology companies. They target companies that bring liquidity and efficiency to antiquated industries, companies that enable globalization, with leverage to massively scale. It also specializes in early-stage investments in startups in fintech, with a focus onblockchain, crypto, E-commerce, market place, artificial intelligence, fintech, media tech, and SaaS companies.

Oyster Ventures was founded in 2016 and is headquartered in San Francisco, California, United States.
Website

Summary

Over the past few years, as crypto gained mainstream adoption, venture capital investing in the sector also continued to rise to new levels, with 7% of all global VC funding going into crypto in 2022.

Read more: How to Earn with Crypto Exchange Affiliate Programs

I hope this article will help you. Don't forget to leave a like, comment and sharing it with others. Thank you!

#blockchain #eth #ethereum #bitcoin #cryptocurrency #ada #cardano   

Crypto Venture Capital: Top 100 VCs Funds You need to Know
Castore  DeRose

Castore DeRose

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Comparing Ethereum vs. Cardano | Comparing ADA vs. ETH

In this article, you'll learn What is Ethereum, What is Cardano. Comparing Ethereum vs. Cardano. Which is better?

1. What is Ethereum (ETH)?

Ethereum is a blockchain-based computing platform that enables developers to build and deploy decentralized applications—meaning not run by a centralized authority. You can create a decentralized application for which the participants of that particular application are the decision-making authority.

Ethereum is a smart contract platform that can be used for the development of dApps. Ethereum was the first platform to launch smart contracts — programmatic agreements that can function like legal contracts and can be executed automatically once specific conditions have been met. The Ethereum white paper was published in 2013 and the project first launched in 2015. In 2016, ETH became the second token to ever be listed on Coinbase.

Ethereum Features

  • Ether: This is Ethereum’s cryptocurrency.
  • Smart contracts: Ethereum allows the development and deployment of these types of contracts.
  • Ethereum Virtual Machine: Ethereum provides the underlying technology—the architecture and the software—that understands smart contracts and allows you to interact with it.
  • Decentralized applications (Dapps): A decentralized application is called a Dapp (also spelled DAPP, App, or DApp) for short. Ethereum allows you to create consolidated applications, called decentralized applications.
  • Decentralized autonomous organizations (DAOs): Ethereum allows you to create these for democratic decision-making.

These are Ethereum’s essential features. 

How Does Ethereum Work?

Ethereum possesses the same characteristics of other blockchains, such as being an immutable public ledger of transactions, being censorship-resistant due to a decentralized consensus mechanism, and providing a secure network through proof-of-work hashing.

On Ethereum, users can send financial transactions by using the network’s native token, Ether (ETH). They can also participate in any number of dApps built on the network, including decentralized finance (DeFi) platforms, non-fungible token (NFT) marketplaces, and blockchain-based games.

Ethereum was the first network to allow for the use of smart contracts, resulting in the potential for developing dApps. Programmers can code specific conditions into smart contracts, giving them a variety of functionality. For example, a contract for a decentralized marketplace might be programmed to execute trades automatically when a buyer and seller both want to trade at a certain price.

Performing the functions of a smart contract requires a small fee known as Gas. Ethereum gas is measured in gwei, the smallest unit of ETH. Even though the fee for a single smart contract function can be very small, performing complex actions often involves numerous functions within multiple smart contracts, and the fees a user ends up paying can add up quickly.

Why is Ethereum popular?

Decentralised finance, or DeFi, is one of the most popular developments that came from Ethereum. DeFi is an umbrella term that covers decentralised apps and projects related to finance — lending in particular.

DeFi applications negate the need for financial intermediaries like banks or brokers. Users can borrow and lend money through smart contracts.

Smart contracts are programs that automatically execute when the terms of the contract are met. They automate verification processes through code. For example, releasing money into someone’s bank account on the same day every year — like their birthday.

Smart contracts replace human intermediaries in the same way that vending machines replace a human selling food and drinks.

Ethereum also gave rise to non-fungible tokens (NFTs). Every NFT has a unique signature and can’t be duplicated, making each token one of a kind. The most popular NFTs are digital artworks, but investors speculate they could one day be used for proofs of identity or property deeds.

Considerations that weigh in favor of Ethereum are:

  • Longevity – Ethereum is the third-largest cryptocurrency worldwide. It also offers smart contracts and other decentralized applications on its network. This makes it a very appealing asset for clever investors.
  • Ethereum 2.0 – The Ethereum 2.0 update will address some of the concerns with its PoW protocol. Long-term, this should increase Ethereum’s value.

2. What is Cardano (ADA)?

Cardano (also known as ADA) was launched in 2017 by a team led by Hoskinson. The project leaders seek to differentiate Cardano through a degree of academic rigor applied to its code. In addition, Cardano’s developers say it is built on peer-reviewed research that it hopes will give people confidence that its code is stable and solid.

To be the most environmentally sustainable blockchain platform is Cardano’s goal. It uses a unique PoS consensus mechanism called Ouroboros. With an improvement called Hydra, Ouroboros will enable near-instant finality. Implementing Ouroboros Hydra will boost scalability and will allow multiple side chains. In theory, it could increase throughput to 1 million TPS.

Cardano is the first to be founded on a peer-reviewed research PoS blockchain platform. Also, it was developed through evidence-based methods. The platform provides unparalleled security and sustainability to decentralized applications, systems, and societies. 

So users can do cross-network transactions through sidechains. Sidechains are different Blockchains connected to the main blockchain. Creating a link between blockchain networks allows digital tokens to be transferred between them.

There are two layers to the Cardano blockchain: the Cardano Settlement Layer (CSL) and the Cardano Computing Layer (CCL). The CSL contains the ledger of accounts and balances. The CCL layer is where all the computations for apps running on the blockchain are executed via the operations of smart contracts. Splitting the blockchain into two layers helps the Cardano network process as many as a million transactions a second.

The platform also introduced smart contract support in September 2021. The ecosystem is still in development, but many projects, including dApps and DeFi services, are in development.

The fact that Cardano cannot be mined makes it an 'environmentally friendly' cryptocurrency because it does not involve the energy-intensive aspects of mining. According to this model, all Cardano holders can vote on its direction. As well it makes Cardano transactions faster than Ethereum.

The Cardano platform was implemented into real-world projects such as tracking fresh agricultural produce, identifying counterfeit goods, and tamper-proofing educational credentials.

Main Differences:

  • The first blockchain network was developed via evidence-based methods and founded on the pillars of peer-reviewed research;
  • Uses a novel proof-of-stake consensus mechanism Ouroboros;
  • Smart contracts platform powered by the ADA coin;
  • Environmentally friendly cryptocurrency.

Cardano enables several different features on its platform:

  • Currency: With a cryptocurrency wallet, you can send and receive Cardano or transfer it in exchange for goods and services.
  • Smart contracts: Cardano enables smart contracts, which are contracts that automatically self-execute when the contract’s conditions are fulfilled.
  • Decentralized finance: Cardano enables people to skip the middleman, such as banks and other financial institutions, to transact directly and on a permission-less basis with other individuals or entities.
  • Digital apps: As part of decentralized finance, Cardano can enable lending, trading, asset management, insurance and other typical financial services.

How Does Cardano Work?

Like Ethereum, with Cardano developers can program smart contracts and create decentralized applications.

But whereas Ethereum tackles problems with its development as they arise, Cardano tries to plan for contingencies beforehand. It does this by performing scientific studies about proposed changes to the Cardano network.

On Cardano, users can also send financial transactions with the network’s native token, ADA.

Why is Cardano popular?

Cardano was designed to use PoS from its launch, and the mechanism is verifiably secure with rigorous security guarantees. Cardano was the first blockchain protocol based on peer-reviewed research.

Cardano’s PoS mechanism makes the network far more environmentally friendly than Ethereum and most other cryptocurrencies. This has already attracted many green investors.

The network is far more scalable than Ethereum and therefore could overtake it as the smart contract platform of choice.

The Cardano network can, in theory, run as many transactions as you could ever need without slowing down due to a bottleneck.

The network currently processes 266 transactions per second, but developers estimate it will one day process 1,000,000 transactions per second. Comparatively, Visa processes roughly 1,700 transactions per second.

Considerations that weigh in favor of Cardano are:

  • Ouroboros consensus protocol. The Cardano platform runs on the Ouroboros consensus protocol. Ouroboros, created by Cardano in its foundation phase, is the first PoS protocol that was proved to be secure. When choosing to invest in Cardano, the success of the Ouroboros protocol is a huge plus.
  • Scholarly academic research – Cardano’s development has been unique in that it has been informed by scholarly academic research. Each of Cardano’s development phases is supported by a research-based framework, incorporating peer-reviewed insights with evidence-based methods. This creates a strong foundation from which to make progress toward the future of both the blockchain network and the Ada token.

3. Comparing Ethereum vs. Cardano

Similarities Between Cardano and Ethereum

There are many similarities between Cardano and Ethereum. Both networks are trying to achieve the same thing — they just want to go about it differently. Some commonalities between the two cryptocurrencies include:

•   Both platforms provide smart contract functionality

•   Both can be used to develop dApps

•   Both can be used for sending financial transactions via the network’s native token

•   Once Ethereum upgrades to ETH 2.0, both will be proof-of-stake networks

Smart Contracts

With smart contracts, the rules are enforced by code, and the terms of the agreement can be executed automatically when the agreed-upon conditions have been met. This has opened up a new world of possibilities in terms of new applications that can be decentralized.

Smart contracts solve a number of problems that have plagued traditional contracts, specifically the potential for fraud, censorship, or third-party interference. These programmatic contracts are what made Ethereum unique and led it to becoming the second-largest cryptocurrency.

Over time, a number of competing networks that hope to improve upon Ethereum’s design have sprung up. Cardano is currently the largest Ethereum competitor by market cap.

Key Differences

Most of the differences between Cardano vs. Ethereum have to do with their approach to building a blockchain network and the philosophies of their creators.

Ethereum, for example:

•   Was created by Vitalik Buterin in 2015 in an attempt to do things Bitcoin couldn’t, specifically smart contracts

•   Takes more of a “build first, fix problems later” approach

Cardano, on the other hand:

•   Was created by Charles Hoskinson in 2017 as an improvement over Ethereum

•   Tries to use academic research to bolster its development beforehand

Another difference between the two networks is the number of dApps currently running on either platform. The vast majority of blockchain-based video games, NFT marketplaces, and DeFi protocols run on Ethereum or a layer-2 Ethereum network like Polygon.

There are at least 100 DeFi services running on Cardano, in addition to some other unique, disruptive projects.

Cardano’s naitve token is ADA vs. ETH for Ethereum. Both can be used to send financial transactions, although the fees and confirmation times may vary, with ADA usually having lower fees.

  • Proof of Work vs Proof of Stake

An important aspect of any blockchain network is its consensus mechanism. This refers to how all the nodes on a given network agree as to which transactions are valid and which are not (how they achieve consensus). Without consensus, there’s no blockchain, as an accurate distributed ledger couldn’t be maintained.

There are different potential ways of achieving consensus. Proof-of-work (PoW) and proof-of-stake (PoS) are currently the two most popular methods.

Ethereum currently utilizes PoW while Cardano makes use of PoS. Ethereum plans to transition to proof-of-stake consensus with the upgrade of ETH 2.0, which has been delayed many times.

PoW involves solving complex math problems to secure the network and validate transactions, which requires a lot of energy. This is the original consensus mechanism, first used on the Bitcoin network. While it has been criticized for being inefficient, it has also proven to be very secure, provided the network has a high enough hashrate.

PoS relies on the locking up or “staking” of network tokens to accomplish the same, which takes less computing power. Rather than relying on excessive amounts of computing power, this consensus mechanism relies on the total value of a network’s native token for security.

  • Monetary Policy

Another important difference between Cardano vs. Ethereum is each network’s monetary policy governing their respective tokens.

The distribution of both ADA tokens on the Cardano network and ETH on the Ethereum network are similar: the tokens get mined with every block and distributed in return for verifying transactions (in the case of ADA) and distributed to minders (in the case of ADA).

But when it comes to the supply limit placed on the issuance of new tokens, the two cryptos diverge significantly.

There is no limit placed on how many ETH can be minted. The supply of ETH tokens is programmed to increase at a rate of 4.5% annually. The supply of ADA tokens, on the other hand, is limited. According to Cardano’s code, there will only ever be 45 million ADA. As of early February 2022, there were 33.5 billion ADA in circulation.

  • Operational Philosophies

Ethereum takes more of a “build first, tackle problems later as they arise” approach. A good example of this would be the proposed upgrade to ETH 2.0 and transition to proof-of-stake. The need for this upgrade stems from Ethereum’s lack of ability to scale. Cardano proponents might argue that this should have been considered earlier and been dealt with in a scientific manner.

Cardano prefers to conduct rigorous scientific research before implementing changes to their protocol. The idea is to make sure all contingencies are planned for ahead of time so there will be fewer problems down the road.

  • Transaction Details

Cardano can currently process about 250 transactions per second (TPS) as opposed to 100 TPS for Ethereum. Cardano’s proposed Ouroborus Hydra upgrade could see the network’s possible TPS soar to as high as 2.5 million.

At the same time, Ethereum’s ETH 2.0 upgrade aims for an increase to 100,000 TPS. It could be said that Cardano is more ambitious, or that Ethereum is more realistic. A lot of these matters come down to the opinions of developers and users.

  • Energy Consumption

The proof-of-work consensus, which Ethereum uses, is a more energy intensive process than proof-of-stake, which powers the Cardano network. So, for now, Ethereum uses more energy than Cardano.

Ethereum uses about 14.81 terawatts to validate its transactions. In contrast, Cardano requires about 0.00052 terawatts.

If and when Ethereum does upgrade to ETH 2.0 and switch to the proof-of-stake consensus mechanism, then its energy usage will decline. But even then, it will use more energy than Cardano simply due to being a larger network that processes more transactions.

Summary of Differences Between Ethereum and Cardano:

FeatureEthereumCardano
Transactions per second13, but expected to reach 100,000 with Ethereum 2.0266, could rise into the millions once the initial development finishes in 2025
 Created to do things Bitcoin couldn’t, specifically smart contractsCreated as an improvement over Ethereum
Block times10-20 seconds20 seconds
Consensus MechanismProof-of-Work, set to transition to Proof-of-StakeProof-of-Stake
CoinNative token is ETHNative token is ADA
Smart ContractsEthereum supports smart contracts and is the market leader with 2,800 Dapps on its network using smart contractsIntroduced September 15 and compatibole with Ethereum's Solidity programming language
StakingYes, but quite complicated easy to set upEasy and accessible through many exchanges
Pros- First mover with smart contracts and NFTs- First mover with Proof-of-Stake
- Market leader in smart contracts, DeFi, NFTs- In theory infinitely scalable
- Huge developer community- Effortless staking
Cons- Currently high gas fees and slow transfer times during busy periods- Development roadmap won't be finished until 2025
- Currently losing developers because of performance issues- Lagging behind Ethereum in smart contract usage and DeFi applications
- Many applications 

How to buy Ethereum and Cardano

  1. Choose a cryptocurrency exchange. If you’re new to crypto, we offer an overview of some of the popular exchanges below.
  2. Choose a storage method — either a hot or cold wallet. Keeping your crypto on an exchange isn’t recommended long term.
  3. Place an order, then wait for your currency to land in your exchange wallet.
  4. Transfer your funds to your wallet away from the exchange. If you’re interested in staking, you’ll need a wallet that supports staking. The Daedalus wallet provides an easy staking experience for Cardano.

Top exchanges for trading: BinancePoloniexBitfinexHuobiMXCProBITGate.io

Conclusion

Cardano and Ethereum are both platforms with smart contract functionality that can be used to develop dApps. But the two have significant differences as well, from their market caps to the consensus they use (proof-of-stake vs. proof-of-work, respectively).

Read more: How to Earn with Crypto Exchange Affiliate Programs

I hope this article will help you. Don't forget to leave a like, comment and sharing it with others. Thank you!

#blockchain #eth #ethereum #bitcoin #cryptocurrency #ada #cardano   

Comparing Ethereum vs. Cardano | Comparing ADA vs. ETH
Castore  DeRose

Castore DeRose

1658462277

Ethereum Ecosystem Overview | Top 200 Project Built on Ethereum (ETH)

In this article, you'll learn Ethereum, Ethereum Ecosystem Overview | Top 200 Project Built on Ethereum (ETH)

1. What is Ethereum?

Ethereum is a blockchain-based computing platform that enables developers to build and deploy decentralized applications—meaning not run by a centralized authority. You can create a decentralized application for which the participants of that particular application are the decision-making authority.

Ethereum Features

  • Ether: This is Ethereum’s cryptocurrency.
  • Smart contracts: Ethereum allows the development and deployment of these types of contracts.
  • Ethereum Virtual Machine: Ethereum provides the underlying technology—the architecture and the software—that understands smart contracts and allows you to interact with it.
  • Decentralized applications (Dapps): A decentralized application is called a Dapp (also spelled DAPP, App, or DApp) for short. Ethereum allows you to create consolidated applications, called decentralized applications.
  • Decentralized autonomous organizations (DAOs): Ethereum allows you to create these for democratic decision-making.

These are Ethereum’s essential features. Before going deep into the Ethereum tutorial, let’s discuss each of these features in more detail.

1.1. Ether

Ether (ETH) is Ethereum’s cryptocurrency. It is the fuel that runs the network. It is used to pay for the computational resources and the transaction fees for any transaction executed on the Ethereum network. Like Bitcoins, ether is a peer-to-peer currency. Apart from being used to pay for transactions, ether is also used to buy gas, which is used to pay for the computation of any transaction made on the Ethereum network.

Also, if you want to deploy a contract on Ethereum, you will need gas, and you would have to pay for that gas in ether. So gas is the execution fee paid by a user for running a transaction in Ethereum. Ether can be utilized for building decentralized applications, building smart contracts, and making regular peer-to-peer payments.

1.2. Smart Contracts

Smart contracts are revolutionizing how traditional contracts work, which is why you need to use the tutorial to become more familiar with them. A smart contract is a simple computer program that facilitates the exchange of any asset between two parties. It could be money, shares, property, or any other digital asset that you want to exchange. Anyone on the Ethereum network can create these contracts. The contract consists primarily of the terms and conditions mutually agreed on between the parties (peers).

The smart contract’s primary feature is that once it is executed, it cannot be altered, and any transaction done on top of a smart contract is registered permanently—it is immutable. So even if you modify the smart contract in the future, the transactions correlated with the original contract will not get altered; you cannot edit them.

The verification process for the smart contracts is carried out by anonymous parties in the network without the need for a centralized authority, and that’s what makes any smart contract execution on Ethereum a decentralized execution.

The transfer of any asset or currency is done in a transparent and trustworthy manner, and the identities of the two entities are secure on the Ethereum network. Once the transaction is successfully done, the accounts of the sender and receiver are updated accordingly, and in this way, it generates trust between the parties.

  • Smart Contracts Vs. Traditional Contract Systems

In conventional contract systems, you sign an agreement, then you trust and hire a third party for its execution. The problem is that in this type of process, data tampering is possible. With smart contracts, the agreement is coded in a program.

A centralized authority does not verify the result; it is confirmed by the participants on the Ethereum blockchain-based network. Once a contract is executed, the transaction is registered and cannot be altered or tampered, so it removes the risk of any data manipulation or alteration.

Let’s take an example in which someone named Zack has given a contract of $500 to someone named Elsa for developing his company’s website. The developers code the agreement of the smart contract using Ethereum’s programming language.

The smart contract has all the conditions (requirements) for building the website. Once the code is written, it is uploaded and deployed on the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM).

EVM is a runtime compiler to execute a smart contract. Once the code is deployed on the EVM, every participant on the network has a copy of the contract. When Elsa submits the work on Ethereum for evaluation, each node on the Ethereum network will evaluate and confirm whether the result given by Elsa has been done as per the coding requirements.

Once the result is approved and verified, the contract worth $500 will be self-executed, and the payment will be paid to Elsa in ether. Zack’s account will be automatically debited, and Elsa will be credited with $500 in ether.

1.3. Ethereum Virtual Machine

EVM, as mentioned above in this Ethereum tutorial, is designed to operate as a runtime environment for compiling and deploying Ethereum-based smart contracts. EVM is the engine that understands the language of smart contracts, which are written in the Solidity language for Ethereum. EVM is operated in a sandbox environment—basically, you can deploy your stand-alone environment, which can act as a testing and development environment. You can then test your smart contract (use it) “n” number of times, verify it, and once you are satisfied with the performance and the functionality of the smart contract, you can deploy it on the Ethereum main network.

Any programming language in the smart contract is compiled into the bytecode, which the EVM understands. This bytecode can be read and executed using the EVM. Solidity is one of the most popular languages for writing a smart contract. Once you write your smart contract in Solidity, that contract gets converted into the bytecode and gets deployed on the EVM, thereby guaranteeing security from cyberattacks.

a. How Does EVM Work?

Suppose person A wants to pay person B 10 ethers. The transaction will be sent to the EVM using a smart contract for a fund transfer from A to B. To validate the transaction; the Ethereum network will perform the proof-of-work consensus algorithm.

The miner nodes on Ethereum will validate this transaction—whether the identity of A exists or not, and if A has the requested amount to transfer. Once the transaction is confirmed, the ether will be debited from A’s wallet and will be credited to B’s wallet, and during this process, the miners will charge a fee to validate this transaction and will earn a reward.

All the nodes on the Ethereum network execute smart contracts using their respective EVMs.

b. Proof of Work

Every node in the Ethereum network has:

  • The entire history of all the transactions—the entire chain
  • The history of the smart contract, which is the address at which the smart contract is deployed, along with the transactions associated with the smart contract
  • The handle to the current state of the smart contract

The goal of the miners on the Ethereum network is to validate the blocks. For each block of a transaction, miners use their computational power and resources to get the appropriate hash value by varying the nonce. The miners will vary the nonce and pass it through a hashing algorithm—in Ethereum, it is the Ethash algorithm.

This produces a hash value that should be less than the predefined target as per the proof-of-work consensus. If the hash value generated is less than the target value, then the block is considered to be verified, and the miner gets rewarded.

When the proof of work is solved, the result is broadcast and shared with all the other nodes to update their ledger. If other nodes accept the hashed block as valid, then the block gets added to the Ethereum main blockchain, and as a result, the miner receives a reward, which as of today stands at three ethers. Plus, the miner gets the transaction fees that have been generated for verifying the block. All the transactions that are aggregated in the block—the cumulative transaction fees associated with all the transactions are also rewarded to the miner.

c. Proof of Stake

In Ethereum, a process called proof of stake is also under development. It is an alternative to proof of work and is meant to be a solution to minimize the use of expensive resources spent on mining using proof of work. In proof of stake, the miner—who is the validator—can validate the transactions based on the number of crypto coins he or she holds before actually starting the mining.

So, based on the accumulation of crypto coins the miner has beforehand, he or she has a higher probability of mining the block. However, proof of stake is not widely used as of now compared to proof of work.

d. Gas

Just like we need fuel to run a car, we need gas to run applications on the Ethereum network. To perform any transaction within the Ethereum network, a user must make a payment, in this case paying out ethers, to get a transaction done, and the intermediary monetary value is called gas.

On the Ethereum network, gas is a unit that measures the computational power required to run a smart contract or a transaction. So, if you must do a transaction that updates the blockchain, you would have to shell out gas, and that gas costs ethers.

In Ethereum, the transaction fees are calculated using a formula (see screenshot below). For every transaction, there is gas and its correlated gas price. The transaction fees equal the amount of gas required to execute a transaction multiplied by the gas price. “Gas limit” refers to the amount of gas used for the computation and the amount of ether a user is required to pay for the gas.

Below is a screenshot from the Ethereum network showing the transaction cost. You can see for this particular transaction, the gas limit was 21,000, the gas used by the transaction was 21,000, and the gas price was 21 Gwei, which is the lowest denomination of ether. So, 21 Gwei * 21,000 gave the actual transaction fees: 0.000441 ethers, or about 21 cents as of today. As mentioned, the transaction fee goes to the miner, who has validated the transaction.

To understand the gas limit and price, let’s consider an example using a car. Suppose your vehicle has a mileage of 10 kilometers per liter and petrol costs $1 per liter. Under these parameters, driving a car for 50 kilometers would cost you five liters of petrol, which is worth $5. Similarly, to perform an operation or to run code on Ethereum, you need to obtain a certain amount of gas, like petrol, and the gas has a per-unit price, called gas price.

If the user provides less than the amount of gas to run an operation, then the process will fail, and the user will be given the message “out of gas.” And Gwei, as noted above, is the lowest denomination of ether used for measuring a unit of a gas price.

e. How is Ethereum Mining Different from Bitcoin Mining?

 BitcoinEthereum
Hashing AlgorithmSHA-256Ethash
Time is taken to mine a blockAn average of 10 minutesAn average of 12-15 seconds
Reward (to 2019)12.5 BTC3 ETH

1.4. Decentralized Applications (Dapps)

Let’s compare decentralized applications with traditional applications. When you log in to Twitter, for example, a web application gets displayed that is rendered using HTML. The page will call an API to access your data (your information), which is centrally hosted. It’s a simple process: your front end executes the backend API, and the API goes and fetches your data from a centralized database.

If we transform this application into a decentralized application when you log in, the same web application gets rendered, but it calls a smart contract-based API to fetch the information from the blockchain network. So, the API is replaced by a smart contract interface, and the smart contract will bring the data from the blockchain network, which is its back end.

That blockchain network is not a centralized database; it’s a decentralized network in which the participants of the network (the miners) validate (verify) all the transactions that are happening using the smart contract on the blockchain network. So, any transaction or action happening on a Twitter-type application that has now been transformed will be a decentralized transaction.

A Dapp consists of a backing code that runs on a distributed peer-to-peer network. It is a software designed to work in the Ethereum network without being controlled by a centralized system, as mentioned, and that is the primary difference: it provides direct interaction between the end-users and the decentralized application providers.

An application qualifies as a Dapp when it is open-source (its code is on Github), and it uses a public blockchain-based token to run its applications. A token acts as fuel for the decentralized application to run. Dapp allows the back end code and data to be decentralized, and that is the primary architecture of any Dapp.

1.5. Decentralized Autonomous Organizations (DAOs)

A DAO is a digital organization that operates without hierarchical management; it works in a decentralized and democratic fashion. So basically, a DAO is an organization in which the decision-making is not in the hands of a centralized authority but preferably in the hands of certain designated authorities or a group or designated people as a part of an authority. It exists on a blockchain network, where it is governed by the protocols embedded in a smart contract, and thereby, DAOs rely on smart contracts for decision-making—or, we can say, decentralized voting systems—within the organization. So, before any organizational decision can be made, it must go through the voting system, which runs on a decentralized application.

Here’s how it works. People add funds through the DAO because the DAO requires funding in order to execute and make decisions. Based on that, each member is given a token that represents that person’s percentage of shares in the DAO. Those tokens are used to vote in the DAO, and the proposal status is decided based on the maximum votes. Every decision within the organization must go through this voting process.


Ethereum Ecosystem Overview

The Ethereum ecosystem is creating a space where users have more control over their application, through the help of smart contract features. Any centralized service can be decentralized using the Ethereum platform.

 

1. Stablecoins

RatingNameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
1TehterA stablecoin backed 1:1 by U.S. dollars.USDTBinancehttps://tether.to/
2USD CoinUSDC is a USD-backed stablecoin as an ERC20 token.USSDCBinancehttps://www.centre.io/usdc
3TrueUSDA stablecoin backed 1:1 by U.S. dollars.TUSDBinancehttps://www.trueusd.com/
4DAIDAI is a crypto-backed stablecoin soft-pegged to USD, built on the Ethereum and governed by the MakerDAO system.DAIFTXhttps://makerdao.com/
5WBTCWrapped Bitcoin (WBTC) is the ERC20 token backed 1:1 with BitcoinWBTCFTXhttps://wbtc.network/
6FraxFrax is the first fractional-algorithmic stablecoin protocol.FRAXGate.iohttps://frax.finance/
7Pax DollarUSDP is a stablecoin backed 1:1 by USD, and gives customers the ability to store and send US Dollars with freedom, unrestricted by the limits of traditional banking system.USDPBinancehttps://paxos.com/usdp/
8Gemini DollarA stable value coin backed 1:1 by USD.GUSDBitMarthttps://www.gemini.com/dollar
9HUSDHUSD is a stablecoin backed 1:1 by U.S. dollars held in a U.S. trust company.HUSDGate.iohttps://www.stcoins.com/
10AmpleforthAMPL is a USD soft-pegged digital currency, that adjusts supply daily based on market conditions.AMPLBitfinexhttps://www.ampleforth.org/
11mStablemStable combine stablecoins and tokenized assets into higher-yielding instruments.MUSDCoinbasehttps://mstable.org/
12Empty Set DollarEmpty Set Dollar (ESD) is an algorithmic stablecoin built to be the reserve currency of Decentralized Finance.ESDGate.iohttps://emptyset.finance/
13AugmintAugmint offers digital tokens targeted to a fiat currency. Stablecoin backed 1:1 by Euros.  https://www.augmint.org/
14DefiDollarDefiDollar is a stable asset, backed by an index of stablecoins. DUSD is a hedge against volatility and provides portfolio risk diversification.DUSD https://app.dusd.finance/

 

2. DeFi Infrastructure & Dev Tooling

RatingNameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
1ChainlinkChainlink is a decentralized oracle that can provide external data to smart contracts.LINKBinancehttps://chain.link/
2LoopringA protocol for decentralized token exchange, where traders have complete and total control of their crypto-assets.LRCBinancehttps://loopring.org/#/
3Kyber NetworkOn-chain liquidity protocol allows decentralized token swaps to be integrated into any applicationKNCBinancehttps://kyber.network/
40x0x Protocol is free, open-source infrastructure that developers and businesses utilize to build products that enable the purchasing and trading of crypto tokensZRXBinancehttps://www.0x.org/
5The GraphThe Graph is a decentralized protocol for indexing and querying data from blockchains.GRTBinancehttps://thegraph.com/en/
6UmaUMA is a decentralized financial contracts platform built to enable Universal Market AccessUMABinancehttps://umaproject.org/
7RenRen is an open protocol that provides access to inter-blockchain liquidity for all decentralized applications.RENBinancehttps://renproject.io/
8BancorThe Bancor Protocol ensures continuous liquidity and real-time price discovery between blockchain-based assets, without matching buyers and sellers.BNTBinancehttps://home.bancor.network/
9RAMPThe protocol powering fiat to crypto exchangesRAMPBinancehttps://ramp.network/
10AlchemyAlchemy is an infrastructure provider for web3 developers interacting with Ethereum blockchain.ACOINKucoinhttps://www.alchemy.com/
11CentrifugeOpen, decentralized platform to connect the global financial supply chainCFGGate.iohttps://centrifuge.io/
12ZapZap platform allows users to create, publish and subscribe to smart contract and Decentralized Application compatible data feedsZAP https://www.zap.org/
13BlocknativeBlocknative’s infrastructure and APIs provide real-time mempool monitoring to keep your transactions flowing reliably, resiliently, and predictably.  https://www.blocknative.com/
14FortmaticFortmatic SDK let users to interact with dApp through any browser or device  https://fortmatic.com/
15HummingbotHummingbot is an open source software client that helps you build and run high-frequency trading bots that run on any crypto exchange.  https://hummingbot.io/en/
16Hydro ProtocolHydro is an open source framework for building Decentralized Exchanges. HOTHuobihttps://hydroprotocol.io/
17MoonPayMoonPay is a fiat on-ramp that enables web and mobile developers to let their users purchase virtual currencies using credit card.  https://www.moonpay.com/
18ProvableProvable is a blockchain oracle service, enabling data-rich smart contracts.  https://provable.xyz/
19QuikNodeQuikNode is a RPC node service provider with APIs & dedicated nodes available.  https://www.quicknode.com/
20TorusTorus allows users to login to your dApp with their OAuth accounts, Google and Facebook, to derive their private keys in a trustless manner.TBA https://tor.us/
21TransakTransak is a simple and compliant way for customers to buy and sell crypto assets with a bank transfer.  https://transak.com/
22WalletConnectWalletConnect is an open protocol for connecting desktop Dapps to mobile Wallets using end-to-end encryption by scanning a QR code.  https://walletconnect.com/
23WyreWyre is a secure and compliant bridge between fiat currencies and cryptocurrency.  https://www.sendwyre.com/
24Carbon FiberCarbon is an all-in-one fiat-to-crypto on-ramp API to help you retain new customers effortlessly, so you can focus on building.  https://www.carbon.money/

 

3. Decentralized exchanges on Ethereum

RatingNameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
1CurveCurve is an exchange liquidity pool on Ethereum designed for extremely efficient stablecoin trading.CRVBinancehttps://curve.fi/
2UniswapUniswap is an automated fully decentralized token exchange on EthereumUNIBinancehttps://uniswap.org/
3dYdXdYdX is a trading platform for crypto assets, built with open-source protocols, enabling decentralized margin tradingDYDXBinancehttps://dydx.community/dashboard
4SushiSwapThe SushiSwap exchange allows users to swap any ERC20 token into any other ERC20 token through automated liquidity poolsSUSHIBinancehttps://sushi.com/
51inch.exchange1inch.exchange split the order to several decentralized exchanges like UniswapExchange, KyberNetwork, Bancor and RadarRelay to avoid high price slippage.1INCHBinancehttps://1inch.io/
6BalancerBalancer Exchange allow you to swap ERC20 tokens trustlessly across all Balancer’s liquidity pools.BALBinancehttps://balancer.fi/
7DodoDODO is a on-chain liquidity provider which leverages the Proactive Market Maker algorithm (PMM) to provide on-chain and contract-fillable liquidity for everyone. Binancehttps://dodoex.io/
8BancorBancor is an on-chain liquidity protocol that enables automated, decentralized token exchange on Ethereum and across blockchains.BNTBinancehttps://home.bancor.network/
9IDEXIDEX is a non-custodial exchange that integrates with any custody solution and allows users to trade with one another without giving up control to a third-party custodianIDEXBinancehttps://idex.io/
10MultichainMultichain(previously Anyswap) is a fully decentralized cross chain swap protocol, based on Fusion DCRM technology, with automated pricing and liquidity system.MULTIBinancehttps://multichain.org/
11AirSwapPeer-to-peer token trading on Ethereum, without trading fees.ASTBinancehttps://www.airswap.io/#/
12RhinoFiRhinoFi(previously DeversiFi) is a hybrid Ethereum exchange platform providing access to spot trading, margin trading, P2P funding & decentralized trading.DVFBitfinexhttps://rhino.fi/
13KyberSwapKyberSwap allows anyone to convert tokens directly from their wallet in an instant, convenient and secure way.KNCBinancehttps://kyberswap.com/swap
14ParaSwapParaSwap is a decentralized exchange aggregator that provides the best prices over multiple DEXs on the Ethereum blockchainPSPBybithttps://www.paraswap.io/
15CowSwapCowSwap is a trading interface built on top of Gnosis Protocol v2. It allows you to buy and sell tokens using gas-less orders that are settled peer-to-peer among its users or into any on-chain liquidity source while providing MEV protection.  https://cowswap.exchange
16DDEXDDEX is the decentralized exchange built on Hydro Protocol technology, offering real-time order matching with secure on-chain settlement.  https://ddex.io/
17DexGuruDexGuru is a trading platform for modern traders where on-chain analytics combined with trading capabilities.  https://dex.guru/
18MatchaMatcha is a crypto trading platform with smart order routing powered by 0x. Matcha aggregates liquidity from multiple sources, including 0x, Kyber, Uniswap, Oasis, Curve, and others  https://matcha.xyz/
19MesaMesa is an open source interface for Gnosis Protocol, a fully permissionless DEX that enables ring trades to maximize liquidity.  https://mesa.eth.link/
20OasisOasis is a decentralized, non-custodial exchange built on the OasisDEX Protocol enabling the trade of the tokens used in Multi-Collateral Dai (MCD).  https://oasis.app/#multiply

 

4. Decentralized Lending on Ethereum

RatingNameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
1AaveAave is an Open Source and Non-Custodial protocol to earn interest on deposits & borrow assets.AAVEBinancehttps://aave.com/
2CompoundCompound is an open-source, autonomous protocol built for developers, enable algorithmic, efficient money markets on the Ethereum.COMPBinancehttps://compound.finance/
3KavaKava is a Layer-1 blockchain that combines the speed and interoperability of Cosmos with the developer power of Ethereum.KAVABinancehttps://www.kava.io/
4Cream FinanceC.R.E.A.M. is a crypto lending and borrowing dApp based on the Compound protocol with altered pools assets and own governance token.CREAMBinancehttps://cream.finance/
5MapleMaple is a decentralized corporate credit market. Maple offers borrowers transparent and efficient financing completed entirely on-chainMPLGate.iohttps://maple.finance/ 
6TrueFiTrueFi is a protocol for uncollateralized lendingTRUBinancehttps://truefi.io/
7WingWing is a credit-based, decentralized platform designed for crypto-asset lending and cross-chain communication between DeFi projects

WING

 

Binancehttps://wing.finance/ 
8AlchemixAlchemix is a future-yield-backed synthetic asset platform with flexible instant loans that repay themselves over time and community DAO. The platform advances your yield farming via a synthetic token representing a fungible claim on any underlying collateral in the Alchemix protocolALCXBinancehttps://alchemix.fi/
9LiquityLiquity is a decentralized borrowing protocol that allows you to draw interest-free loans against Ether used as collateral.LQTYHuobihttps://www.liquity.org/
10GoldfinchGoldfinch is a global credit protocol that offers sustainable, high-quality stablecoin yields that are generated by real-world economic activity and sheltered from DeFi's volatility.GFIGate.iohttps://goldfinch.finance/
11Unit protocolUnit Protocol is a decentralized protocol that allows you to mint stablecoin $USDP using a variety of tokens as collateralDUCKGate.iohttps://unit.xyz/
12Yield ProtocolYield Protocol is an open source platform allowing anybody to create and execute yield farming & trading strategies on the Ethereum Defi ecosystem.YIELDGate.iohttps://yieldprotocol.org/
1388mph88mph lets you lend your crypto assets at a fixed interest rateMPHMEXChttps://88mph.app/
14NotionalNotional is a fixed rate lending and borrowing platform on EthereumNOTECoinExhttps://notional.finance/
15Oasis BorrowOasis Borrow allows you to lock your tokens as collateral to generate DAI, a decentralized stablecoin soft-pegged to 1 USD.  https://oasis.app/#multiply
16FulcrumFulcrum is the platform for tokenized margin trading and lending, enables users to lend assets for interest or enter into short/leveraged positions.  https://fulcrum.trade/
17TorqueTorque is a powerful DeFi platform for borrowing assets with indefinite-term loans and fixed interest rates.  https://torque.loans/

 

5. Payments Solutions and Service Providers

RatingNameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
1MaticPolygon is a blockchain scalability platform which provides secure, scalable and instant transactions powered by PoS side chains and an adapted version of Plasma.MATICBinancehttps://polygon.technology/
2OMG NetworkOMG Network architecture enables developers to build a L2 Applications with high throughputs and strong safety guarantees.OMGBinancehttps://omg.network/
3Celer NetworkCeler Network is a layer-2 scaling platform that enables fast and secure off-chain transactions for not only payment transactions, but also generalized off-chain smart contract.CELRBinancehttps://www.celer.network/#
4RequestRequest is a decentralized network built on top of Ethereum, which allows anyone, anywhere to request, validate and execute payments.REQBinancehttps://request.network/en/
5PersistencePersistence is a Tendermint based specialized Layer-1 powering an ecosystemof DeFi dApps focused on unlocking the liquidity of staked assets.XPRTHuobihttps://persistence.one/
6ShapeshiftA free open source platform to trade, track, buy, and earn. Community-owned. Private. Non-custodial. Multi-chain. FOXMEXChttps://shapeshift.com/
7XionXion Global is a multi-chain crypto payment processor most commonly used for metaverses, NFT marketplaces, gaming and e-commerce storesXGTLbank https://www.xion.global/
8xDai Stable ChainxDai Chain provide users with fast transactions and low gas prices. xDai Stable Chain is Ethereum compatible, so data and assets can be transferred to the Ethereum providing backend safety and opportunities to scale.STAKEHuobihttps://developers.gnosischain.com/
9SablierSablier is the protocol for real-time finance on Ethereum, that enables continuous, autonomous and trustless payroll.  https://sablier.finance/
10zkSynczkSync is a trustless protocol for scalable low-cost payments on Ethereum, powered by zkRollup technology.  https://zksync.io/
11SuperfluidSuperfluid is a novel crypto asset streaming protocol that enables transformative web3 money experiences like salary and subscription streaming, real-time investing, and more – all on-chain  https://www.superfluid.finance/home
12StablePayStablePay enables ERC20 tokens payments converted to DAI and cDAI.   https://stablepay.vercel.app/
13ConnextConnext enables users to batch many Ethereum transactions into one netted transfer by using signed off-blockchain commitments rather than direct on-blockchain transactions.  https://www.connext.network/
14MobilecoinMobile cryptocurrency payment platform  https://mobilecoin.com/
15SwapinUltra-fast payments between crypto and banks  https://www.swapin.com/

 

6. Marketplaces

RatingNameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
1OpenSeaOpenSea is a peer to peer marketplace for crypto collectibles  https://opensea.io/
2LooksRareLooksRare is the community-first NFT marketplace that actively rewards traders, collectors and creators for participatingLOOKSBybithttps://looksrare.org/
3GitcoinGitcoin is a marketplace of freelance gigs and bounties for open source projects.GTCBinancehttps://gitcoin.co/
4SuperrareSuperRare is a marketplace to collect and trade unique, single-edition digital artworks.RAREBinancehttps://superrare.com/
5GemGem.xyz is an NFT Aggregator. You can buy multiple NFTs(aka sweep floor) using Gem Web 3 shopping cart, pay with any token and save up to 39% on gas fees.  https://www.gem.xyz/
6FoundationFoundation is a marketplace platform for buying, selling, and trading limited-edition goods.  https://foundation.app/
7LocalCryptosLocalCryptos (LocalEthereum) is a self-custodial peer-to-peer local ETH marketplace.  https://localcryptos.com/
8KnownoriginKnownOrigin lets you discover, showcase & buy digital artwork + NFT collectibles.  https://knownorigin.io/
9NFTKEYNFTKEY is a decentralised NFT marketplace that allows Ethereum and Binance Smart Chain NFTs to be listed, bid on, bought and sold without any centralized servers  https://nftkey.app/
10RaribleRarible allows you to create and sell NFT collectibles at digital art marketplaceRARIGate.iohttps://rarible.com/
11XX is a community-owned, cross-chain NFT marketplace. X enables users to collect, create and sell NFTs across multiple blockchains on the decentralized marketplace.X https://x.xyz/

 

7. Ethereum-based DAO Platforms

RatingNameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
1AragonAragon allows you to create global, bureaucracy-free companies and freely organize and collaborate without borders or intermediaries.ANTBinancehttps://aragon.org/
2BoardroomBoardroom is a simple interface to engage, signal, and vote on protocol decisions with an integrated governance management platform improving distributed decision making  https://boardroom.io/
3ColonyColony is a suite of smart contracts, providing a general purpose framework for the essential functions organizations require, such as ownership, structure, authority, and financial management.  https://colony.io/
4DaostackDAOStack is an open source project advancing the technology and adoption of decentralized governance.  https://daostack.io/
5DxdaoThe DXdao is a decentralized organization that develops, governs, and grows DeFi protocols and products, owned and operated by the community.DXDCoinExhttps://dxdao.eth.link/#/
6DaohausDaohaus is a DAO Explorer with interface enabling joining existing DAOs, as well as creating a new Moloch-like DAOs.HAUSHotBithttps://daohaus.club/
7SnapshotSnapshot is a off-chain, gasless, multi-governance community polling dashboard  https://snapshot.org/#/
8TallyTally is a voting dashboard, aggregating data from defi protocols’ governance and providing it in real-time for research and analysis  https://www.tally.xyz/

 

8. Yield Aggregators on Ethereum

RatingNamedescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
1Yearn.financeYearn.Finance automates yield-maximizing profit switching opportunities for liquidity providers and yield farmers.YFIBinancehttps://yearn.finance/
2HarvestHarvest automatically farms the highest yield available from the newest DeFi protocols, and optimizes the yields that are received using the latest farming techniques.FARMBinancehttps://harvest.finance/
3BellaPlatform that aggregates Farming, Lending, Saving services in one placeBELBinancehttps://bella.fi/
4Alpha HomoraAlpha Homora is a leveraged yield farming and leveraged liquidity providing protocol.ALPHABinancehttps://homora.alphaventuredao.io/
5AkropolisAkropolis allows executing automatic dollar-cost averaging into BTC ETH and participating in different liquidity mining programs.AKROBinancehttps://www.akropolis.io/
6FrontierFrontier is a chain-agnostic decentralized finance aggregatorFRONTBinancehttps://frontier.xyz/
7o3swapAggregate liquidity sources across leading DEXs.o3MEXChttps://o3swap.com/swap
8VesperVesper provides a suite of yield-generating products, focused on accessibility, optimization, and longevityVSPGatehttps://vesper.finance/
9IdleIdle enables tokenizing the best interest rate among Ethereum money markets. IDLEHotbithttps://idle.finance/
10PicklePickle allow users to deposit tokens from liquidity pools such as Uniswap or Curve, and then execute sophisticated strategies that maximize the returns of the depositorPICKLEGatehttps://www.pickle.finance/
11GRO ProtocolGro is a yield optimizer that enables leverage and protection through risk tranching.GRO https://www.gro.xyz/
12Rari CapitalRari Capital is a roboadvisor that ensures you receive the highest yield, beyond just lending.  https://rari.capital/
13bEarn FibEarn Fi is a cross-chain yield aggregator on Binance Smart Chain blockchain (BSC) and Ethereum blockchain.  https://www.bearn.fi/

 

9. Wallet and Asset Management Tools

RatingNameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
1MetaMaskMetaMask is a browser extension that allows users to run Ethereum dApps and interacting with smart contracts.   https://metamask.io/
2Trust WalletMulti cryptocurrency wallet to store your favorite BEP2, ERC20 and ERC721, tokens.TWTBinancehttps://trustwallet.com/
3Coinbase WalletCoinbase Wallet is a mobile crypto wallet supporting multicoin assets as well as ERC-20 tokens and ERC-721 collectibles. Coinbase Wallet also provides access to Web 3 Decentralized Applications (dApps) powered by Ethereum smart contracts.  https://www.coinbase.com/wallet
4Enjin Crypto WalletEnjin is a mobile cryptocurrency wallet with dApp browser, supporting Ethereum, Bitcoin, Litecoin, ERC20, ERC721 AND ERC1155 tokens.ENJBinancehttps://enjin.io/products/wallet
5Huobi WalletHuobi Wallet is a multi-currency wallet featuring cross-chain exchange of mainstream coins, dApps browser, and staking as a service for PoS networks.  https://www.itoken.com/
6XDEFI WalletXDEFI Wallet is a cross-chain wallet extension. It is the world’s only wallet with native integrations on THORChain, Ethereum + several EVM networks and Terra.XDEFIGate.iohttps://www.xdefi.io/
7Infinito WalletInfinito Wallet is a mobile multi-currency wallet with dApps browser for interacting with the DeFi ecosystem.INFT https://www.infinitowallet.io/
8Cobo WalletCobo Wallet is a multi-chain cryptocurrency wallet on iOS & Android, with built in dApps browser.  https://cobo.com/
9MathWalletMulti-chain wallet, integrating DeFi features  https://mathwallet.org/en-us/
10EnzymeEnzyme Finance formerly known as Melon Protocol, is a user interface that allows interaction with on-chain funds.MLNBinancehttps://enzyme.finance/
11TokenPocketTokenPocket is a multi-chain cryptocurrency wallet on both mobile and desktop with built in dApp browsers.TPTGate.iohttps://www.tokenpocket.pro/
12FurucomboFurucombo is a tool built for end-users to optimize their DeFi strategy simply by drag and drop UI.

COMBO

 

Gate.iohttps://furucombo.app/
13Stake DAOStake DAO is a non-custodial platform that enables anyone to easily grow their crypto portfolio. It is built on top of decentralized blockchain protocols, offering a seamless way for people to grow, track, and control assets right from their wallet.SDTUniswaphttps://app.stakedao.org/
14DhedgedHEDGE is a platform for managing investment activities on the Ethereum blockchain where you can put your capital to work in different strategies based on a transparent track recordDHTHuobihttps://www.dhedge.org/
15InstaDAppInstadapp is a platform providing users and developers with a single point of integration to access all the DeFi protocolsINSTMEXChttps://instadapp.io/
16RainbowRainbow is a fun, simple, and secure Ethereum wallet that makes managing your assets a joy.RAINBOWHotBithttps://rainbow.me/
17ZapperZapper is a system focused on abstracting away the complexities of composing and accessing the most innovative opportunities in open finance.  https://zapper.fi/
18TokensetsTokenSets is the asset management platform with tokenized trading strategies facilitated by Set Protocol’s smart contract system.  https://www.tokensets.com/
19ArgentArgent is a smart contract based wallet for Ethereum crypto-assets and dApps.  https://www.argent.xyz/
20imTokenimToken is a digital asset wallet enabling multi-chain asset management, dApp browsing and exchange of value  https://token.im/
21ZerionZerion is an investment interface for decentralized finance, providing users with a single place to manage their entire DeFi portfolio in a non-custodial way  https://zerion.io/
22DeFi SaverDeFi Saver is a management dashboard for decentralized finance protocols, including MakerDAO CDPs (with features such as automatic liquidation protection), as well as Compound, dYdX and Fulcrum.   https://defisaver.com/
23EidooEidoo gives access to a full range of features and financial services fully compliant, which are safe and easy to use via the Eidoo app, including a non-custodial Wallet, a Hybrid Exchange and a platform to participate and launch token sales.  https://eidoo.io/
24TorUsAn open source, non-custodial key management network  https://tor.us/
25Gnosis SafeGnosis Safe is a smart contract-based wallet enables users to manage their funds and interact with decentralized applications on Ethereum.  https://gnosis-safe.io/
26MultisMultis is a multi-signature Ethereum wallet with a user-friendly interface to manage your company’s crypto  https://multis.co/

 

10. Synthetic Assets, NFT and Derivatives on Ethereum

RatingNameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
1SynthetixSynthetix platform enables creation of the on-chain synthetic assets that tracks value of assets in real world.SNXBinancehttps://synthetix.io/
2Mirror ProtocolMirror is a protocol that enables Mirrored Assets(mAssets) synthetic assets that give traders price exposure to real-world assets by reflecting their price activity on-chain.MIRBinancehttps://mirror.finance/
3OpynOpyn is the insurance layer for decentralized finance.OSQTHBKEXhttps://www.opyn.co/
4Olympus DAOOlympus is a decentralized reserve currency protocol based on the OHM token. Each OHM token is backed by a basket of assets in the Olympus treasury, giving it an intrinsic value that it cannot fall below.OHMGate.iohttps://www.olympusdao.finance/
5DefiPulse IndexThe DeFi Pulse Index is a digital asset index designed to track tokens’ performance within the Decentralized Finance industry.DPIKucoinhttps://indexcoop.com/
6HegicHegic is on-chain options trading protocol, allowing you to buy ETH call and put options as an individual holder (buyer) or sell ETH call and put options as a liquidity provider.HEGICMEXChttps://www.hegic.co/
7Ribbon FinanceRibbon Finance uses financial engineering to create structured products that deliver sustainable yield.RBNMEXChttps://www.ribbon.finance/
8ReflexerReflexer is a platform where anyone can use their crypto collateral to issue reflex indexes.FLXMEXChttps://reflexer.finance/
9Cryptex FinanceCryptex Finance tokenized Total Cryptocurrency Market Capitalization into TCAP token that gives holders real-time price exposure to this key metric.CTXHuobihttps://cryptex.finance/
10PieDAOThe PieDAO is a decentralized organization dedicated to bringing market accessibility and economic empowerment through Pie Protocol and Tokenized ETFs governed by a DAODOUGHMEXChttps://www.piedao.org/
11FinNexus OptionsFinNexus Options is a decentralized options protocol with a multi-asset single-pool model where option buyers can set their own option termsFNX https://options.finnexus.io/
12Indexed FinanceIndexed Finance is a set of capitalization-weighted index pools designed to replicate the behavior of index fundsNDX https://indexcoop.com/
13NFTXNFTX is a platform for making ERC20 tokens that are backed by NFT collectibles and governed by a community-owned protocolNFTXPoloniexhttps://nftx.io/
14FractionalFractional is a decentralized protocol where NFT owners can mint tokenized fractional ownership of their NFTs  https://fractional.art/
15NFT20NFT20 is a permissionless protocol enabling trade, swap and sell NFTs that tokenized at indices pools.  https://nft20.io/

 

11. Analytics Platforms

RatingNameDescribeWebsite
1Token TerminalToken Terminal is a analytics dashboard that provides traditional financial metrics on cryptoassets and defi productshttps://tokenterminal.com/
2DefiLlamaDefiLlama is a multi-chain TVL stats dashboard, where data connectors contributed and maintained by a communityhttps://defillama.com/
3DeepDAODeepDAO is a platform that collects and organizes a variety of quantitative and qualitative data about DAOshttps://deepdao.io/organizations
4APY.VisionAPY.Vision is an all-in-one analytics dashboard for liquidity providers and yield farmershttps://apy.vision/
5Dune AnalyticsDune Analytics allows you to instantly create and share analysis of Ethereum data. Smart contract data is converted to a human-readable format that can be queried with SQLhttps://dune.com/browse/dashboards
6NansenNansen is an analytics platform for Ethereum, which combines on-chain data with a massive and constantly growing database containing millions of wallet labelshttps://www.nansen.ai/
7vfat.toolsVfat.tools is a minimalist yield farming dashboard and farming calculator where you can find the most popular farms and their APYhttps://vfat.tools/
8Revert FinanceRevert provides actionable analytics for DeFi liquidity providers on Uniswap v2, v3 and Sushiswaphttps://revert.finance/
9L2beatL2BEAT is an analytics and research website about Ethereum layer 2 scaling. Here you will find in depth comparison of major protocols live on Ethereum today.https://l2beat.com/
10ChainbeatChainbeat is the data insights and analytics platform for web3. Chainbeat enables comprehensive cross-blockchain analytics and providing in-depth insights on active users, transactions, events, token transfers with real-time alerts and custom reports based on real-time smart contract usage.https://chainbeat.io/
11Croco FinanceCroco Finance let you analyze your liquidity positions in Uniswap, Sushiswap, and Balancerhttps://croco.finance/#/
12DeBankDeBank is a dashboard for tracking your DeFi portfolio, with data and analytics for decentralized lending protocols, stablecoins, margin trading platforms and DEXes.https://debank.com/
13LoanScanLoanScan provides data and analytics for loans issued via open finance protocols on the Ethereum blockchain.https://linen.app/interest-rates/

 

12. Prediction Markets

RatingNameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
1AugurAugur is a decentralized oracle and peer to peer protocol for prediction markets.REPBinancehttp://www.augur.net/
2GnosisGnosis is an open platform for creating prediction market applications on the Ethereum protocol.GNOBinancehttps://gnosis.io/
3PlotXPlotX is a cross-chain prediction market protocol that enables crypto traders to make crypto-asset price predictions in hourly, daily & weekly time frames.PLOTUniswaphttps://plotx.io/
4PolymarketPolymarket is an information markets platform, where you can bet on the highly-debated topics and earn for being right.  https://polymarket.com/
5Omen.ethOmen uses the Gnosis conditional token framework to give anyone the ability to create a prediction market - be it in the realm of crypto, sports, politics, entertainment, etc.  https://omen.eth.link/

 

13. KYC & Identity on Ethereum

RatingNameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
1CivicSecure blockchain identity toolbox and ecosystem.CVCBinancehttps://www.civic.com/
2SelfKeySelfKey is building a blockchain-based identity system that allows identity owners to truly own, control and manage their digital identity.KEYBinancehttps://selfkey.org/
3HydroHydro enables new and existing private systems to seamlessly integrate and leverage the immutable and transparent dynamics of a public blockchain, to enhance application and document security, identity management, and transactions.HYDROCoinExhttps://projecthydro.org/
4BlockpassBlockpass is a blockchain based self-sovereign identity protocol for the connected world. Blockpass offers shared regulatory compliance services for humans, companies, objects and devices.PASSBitfinexhttps://www.blockpass.org/
5BloomBloom is a blockchain solution for secure identity and credit scoring.BLTHotbithttps://bloom.co/
6ColendiColendi it is blockchain based credibility evaluation and global identity for the sharing economy.  https://www.colendi.com/
7BrightIDBrightID allows people to prove to applications that they’re only using one account.  https://www.brightid.org/
8JolocomJolocom is an open source protocol for people and organizations to create and interact with digital, self-sovereign identities.  https://jolocom.io/
9IdentityIdentity.com is an open source ecosystem providing access to on-demand, secure identity verification.  https://www.identity.com/home-3/
103Box3Box is a next-generation framework for managing user data on the internet.  https://3boxlabs.com/

 

14. Margin Trading on Ethereum

RatingNameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
1dYdXdYdX is a trading platform for crypto assets, built with open-source protocols, enabling decentralized margin trading.DYDXBinancehttps://dydx.community/dashboard
2Perpetual ProtocolPerpetual Protocol is a decentralized perpetual contract protocol with virtual AMMs to provide guaranteed liquidity.PERPBinancehttps://perp.com/
3FulcrumFulcrum is the platform for tokenized margin lending and trading, enables users to lend assets for interest or enter into short/leveraged positions.  https://fulcrum.trade/
4Margin DDEXDDEX is an advanced decentralized margin exchange. Users can create leveraged margin positions and earn interest through decentralized lending pools.  https://ddex.io/

 

15. Decentralized Insurance Platforms

RatingNameDescribeWebsite
1InsurAce ProtocolInsurAce is a multi-chain protocol that provides insurance services to DeFi users, allowing them to protect their investment funds against various riskshttps://app.insurace.io/
2Nexus MutualSecure risk and potential bugs in smart contract code. Be covered for events like The DAO hack or Parity multi-sig wallet issues.https://nexusmutual.io/
3Opium InsuranceOpium Insurance offers tradable, tokenized insurance position against smart-contract hacking or against stablecoin default.https://opium.finance/

 

16. Asset Tokenization

RatingNameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
1Polymath NetworkA platform for the creation of tokenized securities.POLYBinancehttps://polymath.network/
2TokensoftTokenSoft enables issuers, financial institutions, broker-dealers, real estate companies, and funds to meet compliance requirements for digital securities on the blockchain at issuance, distribution, and transfer.  https://www.tokensoft.io/
3HarborHarbor is an all-in-one platform for digital securities such as funds, private equity, and commercial real estate.  https://harbor.com/
4OpenFinanceOpenFinance Network is a U.S. regulated trading platform for digital alternative assets.  https://www.openfinance.io/
5SecuritizeThe compliance platform for digitizing securities on the blockchain.  https://securitize.io/
6TemplumTemplum provides a regulated, end-to-end solution for raising capital and secondary trading in the private market.  https://www.templuminc.com/

 

17. Savings Apps on Ethereum

RatingNameDescribeTokenExchangeWebsite
1PoolTogetherPoolTogether is a no-loss, audited savings game powered by blockchain technology.POOLGate.iohttps://pooltogether.com/
2Linen AppLinen App provides a non-custodial wallet and allows you to connect your U.S. bank account to supply digital dollars (stablecoin USDC) to the Compound liquidity pool on the Ethereum blockchain  https://linen.app/

Conclusion

While some Ethereum dApps may appear similar to traditional web applications from a user perspective, dApps are capable of operating and transacting in a peer-to-peer fashion without the need for a central authority. Ethereum continues to be the most widely adopted platform of its kind, Ethereum blockchain remains the second largest, in large part because of the project’s success in attracting developers to build dApps on its network.

I hope this article will help you. Don't forget to leave a like, comment and sharing it with others. Thank you!

#blockchain #eth #ethereum #bitcoin #cryptocurrency #dapps #dapp  

Ethereum Ecosystem Overview | Top 200 Project Built on Ethereum (ETH)
许 志强

许 志强

1653661648

「比特币入门系列第1期」如何购买比特币,以太坊等数字货币教程?

「比特币入门系列」第1期如何在币安交易所用人民币法币交易里购买比特币,以太坊等数字货币教程?狗狗币,莱特币怎么买?如何下载注册,苹果安卓如何安装APP?适用于欧易,火币等交易所。

旁白君和他的朋友们社区入口:https://linktr.ee/pangbaijun

派可/派网(20%,进指导群) 
大陆用户 https://www.picol.com/sign/ref/nsrSIkpL (支持大陆 KYC ,邀请码:nsrSIkpL ) 
海外用户 https://www.pionex.com/sign/ref/YnuarMp8JR (邀请码:YnuarMp8JR)

币安 - 20%,注册时居住地选台湾,KYC时输入框手动写中国
https://accounts.binance.com/zh-CN/register?ref=EHKDAZ80

视频介绍中的部分链接为佣金链接,我这边提供的都是我能给到的最大返佣额度,如果您点击注册并使用,会给我带来微薄的收入,如果介意可以直接从官网进入。

以上内容,仅供参考,不作为投资依据

#binance #eth #doge #blockchain 

「比特币入门系列第1期」如何购买比特币,以太坊等数字货币教程?

Cómo construir una plataforma de intercambio ERC-20

Aprenda a crear una plataforma de intercambio ERC-20 donde los usuarios puedan acuñar, comprar y vender tokens ERC-20 en este completo tutorial.

Las aplicaciones de tokens y NFT aumentan cada día. Traen muchas nuevas posibilidades a la mesa. Desde usarlos en juegos hasta crear su propia moneda virtual para un evento, puede hacer muchas cosas usando las tecnologías Web3.

Hoy vamos a crear una plataforma de intercambio de tokens, donde los usuarios pueden comprar y vender un token específico. El tipo de token que vamos a usar aquí es ERC-20 y los vamos a implementar en la red de Polygon Mumbai.

El enfoque que vamos a seguir es primero crear un contrato inteligente, que acuñará nuestros tokens, y luego otro contrato inteligente para facilitar su compra y venta. Luego usaremos ambos contratos inteligentes en nuestra aplicación Next.js para que los usuarios puedan comprar y vender.

requisitos previos

  • Conocimiento práctico de React
  • Conocimiento práctico de Next.js
  • Conocimiento práctico de Solidity
  • Node.js instalado
  • Un editor de código: prefiero Visual Studio Code
  • Extensión MetaMask instalada con al menos una billetera
  • MetaMask conectado a la red de prueba Polygon Mumbai

Si siente que está atascado en el tutorial, no dude en consultar el repositorio de GitHub .

Contenido

  • Crear el contrato inteligente de token
  • Crear el contrato de proveedor
  • Configuración del contrato inteligente del proveedor
  • Configurando nuestra aplicación Next.js
  • Configuración de variables de entorno
  • Trabajando en la autenticación
  • Implementación de la funcionalidad de compra y venta.

Crear el contrato inteligente de token

El contrato inteligente de tokens nos ayudará a acuñar tokens. Abra Remix IDE y cree un nuevo archivo llamado TestToken.soldebajo de la contractscarpeta. Use el siguiente código en el archivo:

// SPDX-License-Identifier: Unlicense
pragma solidity ^0.8.4;
import "@openzeppelin/contracts/token/ERC20/ERC20.sol";
contract TestToken is ERC20 {
    constructor() ERC20("TestToken", "TEST"){
        _mint(msg.sender, 10000 * 10 ** 18);
    }
}

En el código anterior, usamos plantillas de contrato de OpenZeppelin para crear un token ERC-20. Estas plantillas nos brindan las funciones mínimas requeridas por los tokens ERC-20, y son seguras y optimizadas, por lo que no debe preocuparse por reforzar la seguridad de su token. En el constructor de nuestro contrato, especificamos el nombre y el símbolo de nuestro token y acuñamos 10,000 tokens en la billetera del creador del contrato.

Ahora, compile el contrato presionando Ctrl + S (o Cmd + S para Mac). Asegúrese de haber conectado MetaMask a Polygon Mumbai. Vaya a la pestaña Implementar en la barra lateral y configure el entorno en Inyectado Web3 , para que Remix IDE use MetaMask para implementar su contrato.

Asegúrate de que tus otras configuraciones sean similares a esta:

 

Después de verificar todas las configuraciones, haga clic en Implementar . Esto debería abrir la ventana emergente de autorización de MetaMask. Haga clic en Confirmar .

 

Si no tiene fondos en su billetera de Polygon Mumbai, puede obtener algunos a través de un faucet . Después de confirmar la transacción, espere unos segundos hasta que vea su contrato desplegado en la barra lateral izquierda.

Copie la dirección del contrato, ya que la necesitaremos al configurar el contrato del proveedor.

Crear el contrato de proveedor

Cree un nuevo archivo llamado TestTokenVendor.soldebajo de la contractscarpeta. Utilice el siguiente código para el contrato:

// SPDX-License-Identifier: Unlicense
pragma solidity ^0.8.4;
import "./TestToken.sol";
import "@openzeppelin/contracts/access/Ownable.sol";
contract Vendor is Ownable {
  TestToken yourToken;
  uint256 public tokensPerMatic = 100;
  event BuyTokens(address buyer, uint256 amountOfMATIC, uint256 amountOfTokens);
  constructor(address tokenAddress) {
    yourToken = TestToken(tokenAddress);
  }

  function buyTokens() public payable returns (uint256 tokenAmount) {
    require(msg.value > 0, "You need to send some MATIC to proceed");
    uint256 amountToBuy = msg.value * tokensPerMatic;

    uint256 vendorBalance = yourToken.balanceOf(address(this));
    require(vendorBalance >= amountToBuy, "Vendor has insufficient tokens");

    (bool sent) = yourToken.transfer(msg.sender, amountToBuy);
    require(sent, "Failed to transfer token to user");

    emit BuyTokens(msg.sender, msg.value, amountToBuy);
    return amountToBuy;
  }
  function sellTokens(uint256 tokenAmountToSell) public {

    require(tokenAmountToSell > 0, "Specify an amount of token greater than zero");

    uint256 userBalance = yourToken.balanceOf(msg.sender);
    require(userBalance >= tokenAmountToSell, "You have insufficient tokens");

    uint256 amountOfMATICToTransfer = tokenAmountToSell / tokensPerMatic;
    uint256 ownerMATICBalance = address(this).balance;
    require(ownerMATICBalance >= amountOfMATICToTransfer, "Vendor has insufficient funds");
    (bool sent) = yourToken.transferFrom(msg.sender, address(this), tokenAmountToSell);
    require(sent, "Failed to transfer tokens from user to vendor");

    (sent,) = msg.sender.call{value: amountOfMATICToTransfer}("");
    require(sent, "Failed to send MATIC to the user");
  }

  function withdraw() public onlyOwner {
    uint256 ownerBalance = address(this).balance;
    require(ownerBalance > 0, "No MATIC present in Vendor");
    (bool sent,) = msg.sender.call{value: address(this).balance}("");
    require(sent, "Failed to withdraw");
  }
}

En el código anterior, estamos creando un Ownablecontrato, que es una plantilla de OpenZeppelin. Esto significa que podemos transferir la propiedad de este contrato a alguna otra billetera, si así lo deseamos.

Estamos importando nuestro contrato de token y brindándole la dirección a través del constructor (proporcionaremos la dirección como argumento al implementar el contrato). También estamos estableciendo un precio general del token dentro de la tokensPerMaticvariable. Este valor se utilizará para calcular la cantidad de tokens a comprar en función de la cantidad de MATIC enviada al contrato.

En la buyTokens()función, primero verificamos si se envió algún MATIC y si el contrato del proveedor tiene suficientes tokens en el saldo o no. Luego, estamos yourToken.transfer()enviando nuestros tokens desde el contrato del proveedor a la billetera que envió la llamada del contrato. Finalmente, estamos emitiendo un evento y devolviendo la cantidad de tokens comprados.

La sellTokens()función no es tan sencilla como la buyTokens()función. Verificamos si el usuario tiene la cantidad especificada de tokens o no, calculamos la cantidad de MATIC que se devolverá al usuario y verificamos si el contrato del proveedor tiene una cantidad suficiente de MATIC en el saldo.

Sin embargo, aquí viene la parte divertida: no podemos simplemente transferir tokens de la billetera del usuario al saldo de nuestro contrato de proveedor. Primero debemos solicitar la aprobación del usuario para permitirnos administrar sus tokens y enviarnos estos tokens. Este método es seguro porque necesitamos establecer el límite de la cantidad de tokens para los que solicitamos aprobación. La autorización está en MetaMask y el usuario puede ver claramente qué cantidad de tokens puede manejar el contrato.

Este procedimiento de aprobación tiene lugar en el front-end (de una aplicación Next.js, en este caso). Una vez que se otorga la aprobación, realizamos la transferFrom()función de transferir los fondos del usuario a la billetera del contrato del proveedor. Y finalmente, enviamos MATIC al usuario.

La withdraw()función sólo puede ser ejecutada por el titular del contrato. Esta función le permite enviar todo el MATIC almacenado en el contrato inteligente a la billetera del propietario.

Finalmente, implemente el contrato y pase la dirección del contrato del token como parámetro.

Configuración del contrato inteligente del proveedor

Ahora que hemos implementado el contrato inteligente del proveedor, debemos enviarle algunos tokens para que funcione.

Abra el contrato de token en la pestaña Implementar . En la sección de transferencia , pegue la dirección del contrato del proveedor y la cantidad total de tokens (que se pueden obtener haciendo clic en totalSupply.

Haga clic en transacción para aprobar la transacción de MetaMask, y todos los tokens se enviarán desde su billetera al saldo del contrato del proveedor. Ahora su contrato de proveedor puede facilitar la compra y venta de tokens.

Ahora, vaya a la pestaña de compilación y copie el ABI de los dos contratos (así como las direcciones del token y del proveedor), ya que los necesitaremos en nuestro archivo Next.js.

Configurando nuestra aplicación Next.js

Navegue a un directorio seguro y ejecute el siguiente comando en la terminal para crear su aplicación Next.js:

npx create-next-app erc20-exchange-platform

Úselo --use-npmal final si desea instalar dependencias usando npm( create-next-apprecientemente se ha predeterminado a yarn). Navegue a la carpeta del proyecto y ejecute el siguiente comando para instalar algunas dependencias requeridas:

#npm npm install @thirdweb-dev/sdk @thirdweb-dev/react web3 #yarn hilo añadir @thirdweb-dev/sdk @thirdweb-dev/react web3

Estamos instalando @thirdweb-dev/sdkpara ayudar con la autenticación y conectando nuestra aplicación a MetaMask. De esta forma, no dedicamos mucho tiempo a la autenticación.

También estamos instalando @thirdweb-dev/reactpara proporcionarnos Hooks que funcionarán @thirdweb-dev/sdkpara brindarnos información útil sobre el estado del usuario. Estamos instalando web3para interactuar con nuestros tokens y contratos inteligentes de proveedores.

Como no cubriremos el estilo en este tutorial, lo dejaré aquí sin centrarme demasiado en los detalles. Abra globals.cssdebajo de la stylescarpeta y use los siguientes estilos:

html,
body {
  padding: 0;
  margin: 0;
  font-family: -apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, Segoe UI, Roboto, Oxygen,
    Ubuntu, Cantarell, Fira Sans, Droid Sans, Helvetica Neue, sans-serif;
}
a {
  color: inherit;
  text-decoration: none;
}
* {
  box-sizing: border-box;
}
.home__container {
  display: flex;
  flex-direction: column;
  align-items: center;
  justify-content: center;
  min-height: 100vh;
}
.home__button {
  background-color: #2ecc71;
  border: none;
  border-radius: 5px;
  font-size: 20px;
  padding: 15px;
  margin: 10px;
  cursor: pointer;
}
.exchange__container {
  display: flex;
  flex-direction: column;
  align-items: center;
  justify-content: center;
  min-height: 100vh;
}
.exchange__textBox {
  width: 300px;
  height: 50px;
  border: 1px solid #c4c4c4;
  border-radius: 5px;
  font-size: 20px;
  padding: 15px;
  margin: 10px;
  cursor: pointer;
}
.exchange__button {
  width: 300px;
  height: 50px;
  border: 1px solid #2ecc71;
  background-color: #2ecc71;
  border-radius: 5px;
  font-size: 20px;
  padding: 15px;
  margin: 10px;
  cursor: pointer;
}

Configuración de variables de entorno y otros datos

Cree un nuevo archivo llamado .env.localen el directorio del proyecto, este contendrá nuestras direcciones de contrato:

NEXT_PUBLIC_TOKEN_CONTRACT_ADDRESS=(dirección del token aquí) NEXT_PUBLIC_VENDOR_CONTRACT_ADDRESS=(dirección del proveedor aquí)

Ahora, cree un nuevo archivo llamado contracts.jsen el directorio del proyecto. En este archivo, guardaremos y exportaremos las ABI del contrato para ambos contratos:

export const tokenABI = [
  {
    inputs: [],
    stateMutability: "nonpayable",
    type: "constructor",
  },
  {
    anonymous: false,
    inputs: [
      {
        indexed: true,
        internalType: "address",
        name: "owner",
        type: "address",
      },
      {
        indexed: true,
        internalType: "address",
        name: "spender",
        type: "address",
      },
      {
        indexed: false,
        internalType: "uint256",
        name: "value",
        type: "uint256",
      },
    ],
    name: "Approval",
    type: "event",
  },
  {
    anonymous: false,
    inputs: [
      {
        indexed: true,
        internalType: "address",
        name: "from",
        type: "address",
      },
      {
        indexed: true,
        internalType: "address",
        name: "to",
        type: "address",
      },
      {
        indexed: false,
        internalType: "uint256",
        name: "value",
        type: "uint256",
      },
    ],
    name: "Transfer",
    type: "event",
  },
  {
    inputs: [
      {
        internalType: "address",
        name: "owner",
        type: "address",
      },
      {
        internalType: "address",
        name: "spender",
        type: "address",
      },
    ],
    name: "allowance",
    outputs: [
      {
        internalType: "uint256",
        name: "",
        type: "uint256",
      },
    ],
    stateMutability: "view",
    type: "function",
  },
  {
    inputs: [
      {
        internalType: "address",
        name: "spender",
        type: "address",
      },
      {
        internalType: "uint256",
        name: "amount",
        type: "uint256",
      },
    ],
    name: "approve",
    outputs: [
      {
        internalType: "bool",
        name: "",
        type: "bool",
      },
    ],
    stateMutability: "nonpayable",
    type: "function",
  },
  {
    inputs: [
      {
        internalType: "address",
        name: "account",
        type: "address",
      },
    ],
    name: "balanceOf",
    outputs: [
      {
        internalType: "uint256",
        name: "",
        type: "uint256",
      },
    ],
    stateMutability: "view",
    type: "function",
  },
  {
    inputs: [],
    name: "decimals",
    outputs: [
      {
        internalType: "uint8",
        name: "",
        type: "uint8",
      },
    ],
    stateMutability: "view",
    type: "function",
  },
  {
    inputs: [
      {
        internalType: "address",
        name: "spender",
        type: "address",
      },
      {
        internalType: "uint256",
        name: "subtractedValue",
        type: "uint256",
      },
    ],
    name: "decreaseAllowance",
    outputs: [
      {
        internalType: "bool",
        name: "",
        type: "bool",
      },
    ],
    stateMutability: "nonpayable",
    type: "function",
  },
  {
    inputs: [
      {
        internalType: "address",
        name: "spender",
        type: "address",
      },
      {
        internalType: "uint256",
        name: "addedValue",
        type: "uint256",
      },
    ],
    name: "increaseAllowance",
    outputs: [
      {
        internalType: "bool",
        name: "",
        type: "bool",
      },
    ],
    stateMutability: "nonpayable",
    type: "function",
  },
  {
    inputs: [],
    name: "name",
    outputs: [
      {
        internalType: "string",
        name: "",
        type: "string",
      },
    ],
    stateMutability: "view",
    type: "function",
  },
  {
    inputs: [],
    name: "symbol",
    outputs: [
      {
        internalType: "string",
        name: "",
        type: "string",
      },
    ],
    stateMutability: "view",
    type: "function",
  },
  {
    inputs: [],
    name: "totalSupply",
    outputs: [
      {
        internalType: "uint256",
        name: "",
        type: "uint256",
      },
    ],
    stateMutability: "view",
    type: "function",
  },
  {
    inputs: [
      {
        internalType: "address",
        name: "to",
        type: "address",
      },
      {
        internalType: "uint256",
        name: "amount",
        type: "uint256",
      },
    ],
    name: "transfer",
    outputs: [
      {
        internalType: "bool",
        name: "",
        type: "bool",
      },
    ],
    stateMutability: "nonpayable",
    type: "function",
  },
  {
    inputs: [
      {
        internalType: "address",
        name: "from",
        type: "address",
      },
      {
        internalType: "address",
        name: "to",
        type: "address",
      },
      {
        internalType: "uint256",
        name: "amount",
        type: "uint256",
      },
    ],
    name: "transferFrom",
    outputs: [
      {
        internalType: "bool",
        name: "",
        type: "bool",
      },
    ],
    stateMutability: "nonpayable",
    type: "function",
  },
];
export const vendorABI = [
  {
    inputs: [
      {
        internalType: "address",
        name: "tokenAddress",
        type: "address",
      },
    ],
    stateMutability: "nonpayable",
    type: "constructor",
  },
  {
    anonymous: false,
    inputs: [
      {
        indexed: false,
        internalType: "address",
        name: "buyer",
        type: "address",
      },
      {
        indexed: false,
        internalType: "uint256",
        name: "amountOfETH",
        type: "uint256",
      },
      {
        indexed: false,
        internalType: "uint256",
        name: "amountOfTokens",
        type: "uint256",
      },
    ],
    name: "BuyTokens",
    type: "event",
  },
  {
    anonymous: false,
    inputs: [
      {
        indexed: true,
        internalType: "address",
        name: "previousOwner",
        type: "address",
      },
      {
        indexed: true,
        internalType: "address",
        name: "newOwner",
        type: "address",
      },
    ],
    name: "OwnershipTransferred",
    type: "event",
  },
  {
    inputs: [],
    name: "buyTokens",
    outputs: [
      {
        internalType: "uint256",
        name: "tokenAmount",
        type: "uint256",
      },
    ],
    stateMutability: "payable",
    type: "function",
  },
  {
    inputs: [],
    name: "owner",
    outputs: [
      {
        internalType: "address",
        name: "",
        type: "address",
      },
    ],
    stateMutability: "view",
    type: "function",
  },
  {
    inputs: [],
    name: "renounceOwnership",
    outputs: [],
    stateMutability: "nonpayable",
    type: "function",
  },
  {
    inputs: [
      {
        internalType: "uint256",
        name: "tokenAmountToSell",
        type: "uint256",
      },
    ],
    name: "sellTokens",
    outputs: [],
    stateMutability: "nonpayable",
    type: "function",
  },
  {
    inputs: [],
    name: "tokensPerEth",
    outputs: [
      {
        internalType: "uint256",
        name: "",
        type: "uint256",
      },
    ],
    stateMutability: "view",
    type: "function",
  },
  {
    inputs: [
      {
        internalType: "address",
        name: "newOwner",
        type: "address",
      },
    ],
    name: "transferOwnership",
    outputs: [],
    stateMutability: "nonpayable",
    type: "function",
  },
  {
    inputs: [],
    name: "withdraw",
    outputs: [],
    stateMutability: "nonpayable",
    type: "function",
  },
];

Trabajando en la autenticación

Ir al _app.jsarchivo debajo de la pagescarpeta. Aquí, incluiremos nuestra aplicación con ThirdwebProvider, lo que nos ayudará a implementar la autenticación.

Tu _app.jsdebería verse así:

import { ThirdwebProvider, ChainId } from "@thirdweb-dev/react";
import "../styles/globals.css";
function MyApp({ Component, pageProps }) {
  return (
    <ThirdwebProvider desiredChainId={ChainId.Mumbai}>
      <Component {...pageProps} />
    </ThirdwebProvider>
  );
}
export default MyApp;

Aquí, proporcionamos el desiredChainIdID de cadena de Polygon Mumbai. Ahora ve a index.jsy copia el siguiente código en él:

import { useAddress, useMetamask } from "@thirdweb-dev/react";
import Head from "next/head";
import Image from "next/image";
import styles from "../styles/Home.module.css";
import { useEffect } from "react";
import { useRouter } from "next/router";
export default function Home() {
  const connectWithMetamask = useMetamask();
  const router = useRouter();
  const address = useAddress();
  useEffect(() => {
    if (address) router.replace("/exchange");
  }, [address]);
  return (
    <div>
      <Head>
        <title>Exchange TEST tokens</title>
        <link rel="icon" href="/favicon.ico" />
      </Head>
      <div className="home__container">
        <h1>Sign in to exchange</h1>
        <button className="home__button" onClick={connectWithMetamask}>
          Sign in using MetaMask
        </button>
      </div>
    </div>
  );
}

Arriba, estamos usando Hooks de Thirdweb para realizar la autenticación mediante un botón y realizar un seguimiento de la dirección de la billetera del usuario. También estamos comprobando si el usuario está autenticado en un useEffect()correo electrónico y redireccionando al usuario en consecuencia.

Ahora cree un nuevo archivo llamado exchange.jsen el pagesdirectorio. Tener el siguiente diseño en el archivo:

import { useAddress } from "@thirdweb-dev/react";
import Head from "next/head";
import { useRouter } from "next/router";
import React, { useEffect, useState } from "react";
import Web3 from "web3";
import { tokenABI, vendorABI } from "../contracts";
const web3 = new Web3(Web3.givenProvider);
function Exchange() {
  const [tokens, setTokens] = useState();
  const [matic, setMatic] = useState(0);
  const address = useAddress();
  const router = useRouter();
  const purchase = async () => {};
  const sell = async () => {};
  useEffect(() => {
    if (!address) router.replace("/");
  }, [address]);
  useEffect(() => {
    setMatic(tokens / 100);
  }, [tokens]);
  return (
    <div>
      <Head>
        <title>Exchange TEST tokens</title>
      </Head>
      <div className="exchange__container">
        <h1>Purchase TEST Tokens</h1>
        <input
          type="number"
          placeholder="Amount of tokens"
          className="exchange__textBox"
          value={tokens}
          onChange={(e) => setTokens(e.target.value)}
        />
        <div>MATIC equivalent: {matic}</div>
        <button className="exchange__button" onClick={purchase}>
          Purchase
        </button>
        <button className="exchange__button" onClick={sell}>
          Sell
        </button>
      </div>
    </div>
  );
}
export default Exchange;

El código anterior verifica si el usuario está autenticado o no, y calcula cuántos MATIC se requieren para comprar tokens. El código debe proporcionar un resultado de la siguiente manera:

 

A medida que ingresa la cantidad de tokens, se actualizará la cantidad de MATIC requerida. También inicializamos el web3paquete antes que el componente, por lo que ahora podemos usar operaciones basadas en contratos.

Implementación de la funcionalidad de compra y venta.

Ahora, trabajemos en la funcionalidad real de compra y venta. En el código anterior, no tenemos código para la purchase()función. Aquí está el código para ello:

const purchase = async () => {
  try {
    const accounts = await web3.eth.getAccounts();
    const vendor = new web3.eth.Contract(
      vendorABI,
      process.env.NEXT_PUBLIC_VENDOR_CONTRACT_ADDRESS
    );
    const request = await vendor.methods.buyTokens().send({
      from: accounts[0],
      value: web3.utils.toWei(matic.toString(), "ether"),
    });
    alert("You have successfully purchased TEST tokens!");
    console.log(request);
  } catch (err) {
    console.error(err);
    alert("Error purchasing tokens");
  }
};

En el código anterior, primero conectamos las cuentas con MetaMask. Luego, inicializamos nuestro contrato de proveedor proporcionando el contrato ABI y la dirección en los parámetros del constructor.

Luego, llamamos a la buyTokens()función de nuestro contrato y enviamos la cantidad requerida de MATIC junto con la solicitud. Ahora, cuando intente comprar tokens, debería aparecer la autorización de MetaMask y, al aceptarla, debería ver los tokens en sus activos de MetaMask en breve:

 

El código para sell()es el siguiente:

const sell = async () => {
  try {
    const accounts = await web3.eth.getAccounts();
    const tokenContract = new web3.eth.Contract(
      tokenABI,
      process.env.NEXT_PUBLIC_TOKEN_CONTRACT_ADDRESS
    );
    // Approve the contract to spend the tokens
    let request = await tokenContract.methods
      .approve(
        process.env.NEXT_PUBLIC_VENDOR_CONTRACT_ADDRESS,
        web3.utils.toWei(tokens, "ether")
      )
      .send({
        from: accounts[0],
      });
    // Trigger the selling of tokens
    const vendor = new web3.eth.Contract(
      vendorABI,
      process.env.NEXT_PUBLIC_VENDOR_CONTRACT_ADDRESS
    );
    request = await vendor.methods
      .sellTokens(web3.utils.toWei(tokens, "ether"))
      .send({
        from: accounts[0],
      });
    alert("You have successfully sold TEST tokens!");
    console.log(request);
  } catch (err) {
    console.error(err);
    alert("Error selling tokens");
  }
};

En el código anterior, nos comunicamos con el contrato de token para aprobar el contrato del proveedor para gastar los tokens requeridos en nuestro nombre. Luego, nos ponemos en contacto con nuestro contrato de proveedor para iniciar el proceso de venta. Luego, los tokens se transferirán al proveedor y MATIC se enviará a la billetera del usuario.

Conclusión

¡Felicidades! Ha creado con éxito su propia plataforma de intercambio de tokens ERC-20. Aquí está el repositorio de GitHub si siente que está atascado en alguna parte del tutorial.

Fuente https://blog.logrocket.com

#blockchain #nft #web3 #erc20 #solidity #smartcontract #eth

Cómo construir una plataforma de intercambio ERC-20
Blockchain Dev

Blockchain Dev

1651212843

How to Created Your Own ERC-20 Token Exchange Platform

Learn how to build an ERC-20 exchange platform where users can mint, buy, and sell ERC-20 tokens in this comprehensive tutorial.

Applications of tokens and NFTs are increasing everyday. They bring a lot of new possibilities to the table. From using them in games to creating your own virtual currency for an event, you can do many things using Web3 technologies.

Today, we are going to make a token exchange platform, where users can buy and sell a specific token. The token type we’re going to use here is ERC-20, and we are going to deploy them on the Polygon Mumbai network.

The approach we are going to follow is first creating a smart contract, which will mint our tokens, and then another smart contract to facilitate buying and selling them. We will then use both of the smart contracts in our Next.js application in order to make buying and selling accessible to the users.

Prerequisites

  • Working knowledge of React
  • Working knowledge of Next.js
  • Working knowledge of Solidity
  • Node.js installed
  • A code editor – I prefer Visual Studio Code
  • MetaMask extension installed with at least one wallet
  • MetaMask connected to Polygon Mumbai testnet

If you feel you’re stuck in the tutorial, feel free to refer to the GitHub repository.

Contents

  • Creating the token smart contract
  • Creating the vendor contract
  • Configuring the vendor smart contract
  • Setting up our Next.js app
  • Setting up environment variables
  • Working on authentication
  • Implementing purchasing and selling functionality

Creating the token smart contract

The token smart contract will help us mint tokens. Open Remix IDE and create a new file called TestToken.sol under the contracts folder. Use the following code in the file:

// SPDX-License-Identifier: Unlicense
pragma solidity ^0.8.4;
import "@openzeppelin/contracts/token/ERC20/ERC20.sol";
contract TestToken is ERC20 {
    constructor() ERC20("TestToken", "TEST"){
        _mint(msg.sender, 10000 * 10 ** 18);
    }
}

In the above code, we are using OpenZeppelin contract templates to create an ERC-20 token. These templates provide us with bare minimum functions required by an ERC-20 tokens, and are secure and optimized, so you don’t need to worry about using tightening the security of your token. In the constructor of our contract, we are specifying the name and the symbol of our token and minting 10,000 tokens into the contract creator’s wallet.

Now, compile the contract by pressing Ctrl + S (or Cmd + S for Mac). Make sure you have connected MetaMask to Polygon Mumbai. Go to the Deploy tab in the sidebar, and set the environment to Injected Web3, so that Remix IDE uses MetaMask to deploy your contract.

Make sure your other settings are similar to this:

metamask settings

After verifying all the settings, click on Deploy. This should open up MetaMask authorization popup. Click on Confirm.

 

If you don’t have funds in your Polygon Mumbai wallet, you can get some through a faucet. After confirming the transaction, wait for a few seconds until you see your contract deployed on the left sidebar.

Copy the contract address, as we will need it when configuring the vendor contract.

Creating the vendor contract

Create a new file called TestTokenVendor.sol under the contracts folder. Use the following code for the contract:

// SPDX-License-Identifier: Unlicense
pragma solidity ^0.8.4;
import "./TestToken.sol";
import "@openzeppelin/contracts/access/Ownable.sol";
contract Vendor is Ownable {
  TestToken yourToken;
  uint256 public tokensPerMatic = 100;
  event BuyTokens(address buyer, uint256 amountOfMATIC, uint256 amountOfTokens);
  constructor(address tokenAddress) {
    yourToken = TestToken(tokenAddress);
  }

  function buyTokens() public payable returns (uint256 tokenAmount) {
    require(msg.value > 0, "You need to send some MATIC to proceed");
    uint256 amountToBuy = msg.value * tokensPerMatic;

    uint256 vendorBalance = yourToken.balanceOf(address(this));
    require(vendorBalance >= amountToBuy, "Vendor has insufficient tokens");

    (bool sent) = yourToken.transfer(msg.sender, amountToBuy);
    require(sent, "Failed to transfer token to user");

    emit BuyTokens(msg.sender, msg.value, amountToBuy);
    return amountToBuy;
  }
  function sellTokens(uint256 tokenAmountToSell) public {

    require(tokenAmountToSell > 0, "Specify an amount of token greater than zero");

    uint256 userBalance = yourToken.balanceOf(msg.sender);
    require(userBalance >= tokenAmountToSell, "You have insufficient tokens");

    uint256 amountOfMATICToTransfer = tokenAmountToSell / tokensPerMatic;
    uint256 ownerMATICBalance = address(this).balance;
    require(ownerMATICBalance >= amountOfMATICToTransfer, "Vendor has insufficient funds");
    (bool sent) = yourToken.transferFrom(msg.sender, address(this), tokenAmountToSell);
    require(sent, "Failed to transfer tokens from user to vendor");

    (sent,) = msg.sender.call{value: amountOfMATICToTransfer}("");
    require(sent, "Failed to send MATIC to the user");
  }

  function withdraw() public onlyOwner {
    uint256 ownerBalance = address(this).balance;
    require(ownerBalance > 0, "No MATIC present in Vendor");
    (bool sent,) = msg.sender.call{value: address(this).balance}("");
    require(sent, "Failed to withdraw");
  }
}

In the above code, we are creating an Ownable contract, which is an OpenZeppelin template. This means that we can transfer the ownership of this contract to some other wallet, if we wish to do so.

We are importing our token contract and providing the address to it through the constructor (we will provide the address as an argument while deploying the contract). We are also setting a general price of the token inside the tokensPerMatic variable. This value will be used to calculate the amount of tokens to purchase based on the amount of MATIC sent to the contract.

In the buyTokens() function, we are firstly checking if any MATIC was sent and if the vendor contract has sufficient tokens in balance or not. Then we are doing yourToken.transfer() to send our tokens from the vendor contract to the wallet that sent the contract call. Finally, we are emitting an event and returning the number of tokens purchased.

The sellTokens() function is not as straightforward as the buyTokens() function. We perform checks on whether user has the specified number of tokens or not, calculate the amount of MATIC to be sent back to the user, and check whether the vendor contract has sufficient amount of MATIC in balance.

However, here comes the fun part: we can’t just transfer tokens from user’s wallet to our vendor contract’s balance. We first need to ask for approval from the user to let us manage their tokens and send these tokens back to us. This method is secure because we need to set the limit of number of tokens we are asking approval for. The authorization is on MetaMask and the user can clearly see what amount of tokens is the contract allowed to handle.

This approval procedure takes place on the front end (of a Next.js application, in this case). After the approval is granted, we perform the transferFrom() function to transfer the user’s funds to vendor contract’s wallet. And finally, we send MATIC to the user.

The withdraw() function can only be run by the owner of the contract. This function allows you to send all the MATIC stored in the smart contract into the owner’s wallet.

Finally, deploy the contract and pass the token contract’s address as a parameter.

Configuring the vendor smart contract

Now that we have deployed the vendor smart contract, we need to send it some tokens to work.

Open the token contract in the Deploy tab. Under the transfer section, paste the vendor contract’s address and the total amount of tokens (which can be obtained by clicking totalSupply.

Click on transact to approve the MetaMask transaction, and all the tokens will be sent from your wallet to the vendor contract balance. Now your vendor contract is able to facilitate buying and selling of tokens.

Now, go to the compile tab, and copy the ABI of the two contracts (as well as token and vendor addresses), as we will need them in our Next.js file.

Setting up our Next.js app

Navigate to a safe directory and run the following command in the terminal to create your Next.js app:

npx create-next-app erc20-exchange-platform

Use --use-npm at the end if you wish to install dependencies using npm (create-next-app has recently defaulted to yarn). Navigate to the project folder and run the following command to install some required dependencies:

#npm npm install @thirdweb-dev/sdk @thirdweb-dev/react web3 #yarn yarn add @thirdweb-dev/sdk @thirdweb-dev/react web3

We are installing @thirdweb-dev/sdk to help with authentication and connecting our application to MetaMask. This way, we don’t spend a lot of time in authentication.

We are also installing @thirdweb-dev/react to provide us Hooks that will work with @thirdweb-dev/sdk to give us useful information about the state of the user. We are installing web3 to interact with our token and vendor smart contracts.

As we won’t be covering styling in this tutorial, I’ll just leave it here without focusing too much on the details. Open globals.css under the styles folder and use the following styles:

html,
body {
  padding: 0;
  margin: 0;
  font-family: -apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, Segoe UI, Roboto, Oxygen,
    Ubuntu, Cantarell, Fira Sans, Droid Sans, Helvetica Neue, sans-serif;
}
a {
  color: inherit;
  text-decoration: none;
}
* {
  box-sizing: border-box;
}
.home__container {
  display: flex;
  flex-direction: column;
  align-items: center;
  justify-content: center;
  min-height: 100vh;
}
.home__button {
  background-color: #2ecc71;
  border: none;
  border-radius: 5px;
  font-size: 20px;
  padding: 15px;
  margin: 10px;
  cursor: pointer;
}
.exchange__container {
  display: flex;
  flex-direction: column;
  align-items: center;
  justify-content: center;
  min-height: 100vh;
}
.exchange__textBox {
  width: 300px;
  height: 50px;
  border: 1px solid #c4c4c4;
  border-radius: 5px;
  font-size: 20px;
  padding: 15px;
  margin: 10px;
  cursor: pointer;
}
.exchange__button {
  width: 300px;
  height: 50px;
  border: 1px solid #2ecc71;
  background-color: #2ecc71;
  border-radius: 5px;
  font-size: 20px;
  padding: 15px;
  margin: 10px;
  cursor: pointer;
}

Setting up environment variables and other data

Create a new file called .env.local in the project directory, this will hold our contract addresses:

NEXT_PUBLIC_TOKEN_CONTRACT_ADDRESS=(token address here) NEXT_PUBLIC_VENDOR_CONTRACT_ADDRESS=(vendor address here)

Now, create a new file called contracts.js in the project directory. In this file, we will save and export the contract ABIs for both contracts:

export const tokenABI = [
  {
    inputs: [],
    stateMutability: "nonpayable",
    type: "constructor",
  },
  {
    anonymous: false,
    inputs: [
      {
        indexed: true,
        internalType: "address",
        name: "owner",
        type: "address",
      },
      {
        indexed: true,
        internalType: "address",
        name: "spender",
        type: "address",
      },
      {
        indexed: false,
        internalType: "uint256",
        name: "value",
        type: "uint256",
      },
    ],
    name: "Approval",
    type: "event",
  },
  {
    anonymous: false,
    inputs: [
      {
        indexed: true,
        internalType: "address",
        name: "from",
        type: "address",
      },
      {
        indexed: true,
        internalType: "address",
        name: "to",
        type: "address",
      },
      {
        indexed: false,
        internalType: "uint256",
        name: "value",
        type: "uint256",
      },
    ],
    name: "Transfer",
    type: "event",
  },
  {
    inputs: [
      {
        internalType: "address",
        name: "owner",
        type: "address",
      },
      {
        internalType: "address",
        name: "spender",
        type: "address",
      },
    ],
    name: "allowance",
    outputs: [
      {
        internalType: "uint256",
        name: "",
        type: "uint256",
      },
    ],
    stateMutability: "view",
    type: "function",
  },
  {
    inputs: [
      {
        internalType: "address",
        name: "spender",
        type: "address",
      },
      {
        internalType: "uint256",
        name: "amount",
        type: "uint256",
      },
    ],
    name: "approve",
    outputs: [
      {
        internalType: "bool",
        name: "",
        type: "bool",
      },
    ],
    stateMutability: "nonpayable",
    type: "function",
  },
  {
    inputs: [
      {
        internalType: "address",
        name: "account",
        type: "address",
      },
    ],
    name: "balanceOf",
    outputs: [
      {
        internalType: "uint256",
        name: "",
        type: "uint256",
      },
    ],
    stateMutability: "view",
    type: "function",
  },
  {
    inputs: [],
    name: "decimals",
    outputs: [
      {
        internalType: "uint8",
        name: "",
        type: "uint8",
      },
    ],
    stateMutability: "view",
    type: "function",
  },
  {
    inputs: [
      {
        internalType: "address",
        name: "spender",
        type: "address",
      },
      {
        internalType: "uint256",
        name: "subtractedValue",
        type: "uint256",
      },
    ],
    name: "decreaseAllowance",
    outputs: [
      {
        internalType: "bool",
        name: "",
        type: "bool",
      },
    ],
    stateMutability: "nonpayable",
    type: "function",
  },
  {
    inputs: [
      {
        internalType: "address",
        name: "spender",
        type: "address",
      },
      {
        internalType: "uint256",
        name: "addedValue",
        type: "uint256",
      },
    ],
    name: "increaseAllowance",
    outputs: [
      {
        internalType: "bool",
        name: "",
        type: "bool",
      },
    ],
    stateMutability: "nonpayable",
    type: "function",
  },
  {
    inputs: [],
    name: "name",
    outputs: [
      {
        internalType: "string",
        name: "",
        type: "string",
      },
    ],
    stateMutability: "view",
    type: "function",
  },
  {
    inputs: [],
    name: "symbol",
    outputs: [
      {
        internalType: "string",
        name: "",
        type: "string",
      },
    ],
    stateMutability: "view",
    type: "function",
  },
  {
    inputs: [],
    name: "totalSupply",
    outputs: [
      {
        internalType: "uint256",
        name: "",
        type: "uint256",
      },
    ],
    stateMutability: "view",
    type: "function",
  },
  {
    inputs: [
      {
        internalType: "address",
        name: "to",
        type: "address",
      },
      {
        internalType: "uint256",
        name: "amount",
        type: "uint256",
      },
    ],
    name: "transfer",
    outputs: [
      {
        internalType: "bool",
        name: "",
        type: "bool",
      },
    ],
    stateMutability: "nonpayable",
    type: "function",
  },
  {
    inputs: [
      {
        internalType: "address",
        name: "from",
        type: "address",
      },
      {
        internalType: "address",
        name: "to",
        type: "address",
      },
      {
        internalType: "uint256",
        name: "amount",
        type: "uint256",
      },
    ],
    name: "transferFrom",
    outputs: [
      {
        internalType: "bool",
        name: "",
        type: "bool",
      },
    ],
    stateMutability: "nonpayable",
    type: "function",
  },
];
export const vendorABI = [
  {
    inputs: [
      {
        internalType: "address",
        name: "tokenAddress",
        type: "address",
      },
    ],
    stateMutability: "nonpayable",
    type: "constructor",
  },
  {
    anonymous: false,
    inputs: [
      {
        indexed: false,
        internalType: "address",
        name: "buyer",
        type: "address",
      },
      {
        indexed: false,
        internalType: "uint256",
        name: "amountOfETH",
        type: "uint256",
      },
      {
        indexed: false,
        internalType: "uint256",
        name: "amountOfTokens",
        type: "uint256",
      },
    ],
    name: "BuyTokens",
    type: "event",
  },
  {
    anonymous: false,
    inputs: [
      {
        indexed: true,
        internalType: "address",
        name: "previousOwner",
        type: "address",
      },
      {
        indexed: true,
        internalType: "address",
        name: "newOwner",
        type: "address",
      },
    ],
    name: "OwnershipTransferred",
    type: "event",
  },
  {
    inputs: [],
    name: "buyTokens",
    outputs: [
      {
        internalType: "uint256",
        name: "tokenAmount",
        type: "uint256",
      },
    ],
    stateMutability: "payable",
    type: "function",
  },
  {
    inputs: [],
    name: "owner",
    outputs: [
      {
        internalType: "address",
        name: "",
        type: "address",
      },
    ],
    stateMutability: "view",
    type: "function",
  },
  {
    inputs: [],
    name: "renounceOwnership",
    outputs: [],
    stateMutability: "nonpayable",
    type: "function",
  },
  {
    inputs: [
      {
        internalType: "uint256",
        name: "tokenAmountToSell",
        type: "uint256",
      },
    ],
    name: "sellTokens",
    outputs: [],
    stateMutability: "nonpayable",
    type: "function",
  },
  {
    inputs: [],
    name: "tokensPerEth",
    outputs: [
      {
        internalType: "uint256",
        name: "",
        type: "uint256",
      },
    ],
    stateMutability: "view",
    type: "function",
  },
  {
    inputs: [
      {
        internalType: "address",
        name: "newOwner",
        type: "address",
      },
    ],
    name: "transferOwnership",
    outputs: [],
    stateMutability: "nonpayable",
    type: "function",
  },
  {
    inputs: [],
    name: "withdraw",
    outputs: [],
    stateMutability: "nonpayable",
    type: "function",
  },
];

Working on authentication

Go to _app.js file under the pages folder. Here, we will enclose our app with ThirdwebProvider, which will help us implement authentication.

Your _app.js should look like this:

import { ThirdwebProvider, ChainId } from "@thirdweb-dev/react";
import "../styles/globals.css";
function MyApp({ Component, pageProps }) {
  return (
    <ThirdwebProvider desiredChainId={ChainId.Mumbai}>
      <Component {...pageProps} />
    </ThirdwebProvider>
  );
}
export default MyApp;

Here, we are providing the desiredChainId as the chain ID of Polygon Mumbai. Now go to index.js and copy the following code in it:

import { useAddress, useMetamask } from "@thirdweb-dev/react";
import Head from "next/head";
import Image from "next/image";
import styles from "../styles/Home.module.css";
import { useEffect } from "react";
import { useRouter } from "next/router";
export default function Home() {
  const connectWithMetamask = useMetamask();
  const router = useRouter();
  const address = useAddress();
  useEffect(() => {
    if (address) router.replace("/exchange");
  }, [address]);
  return (
    <div>
      <Head>
        <title>Exchange TEST tokens</title>
        <link rel="icon" href="/favicon.ico" />
      </Head>
      <div className="home__container">
        <h1>Sign in to exchange</h1>
        <button className="home__button" onClick={connectWithMetamask}>
          Sign in using MetaMask
        </button>
      </div>
    </div>
  );
}

Above, we are using Hooks from Thirdweb to perform authentication using a button and keeping track of the address of the user’s wallet. We are also checking if the user is authenticated in an useEffect() and redirecting the user accordingly.

Now create a new file called exchange.js in the pages directory. Have the following layout in the file:

import { useAddress } from "@thirdweb-dev/react";
import Head from "next/head";
import { useRouter } from "next/router";
import React, { useEffect, useState } from "react";
import Web3 from "web3";
import { tokenABI, vendorABI } from "../contracts";
const web3 = new Web3(Web3.givenProvider);
function Exchange() {
  const [tokens, setTokens] = useState();
  const [matic, setMatic] = useState(0);
  const address = useAddress();
  const router = useRouter();
  const purchase = async () => {};
  const sell = async () => {};
  useEffect(() => {
    if (!address) router.replace("/");
  }, [address]);
  useEffect(() => {
    setMatic(tokens / 100);
  }, [tokens]);
  return (
    <div>
      <Head>
        <title>Exchange TEST tokens</title>
      </Head>
      <div className="exchange__container">
        <h1>Purchase TEST Tokens</h1>
        <input
          type="number"
          placeholder="Amount of tokens"
          className="exchange__textBox"
          value={tokens}
          onChange={(e) => setTokens(e.target.value)}
        />
        <div>MATIC equivalent: {matic}</div>
        <button className="exchange__button" onClick={purchase}>
          Purchase
        </button>
        <button className="exchange__button" onClick={sell}>
          Sell
        </button>
      </div>
    </div>
  );
}
export default Exchange;

The above code is checking if the user is authenticated or not, and calculating how many MATIC is required to purchase tokens. The code should provide a result as follows:

Purchase test tokens screen

As you type in the number of tokens, the amount of MATIC required will be updated. We also have initialized the web3 package before the component, so we can use contract-based operations now.

Implementing purchasing and selling functionality

Now, let’s work on the actual functionality of purchasing and selling. In the above code, we have no code for purchase() function. Here’s the code for it:

const purchase = async () => {
  try {
    const accounts = await web3.eth.getAccounts();
    const vendor = new web3.eth.Contract(
      vendorABI,
      process.env.NEXT_PUBLIC_VENDOR_CONTRACT_ADDRESS
    );
    const request = await vendor.methods.buyTokens().send({
      from: accounts[0],
      value: web3.utils.toWei(matic.toString(), "ether"),
    });
    alert("You have successfully purchased TEST tokens!");
    console.log(request);
  } catch (err) {
    console.error(err);
    alert("Error purchasing tokens");
  }
};

In the above code, we first get the accounts connected with MetaMask. Then, we initialize our vendor contract by providing the contract ABI and address in the parameters of the constructor.

Then, we call the buyTokens() function of our contract and send the required amount of MATIC along with the request. Now when you attempt to purchase tokens, MetaMask authorization should pop up and, upon accepting it, you should see tokens in your MetaMask assets shortly:

number of test tokens

The code for sell() is as follows:

const sell = async () => {
  try {
    const accounts = await web3.eth.getAccounts();
    const tokenContract = new web3.eth.Contract(
      tokenABI,
      process.env.NEXT_PUBLIC_TOKEN_CONTRACT_ADDRESS
    );
    // Approve the contract to spend the tokens
    let request = await tokenContract.methods
      .approve(
        process.env.NEXT_PUBLIC_VENDOR_CONTRACT_ADDRESS,
        web3.utils.toWei(tokens, "ether")
      )
      .send({
        from: accounts[0],
      });
    // Trigger the selling of tokens
    const vendor = new web3.eth.Contract(
      vendorABI,
      process.env.NEXT_PUBLIC_VENDOR_CONTRACT_ADDRESS
    );
    request = await vendor.methods
      .sellTokens(web3.utils.toWei(tokens, "ether"))
      .send({
        from: accounts[0],
      });
    alert("You have successfully sold TEST tokens!");
    console.log(request);
  } catch (err) {
    console.error(err);
    alert("Error selling tokens");
  }
};

In the above code, we are contacting the token contract to approve the vendor contract to spend required tokens on our behalf. Then, we are contacting our vendor contract to initiate the selling process. The tokens will then be transferred to the vendor and MATIC will be sent to the user’s wallet.

Conclusion

Congratulations! You’ve successfully created your own ERC-20 token exchange platform. Here’s the GitHub repository if you feel you’re stuck somewhere in the tutorial.

Original article source at https://blog.logrocket.com

#blockchain #nft #web3 #erc20 #solidity #smartcontract #eth

How to Created Your Own ERC-20 Token Exchange Platform