Waylon  Bruen

Waylon Bruen

1650327960

Gosh: Provide Go Statistics Handler, Struct, Measure Method

Go Statistics Handler

About

  • The gosh is an abbreviation for Go Statistics Handler.
  • This Repository is provided following functions.
    • Go runtime statistics struct.
    • Go runtime statistics API handler.
    • Go runtime measure method.
  • You can specify the favorite JSON encoder.

Install

$ go get -u github.com/osamingo/gosh

Usage

Example

package main

import (
    "encoding/json"
    "io"
    "log"
    "net/http"

    "github.com/osamingo/gosh"
)

func main() {

    h, err := gosh.NewStatisticsHandler(func(w io.Writer) gosh.JSONEncoder {
        return json.NewEncoder(w)
    })
    if err != nil {
        log.Fatalln(err)
    }

    mux := http.NewServeMux()
    mux.Handle("/healthz", h)

    if err := http.ListenAndServe(":8080", mux); err != nil {
        log.Fatalln(err)
    }
}

Output

$ curl "localhost:8080/healthz" | jq .
{
  "timestamp": 1527317620,
  "go_version": "go1.10.2",
  "go_os": "darwin",
  "go_arch": "amd64",
  "cpu_num": 8,
  "goroutine_num": 6,
  "gomaxprocs": 8,
  "cgo_call_num": 1,
  "memory_alloc": 422272,
  "memory_total_alloc": 422272,
  "memory_sys": 3084288,
  "memory_lookups": 6,
  "memory_mallocs": 4720,
  "memory_frees": 71,
  "stack_inuse": 491520,
  "heap_alloc": 422272,
  "heap_sys": 1605632,
  "heap_idle": 401408,
  "heap_inuse": 1204224,
  "heap_released": 0,
  "heap_objects": 4649,
  "gc_next": 4473924,
  "gc_last": 0,
  "gc_num": 0,
  "gc_per_second": 0,
  "gc_pause_per_second": 0,
  "gc_pause": []
}

Author: osamingo
Source Code: https://github.com/osamingo/gosh 
License: MIT License

#go #golang #api #statistics 

Gosh: Provide Go Statistics Handler, Struct, Measure Method
Dylan  Iqbal

Dylan Iqbal

1649917336

Applied Statistics with R (PDF Textbook for FREE Download)

This book was originally (and currently) designed for use with STAT 420, Methods of Applied Statistics, at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

  • Publication date: 30 Oct 2020
  • Paperback: 417 pages
  • Type: Textbook
  • License: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International

From the Introduction:
David Dalpiaz wrote:
 

This book was originally (and currently) designed for use with STAT 420Methods of Applied Statistics, at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. It may certainly be used elsewhere, but any references to “this course” in this book specifically refer to STAT 420.

This book is under active development. When possible, it would be best to always access the text online to be sure you are using the most up-to-date version. Also, the html version provides additional features such as changing text size, font, and colors. If you are in need of a local copy, a pdf version is continuously maintained, however, because a pdf uses pages, the formatting may not be as functional. (In other words, the author needs to go back and spend some time working on the pdf formatting.)

View/Download this Textbook

#statistics #r #programming #textbook #ebook #book

Applied Statistics with R (PDF Textbook for FREE Download)
Dylan  Iqbal

Dylan Iqbal

1649817710

Statistics and Data Visualization Using R (PDF Book for FREE Download)

Download This PDF Book: Statistics and Data Visualization Using R: The Art and Practice of Data Analysis by David S. Brown, for free.

Designed to introduce students to quantitative methods in a way that can be applied to all kinds of data in all kinds of situations, Statistics and Data Visualization Using R: The Art and Practice of Data Analysis by David S. Brown teaches students statistics through charts, graphs, and displays of data that help students develop intuition around statistics as well as data visualization skills. By focusing on the visual nature of statistics instead of mathematical proofs and derivations, students can see the relationships between variables that are the foundation of quantitative analysis. Using the latest tools in R and R RStudio® for calculations and data visualization, students learn valuable skills they can take with them into a variety of future careers in the public sector, the private sector, or academia. Starting at the most basic introduction to data and going through most crucial statistical methods, this introductory textbook quickly gets students new to statistics up to speed running analyses and interpreting data from social science research.

Statistics and Data Visualization Using R: The Art and Practice of Data Analysis by David S. Brown

  • Length: 616 pages
  • Edition: 1
  • Language: English
  • Publisher: SAGE Publications
  • Publication Date: 2021-09-22

DOWNLOAD

#statistics #datavisualization #r #programming #developer #datascience #ebook #book #pdf

Statistics and Data Visualization Using R (PDF Book for FREE Download)

Gap Statistic: Dynamically Get The Suggested Clusters in The Data

Python implementation of the Gap Statistic

Purpose

Dynamically identify the suggested number of clusters in a data-set using the gap statistic.

Full example available in a notebook HERE

Install:

Bleeding edge:

pip install git+git://github.com/milesgranger/gap_statistic.git

PyPi:

pip install --upgrade gap-stat

With Rust extension:

pip install --upgrade gap-stat[rust]

Uninstall:

pip uninstall gap-stat

Methodology:

This package provides several methods to assist in choosing the optimal number of clusters for a given dataset, based on the Gap method presented in "Estimating the number of clusters in a data set via the gap statistic" (Tibshirani et al.).

The methods implemented can cluster a given dataset using a range of provided k values, and provide you with statistics that can help in choosing the right number of clusters for your dataset. Three possible methods are:

  • Taking the k maximizing the Gap value, which is calculated for each k. This, however, might not always be possible, as for many datasets this value is monotonically increasing or decreasing.
  • Taking the smallest k such that Gap(k) >= Gap(k+1) - s(k+1). This is the method suggested in Tibshirani et al. (consult the paper for details). The measure diff = Gap(k) - Gap(k+1) + s(k+1) is calculated for each k; the parallel here, then, is to take the smallest k for which diff is positive. Note that in some cases this can be true for the entire range of k.
  • Taking the k maximizing the Gap* value, an alternative measure suggested in "A comparison of Gap statistic definitions with and with-out logarithm function" by Mohajer, Englmeier and Schmid. The authors claim this measure avoids the over-estimation of the number of clusters from which the original Gap statistics suffers, and can also suggest an optimal value for k for cases in which Gap cannot. They do warn, however, that the original Gap statistic performs better than Gap* in the case of overlapped clusters, due to its tendency to overestimate the number of clusters.

Note that none of the above methods is guaranteed to find an optimal value for k, and that they often contradict one another. Rather, they can provide more information on which to base your choice of k, which should take numerous other factors into account

Use:

First, construct an OptimalK object. Optional intialization parameters are:

  • n_jobs - Splits computation into this number of parallel jobs. Requires choosing a parallel backend.
  • parallel_backend - Possible values are joblib, rust or multiprocessing for the built-in Python backend. If parallel_backend == 'rust' it will use all cores.
  • clusterer - Takes a custom clusterer function to be used when clustering. See the example notebook for more details.
  • clusterer_kwargs - Any keyword arguments to be forwarded to the custom clusterer function on each call.

An example intialization:

optimalK = OptimalK(n_jobs=4, parallel_backend='joblib')

After the object is created, it can be called like a function, and provided with a dataset for which the optimal K is found and returned. Parameters are:

  • X - A pandas dataframe or numpy array of data points of shape (n_samples, n_features).
  • n_refs - The number of random reference data sets to use as inertia reference to actual data. Optional.
  • cluster_array - A 1-dimensional iterable of integers; each representing n_clusters to try on the data. Optional.

For example:

import numpy as np
n_clusters = optimalK(X, cluster_array=np.arange(1, 15))

After performing the search procedure, a DataFrame of gap values and other usefull statistics for each passed cluster count is now available as the gap_df attributre of the OptimalK object:

optimalK.gap_df.head()

The columns of the dataframe are:

  • n_clusters - The number of clusters for which the statistics in this row were calculated.
  • gap_value - The Gap value for this n.
  • gap* - The Gap* value for this n.
  • ref_dispersion_std - The standard deviation of the reference distributions for this n.
  • sk - The standard error of the Gap statistic for this n.
  • sk* - The standard error of the Gap* statistic for this n.
  • diff - The diff value for this n (see the methodology section for details).
  • diff* - The diff* value for this n (corresponding to the diff value for Gap*).

Additionally, the relation between the above measures and the number of clusters can be plotted by calling the OptimalK.plot_results() method (meant to be used inside a Jupyter Notebook or a similar IPython-based notebook), which prints four plots:

  • A plot of the Gap value versus n, the number of clusters.
  • A plot of diff versus n.
  • A plot of the Gap* value versus n, the number of clusters.
  • A plot of the diff* value versus n.

Download Details:
Author: milesgranger
Source Code: https://github.com/milesgranger/gap_statistic
License: View license

#rust  #machine-learning #python #statistics 

Gap Statistic: Dynamically Get The Suggested Clusters in The Data
Gunjan  Khaitan

Gunjan Khaitan

1647154412

Data Science with Python - Full Course In 12 Hours

Python And Data Science Full Course | Data Science With Python Full Course In 12 Hours

This video on Python for Data Science will make you understand the basics of data science, important libraries in Python for Data Science such as NumPy, Pandas, and Matplotlib. You will get an idea about the Data Science concepts along with mathematics, statistics, and linear algebra.

  • Data Science Basics
  • Data Science libraries
  • Mathematics for Data Science
  • Data Science algorithms using python
  • Regularization, PCA, Cost Functions
  • Who is a Data Scientist  

#python #datascience #algorithms #datascientist #numpy #pandas #matplotlib #mathematics #statistics #linearalgebr

Data Science with Python - Full Course In 12 Hours
Cordelia  Klein

Cordelia Klein

1645206180

ACT Math Prep Study Guide Review

This ACT math prep study guide review youtube video tutorial contains plenty of examples and practice problems with solutions to help you master the concepts that is commonly tested on the act.  It contains tips and strategies to help you some common act math problems in algebra, geometry, and trigonometry.  This video contains the formulas you need to answer very common questions.  This video provides a basic overview of questions you might see on the actual test.  If you need help, you came to the right place.

#statistics  #probability 

ACT Math Prep Study Guide Review
Cordelia  Klein

Cordelia Klein

1645195200

How to Find The Correlation Coefficient in The Linear Relationship

This video explains how to find the correlation coefficient which describes the strength of the linear relationship between two variables x and y.

#statistics  #probability 

How to Find The Correlation Coefficient in The Linear Relationship
Cordelia  Klein

Cordelia Klein

1645184160

How to Find The Equation Of The Best Fit Line using Linear Regression

This statistics video tutorial explains how to find the equation of the line that best fits the observed data using the least squares method of linear regression.

#statistics  #probability 

How to Find The Equation Of The Best Fit Line using Linear Regression
Cordelia  Klein

Cordelia Klein

1645173180

How to Perform A Hypothesis Test Of independence in Statistics

This statistics video tutorial explains how to perform a hypothesis test of independence using the chi-square distribution.

#statistics  #probability 

How to Perform A Hypothesis Test Of independence in Statistics
Cordelia  Klein

Cordelia Klein

1645162320

Introduction to Chi Square Distribution Test of a Single Variance

This statistics video tutorial provides a basic introduction of the chi square distribution test of a single variance or standard deviation.  It explains how to use it in order to determine whether or not you reject the null hypothesis.

#statistics  #probability 

Introduction  to Chi Square Distribution Test of a Single Variance
Cordelia  Klein

Cordelia Klein

1645151400

Introduction to The Chi Square Test In Statistics

This statistics video tutorial provides a basic introduction into the chi square test.  It explains how to use the chi square distribution to perform a goodness of fit test to determine whether or not to accept or reject the null hypothesis.

#statistics  #probability 

Introduction to The Chi Square Test In Statistics
Cordelia  Klein

Cordelia Klein

1645129680

Introduction Into Matched Or Paired Samples In Statistics

This Statistics video tutorial provides a basic introduction into matched or paired samples.  It explains how to use the T-test and the student's t-distribution to determine whether or not if you should reject the null hypothesis in favor of the alternative hypothesis.  It also explains how to construct a confidence interval and calculate the margin of error at a specified significance level.

#statistics  #probability #testing 

Introduction Into Matched Or Paired Samples In Statistics
Cordelia  Klein

Cordelia Klein

1645118760

How to Test Hypothesis with Two Proportions in Statistics With Example

This statistics video tutorial covers hypothesis testing with two proportions.  It provides an example problem that shows you how to determine if the difference between two proportions is significant using the z-test and the normal distribution curve.

#statistics  #probability 

How to Test Hypothesis with Two Proportions in Statistics With Example
Cordelia  Klein

Cordelia Klein

1645107900

How to Calculate Cohen's D To Determine If The Size in Statistics

This statistics video tutorial explains how to calculate Cohen's d to determine if the size of the effect is small, medium, or large based on the differences between two sample means.  This video also provides two ways to calculate the pooled standard deviation.

#statistics  #probability 

How to Calculate Cohen's D To Determine If The Size in Statistics
Cordelia  Klein

Cordelia Klein

1645096980

How to Perform Hypothesis Testing with Two Sample Means in Statistics

This statistics video explains how to perform hypothesis testing with two sample means using the t-test with the student's t-distribution and the z-test with the normal distribution table.

#statistics  #probability 

How to Perform Hypothesis Testing with Two Sample Means in Statistics