At different times, different theories of international relations were created to change and advance the scholarly vision of world politics. Realists emerged as active supporters of hopelessness and military moods in international relations. Liberalists replaced realistic pessimism with the hope that global cooperation was still possible. English School theorists provide a constructivist view on world politics, in which particular states may or may not pursue their subjective interests, depending on the political conjuncture. All these theories have something in common, but the differences between them can hardly be ignored. When comparing and contrasting agent-based with economic-structural theories of the interstate system, the latter tend to emphasize the causality of the structured international politics and their circular links. However, it is agent-based theories that capture the complexity of interrelationships in the world architecture filled with chaos, interdependencies, and mutually exclusive subjective interests.
To start with, a difference between economic-structural and agent-based theories of international relations should be made. According to Waltz, economic-structured theories have enabled scholars in international relations to better understand the essence of the world. Economic-structural theories present the world architecture as a complex but causal and logical mechanism, although most processes described in these theories are either unseen or unseeable. Unlike economic-structural theories, agent-based views create a picture that is closer to reality, including numerous factors that affect international systems. Agent-based theories do not recognize the view that states, despite being a central element of the international system, cannot pursue a common purpose. Simultaneously, once equilibrium is disrupted, agent-based views on international relations will provide no restoration solutions. Not surprisingly, when comparing and contrasting agent-based with economic-structural theories, they tend to emphasize different aspects of the international relations architecture.
Both realism and liberalism are agent-based theories focusing on the assumption that the state is the central element of the world architecture. Realists are international relations pessimists, who present the international relations field in the gravest competition and anarchy colors, leaving no room for order and causation. Like realists, liberals are agent-based ideologists, whose main premise is that states act as the central players of the international relations arena, pursuing their individual objectives. However, the fact that theories are agent-based does not mean that they are totally subjective; rather, and unlike economic-structural theories, agent-based approaches are developed to unfold the international relations process in its complexity and wholeness. Where economic-structural scholars focus their attention on the separate symptoms of the economic body, agent-based theories seek to represent the totality of political processes in a given international relations period.
In this sense, the English school in international politics seems to bring together the agent-based and economic-structural elements, presenting the world architecture as comprising numerous states which, nevertheless, have the potential to unite around a common goal. It is a constructivist view on international politics, in which states are governed by their subjective goals, but are still capable of creating and sharing fundamental values and even learning from one another. It is a unique combination of subjectivity, centrality of state actors, and cooperation for the sake of cooperation, which still does not deny the relevance of agent-based theories in international politics.
To conclude, it is agent-based theories that capture the complexity of interrelationships in the world architecture filled with chaos, interdependencies, and mutually exclusive subjective interests. Unlike economic-structural theories that lack causality and fail to produce a picture of wholeness in the international relations field, agent-based theories unfold the unseen of the world architecture and design, thus making it easier for international relations professionals to develop their political strategies. Besides, economic-structural theories are too economic and too structural to provide an easy explanation to the complex processes taking place in the system of international relations. Still, the economic and structural reliance on causality and common interests should not be ignored. The English School is one of the brightest examples of how economic-structural and agent-based theories are brought together to shape a new, constructivist vision of the international relations architecture.
The article was conducts, buy the writer - Eshley Durst, more her papers you can find at

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Architecture of World Politics
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