Whether you’re learning SQL through one of our interactive SQL courses or by some other means, it can be really helpful to have a SQL cheat sheet.

Bookmark this article, or download and print the PDF, and keep it handy for quick reference the next time you’re writing an SQL query!

Need to brush up on your SQL before you’re ready for the cheat sheet? Check out our interactive online SQL Fundamentals course, read about why you should learn SQL, or do some research about SQL certifications and whether you’ll need one.

SQL Basics

SQL stands for Structured Query Language. It is a system for querying — requesting, filtering, and outputting — data from relational databases.

Developed in the 1970s, SQL was originally called SEQUEL. For this reason, today it is sometimes pronounced “Sequel” and sometimes pronounced “S.Q.L.” Either pronunciation is acceptable

Although there are many “flavors” of SQL, SQL in some form can be used for querying data from most relational database systems, including MySQL, SQLite, Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, PostgreSQL, IBM DB2, Microsoft Azure SQL Database, Apache Hive, etc. databases.

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SQL Cheat Sheet — SQL Reference Guide for Data Analysis
2.15 GEEK