In this post, I’m going to teach you all about token authentication: what it is, how it works, why you should use it, and how you can use it in your Node applications.

Token authentication is the hottest way to authenticate users to your web applications nowadays. There’s a lot of interest in token authentication because it can be faster than traditional session-based authentication in some scenarios, and also allows you some additional flexibility.

Let’s get to it!

What Is Token Authentication?

Token authentication is a way to authenticate users into an application using a temporary token (typically a JSON Web Token) instead of actual credentials.

The way this works in the context of web authentication is like so:

  • A user wants to log into a website
  • A user supplies their email address and password to the website (their credentials)
  • The website generates a token for the user
  • The user’s browser stores the token
  • When the user makes subsequent requests to the website, their token will be sent along with their request
  • The website will validate the token and use it to figure out who the user is

The benefit of this approach is that tokens contain embedded information about the user, so the website can receive the token and discover who the user is and what permissions they have without necessarily needing to talk to a central database. This means you may not need to maintain a session store.

Here’s a visualization of what the flow typically looks like:

What are JSON Web Tokens?

Before we talk about JSON Web Tokens, let’s clarify some terms:

Authentication is the process of verifying a user’s identity.

A token is an object that can be used to authenticate a user to a server. Tokens contain embedded user data that is used to identify and authenticate the user.

JSON Web Tokens (JWTs) are an open standard (learn more about JWTs here) that define a secure way to transmit information between parties using a JSON object. JWTs are always cryptographically signed (sometimes encrypted) and can be signed using a secret key (symmetrical) or a public/private key pair (asymmetrical).

JWTs are the most popular type of tokens and are often what people mean when they refer to “token authentication” in general.

Here’s what a typical JWT might look like in it’s compacted, URL-safe form:


While this may look complicated and unreadable at first glance, it isn’t actually all that tricky! JWTs consist of three parts, separated by dots (.): xxxxxx.yyyyyy.zzzzzz. These sections represent the JWT header, payload, and signature, respectively.

Let’s analyze one section at a time.

The JSON Web Token Header

The JWT header is a Base64URL-encoded JSON object. It contains information describing the type of the token and the signing algorithm being used, such as HMAC, SHA256, or RSA.

For example:

  "typ": "JWT",
  "alg": "HS256"

The JWT spec is flexible and allows for different types of algorithms to be used, which is why this header field will always be present.

The JSON Web Token Payload

The JWT payload contains something called claims, which are statements about the entity (typically the user) and additional data. There are three different types of claims: registered, public, and private claims. Claims are the most “interesting” part of a JSON Web Token, as they contain data about the user in question.

A set of predefined claims (RFC 7519) are optional but recommended. Some examples are iss (issuer), exp (expiration time), and sub (subject).

Custom claims (claims you define when creating a token) are used to share information between parties that have access to the token. They are neither registered or public and can be whatever you want them to be.

In our example token above, the payload looks like the following when deserialized:

 "ver": 1,
 "jti": "AT.u_OOxGzWwTcDYlxfpp5X_3quR0vRnsnXmwLfWtL1cto",
 "iss": "",
 "aud": "api://default",
 "iat": 1546726228,
 "exp": 1546729974,
 "cid": "0oaiox8bmsBKVXku30h7",
 "scp": [
 "sub": "0oaiox8bmsBKVXku30h7"

As you can see, there are various claims defined which the client and/or server may use to “learn” more about the user.

The JSON Web Token Signature

The JWT signature field is created by taking the encoded header, the encoded payload, a secret key, and using the algorithm specified in the header to cryptographically sign these values.

For example, if you are using the standard symmetrical HMAC SHA256 algorithm, the signature will be created by computing:

  base64UrlEncode(header) + "." +

This signature field is used by the issuer (usually the web server) to validate the token’s integrity and ensure it hasn’t been tampered with or edited by a third party.

You can use to play around with JSON Web Tokens and encode and decode them!

Token Authentication in Node + Express

There are many ways to incorporate token authentication into your Node apps. You can use an authentication middleware like Passport, or implement it yourself, manually.

Token Authentication with Passport

Passport is a popular authentication middleware for Node applications. It’s extremely flexible and modular and can be unobtrusively dropped into any Express-based web application. It has a comprehensive set of strategies (authentication mechanisms) support authentication using a username and password, Facebook, Twitter, etc.

If you’d like to start handling token authentication with Passport, I recommend you check out the official documentation.

Add Token Authentication into Your Node + Express App Manually

If you don’t want to use Passport, or if you are building an application that isn’t based on connect-style middleware, you may need to implement token authentication yourself.

One helpful tool is nJWT – a popular JavaScript library for working with JSON Web Tokens directly. If you’d like to learn more about how to use nJWT, we’ve written a thorough article on the topic you should check out.

Build a Simple App Using Okta for Token Authentication in Node + Express

If you’d like to see how to build a real app using token authentication in Node, keep reading. I’ll walk you through building a small Express-based Node app and securing it using token authentication (powered by Okta’s free API service).

If you aren’t already familiar with Okta: it’s a simple API service for storing user accounts and managing user authentication and authorization.

To get started, head over to and create an account, or log in if you’ve already signed up. It’s free for developers.

Follow the steps below to create an application in Okta. Once you’ve done this, I’ll walk you through building the Node app and plugging in the Okta application to manage your user credentials and token authentication.

  1. Once you’re in the Okta dashboard, you will see an Org URL value on the top right of your screen. Save this value somewhere for later use, then click Application on the navigation menu
  2. Click Add Application
  3. Select Web, then click Next
  4. Enter the following settings then click Done
  5. You will be redirected to the General Settings page. Click Edit, then select the checkbox for Client Credentials (make sure it is checked) and click Save
  6. You should see Client ID and Client secret when you scroll down, save this information somewhere for later use.

Add a Custom Scope

Scopes define and limit what access is granted by a token. You must define custom scopes in your authorization server in Okta. To do this:

  1. Once you’re in the Okta dashboard, you will see an Org URL value on the top right of your screen. Save this value somewhere for later use, then click Application on the navigation menu
  2. Click Add Application
  3. Select Web, then click Next
  4. Enter the following settings then click Done
  5. You will be redirected to the General Settings page. Click Edit, then select the checkbox for Client Credentials (make sure it is checked) and click Save
  6. You should see Client ID and Client secret when you scroll down, save this information somewhere for later use.

Install HTTPie

HTTPie is a user-friendly command line HTTP client. You’ll need it for the rest of this demo, so go ahead and install if you haven’t yet.

Request a JWT

Now, I’ll walk you through requesting an access token (a JWT) from Okta, which you will later use to authenticate to your Node API.

First, you need to take the Client ID and Client secret values from earlier (your client credentials) and exchange them for a token. To do this, you have to make an OAuth request to the Okta OAuth server.

The way this works is that you need to craft a request that contains an HTTP Authorization header that looks like the following:

Authorization: Basic Base64Encode(<yourClientId>:<yourClientSecret>)

Encode your Client ID and Client secret (join with a : character) to create this header.

You can use base64encode to base64 encode these values manually if you’d like to play around with it.

Once you’ve done this, you should have a header field that looks something like this: Authorization: Basic MG9haW94OGJtc0JLXhIYjNjMWJITVdxVlhrdTMwaDc6MktxRQ1FaTWVhdXBvbWdCOXZiNkNPOXBtMnFjSw

You then need to make a POST API call to your Org URL value (you obtained this in the Okta application setup step) plus /v1/token with the header grant_type=client_credentials.

Using HTTPie in the terminal, this will look like:

http -f POST https://{yourOktaDomain}/oauth2/default/v1/token \
  'Authorization: Basic MG9haW94OGJtc0JLXhIYjNjMWJITVdxVlhrdTMwaDc6MktxRQ1FaTWVhdXBvbWdCOXZiNkNPOXBtMnFjSw' \
  grant_type=client_credentials scope=customScope

You also need to provide the scope=customScope value, otherwise you will see an error saying:

  "error": "invalid_scope",
  "error_description": "The authorization server resource does not have any configured default scopes, 'scope' must be provided."

Assuming everything works, you should get an HTTP response similar to the following:

  "access_token": "eyJraWQiOiJ1dURLVTMxZWRvTi0wd0xMUnl1TW1vbmtBdi1OaFEwejZhWmxjdTN5NU8wIiwiYWxnIjoiUlMyNTYifQ.eyJ2ZXIiOjEsImp0aSI6IkFULjZoZS1fbndIcmpmSHl6bjg3bUhNLWNVUnBUNTg3RVFBT2N6Ym1QRTNkSkkiLCJpc3MiOiJodHRwczovL2Rldi04MTk2MzMub2t0YXByZXZpZXcuY29tL29hdXRoMi9kZWZhdWx0IiwiYXVkIjoiYXBpOi8vZGVmYXVsdCIsImlhdCI6MTU0Njc2NDc4OCwiZXhwIjoxNTQ2NzY4Mzg4LCJjaWQiOiIwb2Fpb3g4Ym1zQktWWGt1MzBoNyIsInNjcCI6WyJjdXN0b21TY29wZSJdLCJzdWIiOiIwb2Fpb3g4Ym1zQktWWGt1MzBoNyJ9.fZCRSMASYjQqH-gnqsQ1tJa7QN8UJZ-iPT4UZE6Voq8YsWefpyjjroMlDzkSJZVRm_V47PGLrSu7sg6ranjZTTpx8f_Qk6zfDBfNTxnWpIqKXaotTE-foial9XBSMiyuArTVsbDtHBrb9EwBSqRzBmlI2uRP92bTggxGbgNMWnQukguD_pCGHiSeDN3Jy7R7EpKgSkDpRBhQXHp0Ly6cByUmjsseWEzZdCCiIVJh_m__KEoqX8vUC6xkUYdMHJ4GWH8kPb0Hcao2jkAJBSKQKose8a5vxDS-WwpWO482NyVxNDvxBgCIfn1tG-qL4Vbdxokw41o2M81MoqgdNZGHQA",
  "expires_in": 3600,
  "scope": "customScope",
  "token_type": "Bearer"

You now have an access_token which you can use to authenticate to your Node app (once it has been built)!

Build an API with Node and Express

Let’s build an API server using Express. Start by creating an authapp folder:

mkdir authapp
cd authapp

Initialize the project:

npm init

Keep hitting enter to accept all the default settings.

Install Express:

npm install express@4.16.4

Install the Okta JWT Verifier for Node.js, which you can use to validate Okta access tokens (issued by Okta authorization servers).

npm install @okta/jwt-verifier@0.0.14

Create an index.js file in the folder then copy and paste the following code into the file:

const express = require('express');
const OktaJwtVerifier = require('@okta/jwt-verifier');

const clientId = "{yourClientId}";
const oktaDomain = "https://{yourOktaDomain}";

const oktaJwtVerifier = new OktaJwtVerifier({
  issuer: `${oktaDomain}/oauth2/default`,
  clientId: clientId

const app = express();
const port = 3000;

// public route
app.get('/api/publicInfo', (req, res) => {
  res.status(200).send('You are viewing public info');

// protected route
app.get('/api/profile', verifyToken, (req, res) => {
    .then(jwt => {
      res.send('You are viewing private profile info');
    .catch(err => {

function verifyToken(req, res, next) {
  const bearerHeader = req.headers['authorization'];

  if (bearerHeader) {
    const bearer = bearerHeader.split(' ');
    const bearerToken = bearer[1];
    req.token = bearerToken;
  } else {
    // Forbidden

app.listen(port, () => console.log(`My App listening on port ${port}!`))

Now, let me explain what this code does.

The line that starts with const oktaJwtVerifier = new OktaJwtVerifier created a verifier instance bound to the issuer (authorization server URL) and the Client ID (the Okta application that will use this authorization server).

Then we created two routes /api/publicInfo and /api/profile. /api/publicInfo is public and doesn’t require token authentication. When /api/publicInfo is called, it will respond with the message You are viewing public info. /api/profile is protected and requires token authentication. It calls the function verifyToken to extract the bearer token that passes along the API call header.

The line that starts with oktaJwtVerifier.verifyAccessToken(req.token) takes the token and checks whether the token is valid. If the token is valid, it will respond the message You are viewing private profile info, otherwise it will return 403 which means access is forbidden.

Test Your Node and Express API

Time to test it out! You can start the API server using:

node index.js

Use HTTPie to make a request to the /api/publicInfo endpoint:

http GET :3000/api/publicInfo

You should see the response You are viewing public info.

Now try accessing the protected route:

http GET :3000/api/profile

You should see the response Forbidden.

Now, try again with the access_token you obtained earlier (replace the token part with your token):

http GET :3000/api/profile \
  'Authorization: Bearer eyJraWQiOiJ1dURLVTMxZWRvTi0wd0xMUnl1TW1vbmtBdi1OaFEwejZhWmxjdTN5NU8wIiwiYWxnIjoiUlMyNTYifQ.eyJ2ZXIiOjEsImp0aSI6IkFULjZoZS1fbndIcmpmSHl6bjg3bUhNLWNVUnBUNTg3RVFBT2N6Ym1QRTNkSkkiLCJpc3MiOiJodHRwczovL2Rldi04MTk2MzMub2t0YXByZXZpZXcuY29tL29hdXRoMi9kZWZhdWx0IiwiYXVkIjoiYXBpOi8vZGVmYXVsdCIsImlhdCI6MTU0Njc2NDc4OCwiZXhwIjoxNTQ2NzY4Mzg4LCJjaWQiOiIwb2Fpb3g4Ym1zQktWWGt1MzBoNyIsInNjcCI6WyJjdXN0b21TY29wZSJdLCJzdWIiOiIwb2Fpb3g4Ym1zQktWWGt1MzBoNyJ9.fZCRSMASYjQqH-gnqsQ1tJa7QN8UJZ-iPT4UZE6Voq8YsWefpyjjroMlDzkSJZVRm_V47PGLrSu7sg6ranjZTTpx8f_Qk6zfDBfNTxnWpIqKXaotTE-foial9XBSMiyuArTVsbDtHBrb9EwBSqRzBmlI2uRP92bTggxGbgNMWnQukguD_pCGHiSeDN3Jy7R7EpKgSkDpRBhQXHp0Ly6cByUmjsseWEzZdCCiIVJh_m__KEoqX8vUC6xkUYdMHJ4GWH8kPb0Hcao2jkAJBSKQKose8a5vxDS-WwpWO482NyVxNDvxBgCIfn1tG-qL4Vbdxokw41o2M81MoqgdNZGHQA'

You should now see the response You are viewing private profile info:

And… That’s it! Good job! You have built an Express app that serves protected API endpoints using token authentication. You used Okta as your OAuth provider which manages your custom scopes (and claims), your tokens, etc. You also used the JWT validation middleware (Okta’s JWT verifier library) which handles validating tokens for you automatically.

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Modern Token Authentication in Node with Express
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