There has always been a debate between Bayesian and frequentist statistical inference. Frequentists dominated statistical practice during the 20th century. Many common machine learning algorithms like linear regression and logistic regression use frequentist methods to perform statistical inference. While Bayesians dominated statistical practice before the 20th century, in recent years many algorithms in the Bayesian schools like Expectation-Maximization, Bayesian Neural Networks and Markov Chain Monte Carlo have gained popularity in machine learning.

In this article, we will talk about their differences and connections in the context of machine learning. We will also use two algorithms for illustration: linear regression and Bayesian linear regression.

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