This article is meant to be a gentle introduction into formal language theory. As with everything, we will try to balance mathematical rigour with concrete examples that have linguistically motivated examples.

Topics to touch on:

- Elementary formal language theory
- Regular languages
- Regular expressions
- Languages
- Finite state automata
- Regular relations

**Formal languages** are defined to have a certain, specific **alphabet**. The **alphabet** may be denoted by ∑.

This alphabet set, consists of elements called **letters**. This set is a finite set. Each **letter** is a symbol that can be from “abc…”, “123…”. Symbols can even be words.

A sequence of letters may be called a **word** or a **string**.

Then these are examples of string:

- Cat
- Arachnadiscoteka
- ASKdnskjf
- uuuuuuu
- Ouuuuu
- ksdjfnskdjfnSOULJABOITELLEMksjdnfksjdnf

The length of a string, or the number of characters in a string, is denoted by |w|.

We consider the empty string of 0 length as unique and denote by ϵ.

Concatenation, is the addition of 2 strings together, where order matters. For example, “artificial” + “intelligence” = “artificialintelligence”. Given:

Concatenation is denoted by:

Note that:

For every string w:

Some examples:

- “learn”+”s”
- “learn”+”ed”
- “learn”+”ing”

For every string w:

- w⁰=ϵ

For all exponents n>0:

- wⁿ=wⁿ⁻¹ ⋅ w

For example:

If w=”go”, then:

- w⁰=ϵ=””
- w¹=w=”go”
- w²=w*w=”gogo”
- w³=w
*w*w=”gogogo”

If w is a string, then reverse of w is:

Palindrome is defined by:

Here we mean words like “ana”, “anna”, “racecar” etc. I’m not sure if these are technically called symmetry. But everyone would understand exactly what I mean if I called these words symmetric. If there is such a concept as symmetry in formal language theory, I wonder how it would connect to Group Theory.

Coincidentally, group theory arises out of our need to study symmetry of geometrical objects and spaces. Where we might build out the theory exactly the same way that formal language theory is built, using sets as the objects then defining standard operations.

On this later…

If w is a string, then a substring of w is a sequence formed by taking a contiguous symbols of w in the order in which they occur in w.

is a substring of w if and only if there are 2 other substring such that

Also w₁ and wᵣ may be empty strings. These two substring are special cases of substrings called, prefix and suffix.

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